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Moosa Kamanroodi Kojuri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Illegal sale of extra building density (footages) and building violations all are being considered as the most important measures regarding urban management rent issues in Tehran, between 1991-2001. This in turn, intensifies the occurrence of building violations and instability regarding to Tehran’s spatial organization during the mentioned decade. This study aims to investigate the type, rate and spatial distribution of building violations and spatial-physical changes in districts of Tehran metropolis. The objective of this paper is to identify and explain the types of urban management functions and their resulting consequences in Tehran metropolis. The distribution pattern of building violations and some of their impacts are the major outcome of this research. This research based on its objective, possesses applied nature at strategic level. This study is based on spatial-structural and analytical approach. The under study area are all constructions in 22 districts of Tehran metropolis. It further supports the application of documentation. Data analysis demands descriptive statistic as well as GIS technique. This study suggests that 59% of all the issued construction permissions are associated with zone 1-5 followed by 67% which pertains to zones 1-7 between 1993-2002. These northern zones possess large holdings, good location, comparative advantage and very beneficial vertical density. About 117028 building licenses contain extra building footage problems. Total area of these violations occurrences has been amounted up to 32710210 meters. The distribution of the extra building footages associated with different zones represents a sharp but regular gradient with north-south direction. Moreover, this study suggests most of the governmental institutions committed violations associated with illegal land possessions as well as construction of illegal land uses in the area of public lands during 1990 decade. In addition, 249 illegal constructions pertaining to public institutions were identified by 2002 out of which 137 (55%) were visited by Tehran's municipalities.

     The statistics associated with Tehran's building violations which referred to variance number 1 of 100 municipality law represents a high magnitude and level of violations occurrence during 2000 decade. The total area deal with these building violations inspected by these commissions has been amounted to be 2810559 and 1565644 square meters in 2001 and 2008 respectively. However, some of these types of violations informally resolved without ever referred to this corresponding municipality commissions. Most of these violations are associated with land use changes (56.98%). This is followed by violations pertaining to extra density footages. It is argued that 3.5 violation cases registered against each issued construction license between 1997-2008 in Tehran metropolis. Generally, the issuances of building permits and sale of extra construction density and footages were dealt with market demand and geared toward gaining its resulting rents. These measures and actions were contradicted with Tehran's master plan principles. These violations possess a sharp gradient with north-south directions in Tehran's south and north economic-social basins. These activities are harmful to public interests and simultaneously very beneficial to very small inclusive private group which possess capital and lands. This in turn, is associated with lack of a master plan and subsequent spatial equalization, imbalanced land uses per capita and services and cons equally. Tehran's unsustainable physical development, For instance, Tehran's residential per capita in 1991, 1996, and 2001 has been amounted to be 20.35, 22.51 and 23.88 square meters respectively. This amount is associated with 17.37% growth rate unit during 1990 decade. However, Tehran's residential per capita in 1996 and 2001 have been underestimated and amounted to be 17.8 and 12.8% respectively compared with 1995 estimation (27.39 square meters). Tehran's existing commercial per capita in 2001 (2.05 square meters) compared with previous estimation of 1996 (0.87 square meters) shows 136.44% growth. This has been resulted from change in existing residential unit in central part of Tehran. Tehran's military per capita land use in 2001 (7.50 square meters) compared with the previous estimation of 2006 (1.5 square meters) shows 400.87% growth as well.

Mousa Kamanroodi, Moohamad Solemani, Mohamad Ghasemi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-2020)


Ecologically-based Management Factors and criteria of River-Valleys in Tehran metropolis-Case Study: River-Valleys of Kan
Iran has seasonal rivers because of dry climate, low rainfall and different topography. These river- valleys have main role in forming, genesis, and sustainability of human settlements and provide different ecological services. The main services include beauty, store of green spaces, water supply, reduce and create temperature differences, local air flow and natural ventilation which are part of the functions. Tehran is roughly the same area as 730 square kilometers and its population is 8.7 million people. It is located in51° and 17´ to 51° and 33´ east longitude and 35° and 36´ to 35° and 44´ north latitude. The height of this city is 900 to 1800 meters. The north and north east of this city are located in peculiarity range of the southern part of the middle Alborz. This city includes 7 river valleys to the names Darabad, Golabdareh, Darband, Velenjak, Darakeh, Farahzad and Kan. The ecological role of these river valleys is reduced because of non- ecological axis developmental interventions by urban management and citizens. These interventions have changed river valleys to high risk space of skirt movements and flood. Kan is the most important river valley because of the breadth of the basin and permanent water discharge rate. The part of this river valley has changed to park (Javanmardan) by municipality. The purpose of this research is that to provide factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley.
ANP has been used in this research. To use this method for analyzing   factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley, firstly, these factors have been identified by library studies and scrolling. These factors include 4 criteria (natural: 15 sub criteria, social: 3, management:  6, economic: 2). the books, journals, reports, maps, aerial photos, satellite images and internet sites have been studied in library studies. In site studies, some information from library studies have been edited. After that, the findings of these two methods in form of questionnaire called factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley, was in charge academics and professionals. They were elected among pundits of urban management science, urban planning, geography and environment in Tehran. At first the number of them was 30 people came to agreement in two process about 4 factors and 18 criteria and determined importance and priority by Delphy method. Findings in Delphy method were analyzed through ANP and SUPER DECISIONS. In this process, firstly, a conceptual model and relation inter and intra clusters and nodes determined. These relations in this process are very important because paired comparison depends on this process. Assumption of equality of effects and similar relations in these factors is illogical because there are the grading of effects and relations in this research. Second, the factors have been compared to each other to create a super matrix based on paired comparison. Generally, in this process decision makers compare two different factors to each other and paired comparisons have grading of between1to9. In double- sided valuation, each factor is used to show initial inverse comparison. Inconsistent rate in paired comparison must be less than 0.1 like AHP. Third initial super matrix is created. It is the weights created from paired comparison and identified the importance of each factor in each cluster. Forth, the weighted super matrix was created. The weights of clusters was calculated in this process to identify the weight of final super matrix. Fifth, limited super matrix was created. The weighted super matrix reached for infinity band each row convergenced to a number and that number was the weight of factor. By this way limited super matrix was reached.
Based on ANP and table 1, management: 46%, natural – ecological: 26% and economic and social factors: 14% are important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Based on reached results, inconsistent rate is 0.003 and it shows that the weight is valid and review is not necessary. Among sub criteria in management factor, organizational pattern: 32%, method of management: 23% and policies: 21% are the most important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Among sub criteria in natural- ecological factor, flood, domain movements and building and texture of soil are the most important respectively 23%, 18% and 11.5% also in social factor, participation, security and public trust have the importance respectively equal to 49% 31% 19%. In economic factor, environmental assets and stakeholder’s economic participation have the same importance.
Based on this research, management factor (organizational pattern and the method of management) is the most important in ecosystem based management. But this approach, the management pattern and intervention to organize this river valley, need comprehensiveness and integrity of the subject (nature, society, management and economic), purpose (protection, resuscitation and use), factors (government, city council, municipality, private sector and people), duties (policy making, planning, designing and perform), method (collaborative), tools (knowledge, skill, rule, program, budget, machinery and materials) and management domain. Use of these factors and criteria need some infrastructure and reforms. The most important reform is reform of management structure, production of subject matter and topical program special to organize river valleys by ecological approach to release Kan of loading and contradictory this management can follow protection, resuscitation, sustainable use and continuity of ecological services.
Key words: ecosystem, ecosystem based management, analytic network process, river valley of Kan

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