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Showing 7 results for Kazemi

Ali Saei, Seyed Ali Badri, Nasrin Kazemi, Fayezh Tajik,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

Various community groups can play important role in disaster management. Countries with different segments of people directly participate in activities to reduce the risk. Therefore, regarding the role of women's participation in disaster management process and as a part of human society will have an important role in this process, identify and analyze the factors affecting women's presence is essential. However, the central role of women in families and communities remains unknown in most parts of the world specially in planning and managing the disaster. The purpose of this study is to identify and understand the different capabilities of women to participate actively in the cycle of disaster management and providing strategies for increasing women's participation in the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery of probable disasters.    This study is an original and practical research. According to the theoretical research, a questionnaire was designed in four parts and it was completed through sampling. The sample population is women living in 22 districts of Tehran. This study implies that there is the low participation rate of women in disaster management among citizens of Tehran. To complete the data, proportional sampling was used and data were analyzed using factor analysis. Using this method, the data and the variables were summarized and the most effective factors were set in the partnership. These factors include disaster management, cultural factors and gender, fatalism, a feeling of power and confidence that the results of the factor analysis was performed using four dimensions. Based on tradition of social research and the findings of previous empirical research on women's participation in disaster management and the factors influencing voluntary participation, contextual condition of social variables (including socio-economic condition, occupation, marital status, number of children and age), as well as religious and fatalistic attitude would studied and evaluated the factors influencing the motivation and willingness to participate as a volunteer in the field of disaster management.    The findings show that KMO value was equivalent to 0.74 in four factors of disaster management and the total values of the sector were defined 67.42% of total variance of  the variables. KMO value in the sense of power and confidence variables was 0.72 and 65.27% of this segment can be explained by four factors the variability of the variables. In fatalism variable the KMO value was 0.599 and 59.56% of the four factors could explain the variability of variables. Finally, the KMO of socio-cultural norms was 0.71 and 70.52% of the variability of the variables was explained by five factors in this sector. Women cooperation alongside men play a major role in the use and implementation of policies and programs related to accidents. Thus, participation as one of the arguments in crisis management requires people involved in all processes related to the crisis management cycle. Since public participation opportunities and fields are different in societies and in different groups, so, to attract the participation in each group, identifying effective components is essential.    Finally, after using factor analysis and extracting four factors, including knowledge of effective crisis management, cultural factors and gender, fatalism, a sense of power and self-confidence were classified. In general, most people do not do any activities in disaster management and their awareness and knowledge does not lead to disaster management needs. Thus, organizational barriers, structural, administrative and educational activities to promote social and cultural constraints are considering strategies promoting women's participation in disaster management cycle.

Neda Kazemi, Maryam Sharifzadeh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

Frost is one of the sources of risk in agriculture which threatens the orchardists' performance and their security of products. The protection of cold-sensitive species of fruits against frost damage is an annual challenge in many growing regions of the world. Frost protection managerial behavior is the the first way to avoid or reduce the effects of frost damage to walnut trees. Application of active and passive methods of frost protection is effective under conditions of strong thermal inversions. However, most of studies on the adoption of managerial behaviors to environmental hazards usually ignore underlying psychological constructs that affect farmers’ decisions and behavior. Sepidan county is one the well-known regions of Fars province which is subjected to frost damage for its climatic nature. The amount of frost damage to walnut orchards of Komehr township, which is located in Northwest of Sepidan county is significantly substantial in recent years. The region is well-known for its walnuts and this product is the most important source of velliagers’ income. This research aims at investigating frost management behavior of walnut orchardists of Sepidan county, Fars province, Iran. The managerial behavior is composed of active and passive methods of protecting walnut trees to frost damage.

This applied study was based on descriptive correlational method. Data collection tools were structured questionnaires. The sample of this survey study was consisted of 90 orchardists of Komehr township. The sample orchardists were selected based on their vulnerability against frost. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from a random sample of walnut orchardists that were interviewed. Face validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. And the reliability was confirmed by conducting a pilot study in Bardzard region. The calculated Cronbach’s alpha for the measures of the instrument were 0.53-0.82. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) in WINDOWS context was used for analyzing data. Coefficient of variation and cluster analysis was the most important analysis methods applied in this research.

Results revealed that active methods of frost protection includes burning fuel, tires etc., were the most common methods of controlling frost in walnut gardens. While using energy intensive practices (heaters, sprinklers) were shown the lowest rate of interest. However, orchardists' "perceived effectiveness", "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness" of their active and passie controlling behavior was investigated. As it was shown by the results, orchardists' perception of effectiveness of the method of controlling frosts was in a low position. On the other words, they were not belived in the effectiveness of the methods. This was whilst, orchardists belived in ease of using the active and passive measures of controlling frost. They were noted that these methods had the potential of controlling damage to their gardens. Performing frost controlling methods was not easily applicable and garden's context was known as the most important barrier to performing the frost controlling behavior. To better understand orchardists' profile regarding to their frost protection behavior, cluter analysis was used. By means of this method, orchardists were categorized to two clusters: orchardists with convergent behavior with respect of frost protection protocol and divergent ones. Convergent group of orchardists (n=23, 25.5 %) were those who invested more on their gardens, used crop insurance supports, and more importantly they used lower levels of chemical products (poisons, fertilizers, etc.) on their gardens. On the other hand, divergent system of gardening regarding to frost protection pointed to the system of negative orientation towards rational thinking and behavior of gardening protection. These group of orchardist (n=67, 74.5%) were those who were performed eclologically dangerous methods of gardening regarding to use of pesticides, fertilizers and other chemical inputs. Low level of orientation towards crop insurance organizations and investment for the gardens were the most differtation factors for this group. However, results shed light on the difference of these two groups of orchardists regarding to their percievd effectiveness, ease of use and usefulness of frost protection methods. As it was shown by the results, frost protection- conevergent group of crchardists was significantly different from their divergent counterparts regarding their frost protection behavior and perception of ease of use and usefulness of frost protection methods. The aforementioned group of orchardists perceived frost protection methods easy to perform. From their viewpoints, these methods were useful in increasing crop yield, promoting its quality and controlling damge.      

Mohamad Salmani, Nasrin Kazemi Sani Ataallah, Badri S. Ali , Sharif Motavaf,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

Human communities are affected by hazards, disasters and catastrophic events throughout history, including natural disasters (such as: earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tornadoes) man-made disasters (such as: nuclear accidents, explosions, socio or political crisis, economic disturbances). Therefore, catastrophic events can have human or natural causes. These conditions show that human communities not only ever been stable, but they are continuously unstable and are exposed to disarranging events. Godschalk knows resiliency an important goal for two reasons. “First, because the vulnerability of technological and social systems cannot be predicted completely, resilience –the ability to accommodate change gracefully and without catastrophic failure- is critical in times of disaster. If we knew exactly when, where, and how disasters would occur in the future, we could engineer our systems to resist them. Since hazard planners must cope with uncertainty, it is necessary to design communities that can cope effectively with contingencies. Second, people and property should fare better in resilient communities struck by disasters than in less flexible and adaptive places faced with uncommon stress. In resilient communities, fewer building should collapse. Fewer power outages should occur. Fewer households and business should be put at risk. Fewer deaths and injuries should occur. Fewer communications and coordination breakdowns should take placeStructural analysis is first of all a tool of structuring the ideas. It gives the possibility to describe a system with the help of a matrix connecting all its components. By studying these relations, the method gives the possibility to reveal the variables essential to the evolution of the system. It is possible to use it alone (as a helps for reflection and/or decision making), or as part of a more complex forecasting activity. This method has 3 phases. Phase 1: considering the variables: The first stage consists in considering all the variables characterizing the studied system (external as well as internal variables); it is good at this point to be the most comprehensive possible and not to exclude, a priori, any possible path of research. Phase 2: description of the relations between the variables: In a systemic vision, a variable doesn’t exist other than as part of the relational web with the other variables. Also, structural analysis allows to connect the variables in a two-entries table (direct relations). Phase 3: identification of the key variables: This last phase consists in identifying the key variables; first, by a direct classification (easy to realize), then by an indirect classification. Direct classification:  The total of the connections in a row indicates the importance of the influence of a variable on the whole system (level of direct motricity). The total in a column indicates the degree of dependence of a variable (level of direct dependence). Indirect classification: One detects the hidden variables thanks to a program of matrix multiplication applied to an indirect classification. The structural analysis method seeks to highlight key variables, hidden or not, in order to ask the right questions and encourage participants to think about counter-intuitive aspects or behavior within the system. The direct influences of each variable on the set of other variables are illustrated in matrix form. Each element of the matrix represents an influence (0 = no direct relationship of influence on the two variables considered; 1 = a direct relationship of influence). We also took into account the level of influence between two variables. The following convention was used: 1 = low relationship; 2 = average; 3 = strong; P = potential relationship.. P levels were also given 0-3 ratings. By reading the matrix, we can classify the variables by their -level of direct influence: importance of influence of a variable on the whole system, obtained through the total of links created per line; - level of direct dependence: degree of dependence of a variable, obtained by the total of links created per column. The direct and indirect influences of the variable represent the system the most realistically. Highlighted are the determining factors (main determinants) of the situation under investigation. The input variables and result or output variables help participants understand the organization and structuring of the system under the microscopeBased on the results of direct influence matrix, social, economic and institutional variables are effectiveness in comparison to others. They have a great impact on system but physical variable effectiveness is much less than its impact. Among of mentioned variables, institutional variable had a significant numerical difference. Indirect cross-impact matrix showed significant differences in the institutional and social variables compared to other variables in the effectiveness and affected. The results indicate the high impact of these two variables on the system. In other words, institutional and social variables were influential factors in their community resilience. According to the results of direct influence matrix, strategic and key factors are including participation, assistance and interactions from social variables, readiness from intuitional variable and in indirect influence matrix; these factors are including participation, social identity, assistance and interactions from social variables and readiness from intuitional variable. Distribution of factors in axis influences of direct and indirect suggests that this system is unstable.

Dr Noredin Rostami, 2. Younes Kazemi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Developing urbanization and changing hydrological conditions of natural streams increases the flooding risk. This study tries to do flood hazard zoning in the Ilam city and determine the critical area of the urban regions against flooding by using AHP method and GIS environment. For this purpose, the parameters of the curve number, height, distance from the river, geology, land use, population, slope, soil, building density, worn texture buildings and accumulated flow as effective parameters in flooding hazard in Ilam city selected and of these parameters weighted by using Expert Choice software. The result of the Expert Choice software is transferred to the environment of GIS software and flood hazard map of study area prepared. Results of the study and flood hazard map show that areas with very low-risk, low risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk and very high-risk form the 0.8%, 8.5%, 49.6%, 32.54% and 8.56% of the of Ilam city area, respectively. Also, the central area of the city has the highest risk and the probability of occurrence of the flood due to the high density of population and residential areas in this area and its proximity to the seasonal rivers and old part of the city. Therefore, by examining the results of Expert Choice software, it is possible to identify the most effective factors in the occurrence of flood risk and prioritize them to address management solutions to eliminate or mitigate the effects of these factors.

Mr Seyed Ali Badri, Mr Hossain Karimzadeh, Mis. Sima Saadi, Mis Nasrin Kazemi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Analysis of Rural Settlements Resilience against Earthquake
Case Study: Marivan County
Iran is a seismic prone country located over the Himalayan-Alpine seismic belt. Striking earthquakes during the past years and decades are strong proofs for vulnerability of rural areas in this country; loss of lives, damage to buildings, even demolishing villages have been experienced in Iran rural areas. All these fatal effects are evidences to make villages more resilience and strengthen their structures because in the case of vulnerable structures, earthquake can be tremendously destructive. Therefore, losses of live and property can be avoided through making resilience rural social, economic and physical structure like construction of buildings that sway rather than break under the stress of an earthquake. Making villages resilience are directly related to saving rural residents lives and their property. Briefly, reaching or maintaining rural areas capacities to an acceptable level are the main purpose of this study by analyzing mentioned structures. This study conducted in Marivan rural settlements which exposed to earthquake.
According to Morgan Table, 310 samples responded to the questionnaires. The samples of this study were selected by chance from 6 districts and 18 villages. The main methods for analysis of collected data were Dimatel, ANP and Statictical analysis by SPSS. The results of ANP and Dimatel analyses led to the determination of relation among the factors. It should be noted we used Delfi method for this part. Moreover, for the final part ANOVA analysis is used by the authors. 
All around the world, countries have different approaches to deal with hazards in order to mitigate fatal affects. In fact, the goal of all management practices is to reduce hazard impacts. Iran faces a variety of hazards because of placing in a special geographical position; in this regard earthquake is the most important one. Resiliency approach can improve the flexibility of rural settlements through strengthen the capabilities of them and reduce their vulnerability. In the present study, analysis of rural settlements resilience against earthquake has been investigated. The results show that the resiliency is lower than the average in the studied villages. Also, there was a significant difference among the studied villages in terms of the resiliency against earthquake. The findings are consistent with the results of Nouri and Sepahvand in 2016 and Rezaei et al., in 2014.
Considering the analysis of data and ANP analysis of the internal and external factors in a general and separate way, the studied villages of Marivan city can be considered as non-resilience structures; in this regard, the most important reason is the inappropriate condition in the internal factors of rural settlements. The poor quality of construction and the inadequate structure of buildings must be considered, as well. Another obvious reason is the existence of eroded texture in this area. According to external factors, relief does not cover rural areas and led to reduce the resilience of rural settlements. Investigating the resilience of rural settlements based on external factors not only indicates the inappropriate situation of rural structure in this analysis, but also it proves a more favorable situation than internal factors. The findings show that structure and the amount of structure confinement in decrease the tissue texture of rural settlements play a profound role; changing these factors requires a long time and long-term planning. Regarding the post hoc test, variance analysis suggests the highest resiliency in Zarivar with an average of 2.99 and the lowest survival rate in KhavumirAbad rural district with an average of 1.87. Moreover, according to the one-sample T-Test, the socio-cultural dimension with a mean of 3.05 has the best situation in terms of resiliency against earthquake in the studied villages. For improving resiliency in the studied villages, authors’ suggests are including: managing and organizing preparation measures and response along with effective actions to reduce the risks of earthquake and providing a crisis management department; strengthen scientific and research studies to identify and reduce the risks; applying the rules to retrofit the buildings and increasing the safety factors in new construction; mapping the vulnerabilities in rural areas; increasing people participation and preparing them to deal with an emergency situation caused by an earthquake.
Keywords: Resiliency, Rural Settlements, Earthquake, Marivan County
Alireza Kazemi, Behnod Barmayehvar,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

Due to the insecurity of the construction industry, the purpose of this study is to evaluate safety management and investigate its impact on reducing accidents of sites in urban construction projects in the south of Tehran. Due to the nature and type of research, the present study is descriptive-correlational and practical research. The statistical population in this study is supervising engineers working in the field of urban construction in the south of Tehran (15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 areas). Therefore, according to the latest statistical report published by the Tehran Engineering System Organization (5000 people) and based on the Morgan table, 351 acceptable answer sheets were collected.
In this research, data collection and information were performed using the library-documentary method and field method (with the help of observation tools, interviews, and especially questionnaires) and through a combined method (quantitative-qualitative) with quantitative nature and focus as well as survey strategy. Also in this research, in addition to utilizing the capacities of qualitative content analysis, the methods of quantitative analysis include descriptive statistics including frequency, average, and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics including Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Friedman, Pearson, T-tests and regression analysis by SPSS 24 software, was used. Questionnaire questions were validated by reviewing previous research, consulting with experts, and validating with factor analysis and reliability using Cronbach's alpha method.
The results show that among the three effective factors in improving safety management and reducing site accidents in urban construction projects in the south of Tehran, the factors of “use of protective equipment”, “compilation of responsibilities” and “risk management” with averages of 4.0864, 4.0741, and 3.9812 are ranked the first, second, and the third rank, respectively. Besides, the average part of various site accidents is 4.0000.
According to the results of the research, from the total types of site accidents of “injuries to people due to non-use of personal protective equipment”, “damage to urban underground facilities during nailing operation”, “life and financial losses due to standard and unsafe construction site equipment”, “occurrence of silent death in workers' rooms due to unsafe gas appliances and lack of proper ventilation, “collapse of structural parts during welding”, “fall of workers, materials, and equipment from a height”, and “collapse of the walls of the pit and adjacent plaques due to lack of standard and standard excavation” are ranked first to seventh with an average of 5.7692, 4.8148, 3.8490, 3.7322, 3.7236, 3.1282, and 2.9829, respectively.
According to previous research, the “policy (compilation of responsibilities)” factor has the first impact on the safety of the construction industry, but in a case where the field of research is limited to construction projects and urban constructions (personalization) in which in such projects safety management is not generally systematic in the site, the prioritization between the factors affecting the safety management of the site has changed and the “policy (compilation of responsibilities)” factor is transferred to the second rank and the “use of protective equipment” factor is placed in the first rank. Therefore, builders and employers, and that project supervisors must be required to closely monitor this carefully formulate safety responsibilities in construction workshops.
Considering that, the factor of “non-use of personal protective equipment” is in the first place as the cause of site accidents and has already been ranked in the fifth place of safety hazards, so it can be concluded that since the last decade, the factor of “non-use of personal protective equipment” has risen from the fifth to the first rank. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to the use of protective equipment in construction sites in Tehran, project supervisors should be stricter in this regard, and engineering organizations and municipalities should enact stricter rules and regulations.
According to the supervising engineers active in the field of research, “damage to urban underground facilities during nailing method” is in the second place in the classification of common types of site accidents in the field of urban construction of Tehran and nailing method for stabilization of deep urban ditches causes legal problems to enter the privacy of adjacent license plaques and obtain notarized consent from the owners of adjacent license plaques, in addition to the risk of damaging underground urban facilities and causing heavy damage to the project and it is necessary to use other modern methods of deep pit stabilization, including the “Top-Down” method.
In this study, “human and financial losses due to non-standard construction site equipment” is classified in the third rank of site accidents. Therefore, the municipalities and organizations of the engineering system must make the issuance of technical inspection certificates for site equipment mandatory and if the employer and the constructor do not provide the necessary documents in this regard or to prevent the continuation of executive operations.
Because accidents due to non-observance of safety issues in construction sites continue to occur for various reasons, it is necessary to establish stricter rules and regulations regarding non-compliance with safety issues in construction sites in the field of urban construction and the use of a safety officer in the site with relevant educational and professional backgrounds and qualifications is mandatory for all construction sites.
The results of this study show that increasing attention and accuracy in the areas of responsibility compilation, risk management, and use of protective equipment improves safety management and reduces accidents in construction sites in the field of urban construction of south of Tehran.

Maasoud Akhavan Kazemi, Parvanh Azizi, Mohammadbagher Khoramshad Khoramshad, Mohammad Abolfathi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

New Social Movements: A Case Study of Emerging Environmental Movements

The term modern social movements is used to describe movements that were active in France in the late 1960s through collective action in the social sphere. The most important new social movements are the civil rights movement, the women's movement, the peace movement and the environmental movement. The rapid growth of industrial and capitalist societies, regardless of environmental degradation, has created many problems. The most important problems are soil erosion, resource reduction, ozone depletion, greenhouse effects, extinction of animal and plant species and various types of soil and climate pollution. The combination of these factors has provided the basis for the formation and activation of environmental movements. The present paper tries to answer the question of how emerging environmental movements can be analyzed in the form of new social movements? And what are their effects on new social movements? Therefore, with the qualitative interpretive method, and the method of case studies, it examines the nature and why of emerging environmental movements. The research findings show that environmental crises and the need to solve environmental problems that have become a pervasive and global crisis, have provided the basis for the formation, activity and impact of emerging environmental movements. Therefore, in order to deal with the existing crises, emerging environmental movements first informed and increased public awareness, and then created pro-environmental organizations and groups, and finally, by entering In the field of politics, and using new tools and methods, they have expressed their demands and protests in a peaceful and non-violent way, in order to force governments to respond and finally enter directly into The field of politics as influential groups and political parties in the field of public policy. As a result, the volume and scope of social power and the political influence of emerging environmental movements have led to the revitalization and enrichment of new social movements; in a way that today they can be identified and analyzed as powerful social forces and influential actors in the field of political sociology.

Keywords: New Social Movements, Emerging Environmental Movements, Social Forces, Methods of Action, Political Nature.


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