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Iraj Ghasemi, Fatemeh Razzzaghi Borkhani, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi Gharehghani, ,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

 Natural disasters and rural displacement: contexts and consequences in Balouch Abad village
Every year, a number of rural settlements are affected by natural disasters or human factors, in such a way that life in these settlements is dangerous, and even, in some cases impossible. Thus, displacement programs in the form of leaving the main settlement and creating new settlements in another place will be considered by planners and managers. These programs are not without consequences and affect different aspects of the residents' lives. Identifying these consequences can provide sufficient experience and evidence for managing other displacement projects. Accordingly, the current study focuses on displacement phenomenon in Balouch Abad village in order to identify the consequences of displacement by discovering the contexts of displacement and explaining the residents' perception about the causes of this phenomenon. In general, empirical literature on the topic shows that the consequences of displacement, both positive and negative, occur in all dimensions of human life, and that a change in any dimension can change other aspects of the life of the target community. Investigating all dimensions of displacement has been considered in a few studies, in which less attention has been paid to the existing contexts, perceptions and planning and management structures. Therefore, this study contributes to the relevant literature by querying these contexts and providing solutions for displacement programs in the future.
The aim of this study is to understand the perception of the residents of Baloch Abad village about the causes and consequences of residential displacement using a critical ethnographic approach. This approach is suitable for studying phenomena such as residential relocation, which are the result of the decisions of the planning system and in most cases is faced with the unwillingness and lack of interest of stakeholders (residents). In fact, the critical ethnographic approach seeks to examine inequality, conflict, and power in a subculture. Thus, the process of displacement due to integration with a kind of conflict between residents’ willingness and the planning system, can be well explained using this approach. Data was collected using in-depth interviewing, non-participant observation, and focus group techniques.
The experience of displacement in Balouch Abad village indicated that the consequences of displacement do not occur independently and are correlated with each other. In other words, the negative consequences in terms of social and economic are rooted in the physical- consequences, and on the other hand, the social consequences are also rooted in economic consequences. On this basis, the lack of attention to the proportion of housing based on social relations has been the prelude to occur other negative consequences. The mismatch between the structure and size of dwellings and their occupational requirements (animal husbandry) has led to the collapse of subsistence foundations. Evidence also showed that maintaining neighborly relations in the village was influenced by the physical structure and system of land transfer. As a result, it can be stated that the various consequences of residential displacement can occur through planning and physical management. This study is based solely on the evidence, contexts and perceptions of key stakeholders who are residents of Balouch Abad village; however, the part of the challenges of displacement in this village is due to managerial actions that were not considered in this study. Therefore, it seems that mere focus on the view of stakeholders is one of the main limitations of this study, which is necessary to pay attention to this limitation. In this regard, it has been tried to provide sufficient evidence on manures of management the displacement process through the technique of triangulation. Future studies may take into account the views of both experts and stakeholders at the same time.
Keywords: Residential displacement, Balouch Abad village, natural disaster, contexts and consequences of displacement.

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