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Hadi Nazaripooya, Parviz Kardavani, Abdoraze Farajirad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2015)

The runoff simulation have  particular importance in Civil works, river training, design and planning of ground water resources, flood control and prevention of environmental hazards and reduction of erosion and sedimentation in the watershed. The runoff in each region varies according to climatic conditions, hydrological, soil and vegetation in the basin. Simulate these processes need to provide the necessary information on the spatial variation of these factors.  In this context, given the diversity of hydrological models, to achieve the most appropriate simulation of hydrologic models and choose the appropriate model requires the evaluation of their performance in each area is commensurate with hydrological conditions. So hydrologicl models, need to recognize the capabilities and limitations of basins.  In this study, the performance of the two models of rainfall – runoff including IHACRES and SWAT models was compared and evaluated in runoff simulation for two watersheds Yalfan and Sulan in Hamedan province in West of Iran .  

     The SWAT model uses various information, including;  hydrometry, climate , soil , topography, vegetation and land use . SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) is a river basin scale model developed to quantify the impact of land management practices in large and complex watersheds. SWAT model is a hydrology model with the following components: weather, surface runoff, return flow, percolation, evapotranspiration, transmission losses, pond and reservoir storage, crop growth and irrigation, groundwater flow, reach routing, nutrient and pesticide loading. SWAT model uses a two-level disaggregation scheme; a preliminary sub-basin identification is carried out based on topographic criteria, followed by further discretization using land use and soil type considerations. Areas with the same soil type and land use form a Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU), a basic computational unit assumed to be homogeneous in hydrologic response to land cover change.

     IHACRES model is a catchment-scale rainfall – stream flow modeling methodology whose purpose is to characterize the dynamic relationship between rainfall and stream flow, using rainfall and temperature (or potential evaporation) data, and to predict stream flow. The model can be applied over a range of spatial and temporal scales - from small experimental catchments to basins; using minute, daily or monthly time steps. It can be used to fill gaps in data, extend stream flow records, as well as explore the impact of climate change and identify effects of land use changes.

    Data used in this study includes temperature, precipitation and runoff in the period of 2010-1983. Rainfall and temperature data were used from weather stations and runoff gauging stations from basin Sulan  and Yalfan hydrometry stations. In this study we select two periods, first period from 1983 to1999 for calibration and the second period from 1999 to 2009 for validation. Some of the required basic information such as soil, vegetation, topography and land-use maps were used to carry out the research were received from the Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Hamedan province.      Accordingly, after collecting basic data and analysis of the sensitivity parameters, then calibrate and validate the models. To determine the ability of models Nash Sutcliffe (NS) and determination coefficient ( R2) were evaluated .

    The results showed that both models are acceptable in simulating runoff in both basins. According to the results obtained in the simulation by SWAT model in both basins, Nash Sutcliffe on a monthly scale in the Yalfan basin for calibration period is 0.68 and verification period is 0. 74 and for Sulan basin calibration period is 0.69 and verification period 0.76.

    The flow rate during validation periods have high accuracy. In the Yalfan basin observed daily flow 1.17 cubic meters per second and simulated flow is 1.10 cubic meters per second. As well as an overview of the values of the coefficient of determination can be seen in both basins, amount represents the high precision simulation in monthly and daily scales. Based on the results obtained in the two basins, IHACRES model has been good performance on a monthly scale, so that the Nash Sutcliffe in the Yalfan basin for calibration period 0.68 and for verification periodic 0.72 in the Sulan basin for calibration period 0.64 and for verification periodic 0. 65. In general, both models can be seen by comparing the SWAT model was calibrated and validated with the highest Nash Sutcliffe on the monthly and daily scales. Generally it can be concluded that to simulate the daily and monthly runoff, the SWAT model is recommended for evaluation hydrology process in the Yalfan and Sulan basins. It is essential in most similar studies to determine of rainfall-runoff models with respect to variability of rainfall-runoff models in different climate periods of dry and wet years.

Abdolhamid Nazari, Hossein Sadin, Ogholgol Khorrami,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Vulnerability to natural hazards is one of the most important issues of villages in Iran. Iran is listed in the first ten accident-prone countries in the world. It annually imposes many damages on villages through natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, etc. To tackle the problem, an important attempt was applied during the recent decades is the policy of resettlement. The mentioned policy has been followed in forms of movement, integration and aggregation of villages. As spatial foundation and location of settlements are mostly based on natural environmental factors, then before any attempt, or before any dislocation of the villages, ecological potential of the new place needs to be evaluated. However, as dislocations resulted from unpredicted events such as flood are associated with emergency conditions and would be done very quickly; there is not enough time for evaluation before the action. In result, conducting such plans, unlike their positive impacts on service-delivery, cannot be quite welcomed due to ignoring the ecological and environmental factors which need to be considered before any actions. Therefore, such plans can create some negative consequences and be considered as non-successful plans.

       One of the projects that have been implemented in connection with this issue in Golestan province is dislocating and integrating flooded villages on Kalaleh County during 2001 to 2006. Based on the mentioned plan, twelve villages which were located at higher section of Gorgan Roud and were aggregated and located at a new site named “PishKamar”. These villages were flood-damaged. Such a site was urgently constructed based on a top-down approach, urban-based patterns and without considering the needs and ideas of stakeholders. So, such a plan needs to be evaluated and assessed against some normal and standard criteria. As such mistakes can be repeated elsewhere, recognizing the pros and cons of such plans would be a good guide and experience for the next projects. The present paper aims to evaluate the ecological potential, physical design of the site as well as measuring the levels of PishKamar site resident’s satisfaction.

      This study is a kind of the ex-post facto evaluation and its methodology is descriptive – analytical. To do that, we have considered a four-steps ecological potential of the site using Makhdom’s model. We also have used the 1:50000 topography maps, 1:250000 geological maps, 1:100000 land-use maps and 1:100000 soil fertility and capacity. All layers were transferred into ArcGIS environment, for more analysis. Data collection was based on surveying, interview and questionnaire. The statistical sample include 1350 households heads resided at the studied site, of them 200 persons were randomly selected for data collection purposes(According to Cochran AWT IMAGE  in the formula, standard deviation was 36%, test statistical was 1.96 and α was equal to 0.05). The results of the first stage of our study indicated that based on 330 primary integrated cells and overlaying the maps, there would exist 13 homogenous ecological units. In addition, a significant proportion of the Makhdom indicators used to assess indices was confirmed by chi-square test. Accordingly, 67% of cells in class I with good ecological potential and 8/28% of the cells in the appropriate ecological class II and only 2.4 percent were in class 3 to be inappropriate ecologically. Thus, of total 13 units, 11 units with an area equivalent to 127 hectares were classified as class I and II, and environmental units with an area of three hectares in third class were inappropriate. Therefore, the studied site was evaluated as a good site in terms of ecological conditions.

     In addition, evaluation of residents' satisfaction mapping site in terms of compliance with the ecological conditions and the physical texture design which was based on systemic approach of sustainable development indicators was revealed that the maximum satisfaction of residents was related to house orientation and strength of buildings, road network design and architecture patterns.But the dimensions of environmental issues including soil resistance as a result of landslides, climate harmony with the architecture and the wind direction has not completely been considered. Totally, of 11 evaluated criteria, people were satisfied with 6 of them and disappointed with another 5 criteria. It was confirmed by T-test.

S. Reza Alvankar, Farzane Nazari, Ebrahim Fattahi ,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

Due to the growth of industries and factories, deforestation and other environmental degradation as well as greenhouse gases have been increasing on the Earth's surface in recent decades. This increase disturbs the climate of the Earth and is called climate change. An Increase in greenhouse gases in the future could exacerbate the climate change phenomenon and have several negative consequences on different systems, including water resources, agriculture, environment, health and industry. On the other hand to evaluate the destructive effects of climate change on different systems, it is necessary to initially study the area affected by climate change phenomena. One of the most important effects of climate change on water resource is Drought.  On the other hand, one of the most serious consequences of climate change is how it will affect droughts and water resources.

Drought along with warmer temperature and less precipitation will threaten the water supplies for the crop irrigation, which will directly reduce the production of crops.The climate of the 21st century will very likely be quite different from the climate we observed in the past. The changes will continue to be large in the future period with increasing carbon dioxide emissions. Analyzing and quantifying the signal of climate change will be much in demand considering the above sectors, which are highly relating to the sustainability and human living.

In the past several decades, global climate models have been used to estimate future projections of precipitation [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007], and have led to future estimation of drought, to quantify the impact of climate change and comparing the duration  and intensity of droughts under future climate conditions with current climate by using Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Models AOGCMs to predict future Precipitation. Global circulation models namely, coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are current state of the art in climate change research. in This study aims at investigating the impact of climate change on droughts conditions in Iran using the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI).

The precipitation time series have been used for the estimation of Standardized Precipitation Index

(SPI) for three timescales, 3, 12 and 24 months, for the region. The outputs of HadCM3-A2 and A1B were applied for the assessment of climate change impact on droughts. One of the major problems in using the output of AOGCMs , is their low degree of resolution compared to the study area so to make them appropriate for use, downscaling methods are required. In this study we have used lars WG for downscaling monthly average of rainfall of AOGCM-HadCM3, and The HadCM3 outputs were downscaled statistically to the study area for a future period 2011-2040.then, was evaluated by the coefficient of determination (R2) between observed and downscaled data.  A method has been used for the estimation of annual cumulative drought severity-time scale-frequency curves. According to the rainfall results, in the 2011- 2040 period rainfall would decrease  to compared to baseline period in the study area.

The SPI time series were estimated (2011-2040) and compared with the respective time series of the historical period 1961-1990. Results revealed that there are decreases in the frequency of severe and mild droughts for the three examined SPI time series while there are increases in the duration of moderate droughts. This implies that droughts will be a concern in the future during the growing season (for the dominant crop) which should be considered in water resources management. specially in the west station of Iran.

Also, these frequency ratios were mapped by GIS on study area. Results showed that generally in the future periods, frequency of droughts ratio of three months drought time- scale will be increase in the North, North West and some parts of the south Alborz mountains and, The Ratio of long ( 24 months) drought for scenario A2 compare to the current climate shows increasing drought in the parts of the North khorasn, sistan and baluchestan and kerman provinces and parts of South West of Iran. scenario A1B shows increasing drought in the parts of the East of Mazandaran , Tehran , Horozgan and parts of Fars and Yazd  provinces.

Finally ,further  more analysis of drought, AWCDS-Timescale-Return Periods computed. These curves integrate the drought severity and frequency for various types of drought. The AWCDS time series were estimated

for basic period and 2011-2040 under scenarios A2 and A1B. The comparison indicated the three types of drought intensity increases for the three examined SPI time series in the South East of Iran.

Asghar Nazarian, Hossien Sadin, Kaveh Zalnejad, Mahnaz Esteghamati, Mahdi Valiani,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Today slum refers to those areas of the city which are not necessarily situated at the corners of the city, but to those which are in margins from economic, social, cultural, and other urban life aspects, that has formed a settlement in which the least living-supplies of healthy water, electricity and gas, transportation system and a clean environment suffice their lives. This type of settlement is due to the asymmetry and commonality of features and conditions of living in the main parts of the city. And generally indicate the low level of living conditions in comparison with the average standards in the main city specifically, and also in living conditions in cities as a whole. On the other hand, informal settlement refers to the discordance of settlement with the approved regulations of governmental organizations and particularly of municipalities. Those areas which are situated outside the servicing scope of the general and governmental organizations such as electricity, gas, and telecommunications offices, along with municipalities accompany various phenomena such as urban poverty, poor housing, immigration from countryside to cities, environment pollution, unhealthy environments and etc.

            In Iran, slum began in the 30s (solar calendar) with the immigration of village dwellers to the cities, and after a decade, it was prospered due to land reforms and economic-social policies of the day, a growing increase which has never stopped since. Slum or informal settlement in the outer parts of the cities is not just a physical notion but is an outcome of the macro structural factors in economic, social, cultural, and political aspects in a national or regional scope. The reasons for this phenomena vary which can differ from one place to another. Nevertheless immigration is one of the main reasons for slum settlements. It can simultaneously play two roles; it can be a solution to demographic crises. It leads the surplus population out of the region and accordingly the human power is directed where is needed most. It balances the structural asymmetries of population and by reducing the development imbalances in different regions result in the betterment of the status quo. And on the other hand, it might be possible that by immigration of the human power, the economic equilibrium between the source and destination community would be disturbed, and by having a community without any human power, it generates complex social and cultural situations; which all in all leads to a congested crowd overpopulating specific big cities and regions.  In this way, it brings about problems in servicing and efficient regulation of issues and thus be regarded as a disturbing element of development and mutual understanding. The investigated region has been exposed to the crises of immigration and slum settlements recently, so much so that based on the population and housing census of 2006, population growth rate of Shahriar rose by a far distance from other cities to 8.7 percent. Thus, this research was conducted to investigate the elements of immigration and slum dwelling in Shahriar city. And it aims to answer these questions:

  1. How social, economic, and demographic factors influence the slum settlements of those who have migrated to this city?
  2. How is the local dispersion in Shahriar?

On this basis, with the researches and investigations conducted at the outset of the study, district 2 was selected as a fit choice out of the three districts of 1, 2, and 3 which settled slums. Since all the locals were not slums in this specific districts, with proper investigation the slum areas were identified which had a high rate of immigration; with whom interviews were ran and questionnaires distributed. To this end, by following Cochran formula, 200 people were selected as samples through cluster random sampling out of the statistical community. To analyze data, descriptive statistical methods such as central index, dispersion and inferential statistics like Chi-square, Wilcoxon and Friedman tests were utilized.

The results of the  study indicates that the slum in Shahriar are situated in the old and cheap sections of the three districts of 1, 2, and 3. Also, after a detailed examination it was proved that Shamloo local in district 2 is more suitable than the other ones. On the other hand, by investigating the economic factors (such as job opportunities and income) it was indicated that immigration is very important from the aspect of providing job opportunities. Secondly, social factors are more important in slum settlements issues. For instance, one can refer to urban and welfare facilities, educational facilities, health and recreation facilities are all social factors. On the other hand, those people who have migrated due to pursuing education, higher level of welfare, better facilities etc. are all below 30 years old. Based on the findings of this research, families were not significantly changed after immigration in comparison with the period before it, but it is a vital element in three membered families in times of immigration. All has been done to meet the financial needs of the family. Therefore, one can claim that most immigrations to slum areas have been due to economic and social deficiencies of the source society.

Abdol Hamid Nazari, Mostafa Taleshi, Mohammad Mirzaali,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Analysis and Measurement of Environmental Resilience of Villages in Gorganrud Watershed against Flood (Golestan province, Iran)
Environmental hazards are inevitable phenomena that always place serious risks on the development of human societies, especially rural development. In the recent years, however, significant changes have been made in crisis management approaches, and the prevailing view has shifted from the "reduction of vulnerability" approach to "resilience improvement". Resilience is a new concept often used in the face of unknowns and uncertainties. Therefore, along with this change of attitude, it is important to examine and analyze natural hazards in terms of resilience. According to global statistics, floods, as one of the most devastating natural disasters, have caused the greatest losses and casualties to human settlements, which is true both in our country and in Golestan province. Investigations show that only in the statistical period of 1991-2014, 106 rainfall cases have led to the occurrence of floods in this province. These floods have damaged natural resources, the environment and the prevalence of environmental pollution; In addition, other natural and human factors have contributed to the heightened risk of flood damage. But if it was planned for the restoration of villages, then the damage could be reduced. Therefore, this research was conducted with the general purpose of determining the relationships between environmental factors and factors of rural communities of Gorganrud watershed on their resilience and numerical values. Finally, the residual spatial analysis of rural limited settlements was studied. Accordingly, the research questions are as follows: a) What is the relationship between environmental factors and factors in the villages of Gorganrud watershed in Golestan province with the resilience of the communities living in them in the face of flood? b) What are the resiliency values ​​of these communities in the environmental dimension and which zones? This is an applied research with descriptive-analytical method. A library of researcher-made questionnaires was used for collecting data using library resources. The statistical population consisted of 106 villages with 22,942 households. First, 31 villages were selected by cluster sampling. Then, using Cochran formula, 318 families were selected as sample size and selected by simple random sampling method. Also, for assessing the validity of the questionnaire, using Delphi collective wisdom methods, it was determined by using historical studies and opinions of experts in rural areas. The reliability of the questionnaires was also determined by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the pre-test method. The value for the household questionnaire was ra1=0.841 and ra2=0.862, respectively. All steps for statistical analyzes have been performed by Excel and SPSS software. Additionally, the development of mapping, risk-taking, risk and resilience was also done with the help of ArcGIS software and the weight of each criterion was determined by the Super Decision tool; Then, using the weighted and linear overlapping methods, each of the sub-criteria of the main indexes was multiplied in its weights. The study area is divided into two distinct sections in terms of geological and geomorphological structure. The southern and eastern parts of it are the ripples of the eastern Alborz mountains, which are taller in the southern part and extend along the east-west direction. Also, the northern part of the studied basin is the Gorgan plain, in which the main branch of Gorganrud flows from east to west and all branches of the south and east are drained. Following the general slope of the main branch and its long-standing walls in the mid-east, it is usually not flooded; but as far as the west is concerned, its slope is very low and one of the flood plains is considered as the basin. The results of the research show that there is a significant relationship between the environmental factors of the studied basin villages and the resilience of the communities inhabited by them in the face of floods. Also, the average environmental resilience of the whole region was lower than the average (2.76 average), rural households in the sub-basins of TilAbad and ChehelChai with an average of 3.24 and 3 had relatively good environmental resilience, But most of the rural households in the sub-basins of Ghurechai and Lower of Gorganrud, Mohammad Abad-Zaringol, Madarsoo and Sarisoo, with an average of 2.89 to 1.85, had a poor environmental resilience. In addition, According to the flood risk resilience map, it can be said that of the total 31 sample villages studied, about 29 percent of sample villages have "medium upward" resilience in facing flood risks; conversely, most of these villages (71%) also have relatively low degree of resilience. Also, comparing the findings of this study with the results of most other researches, such as the studies of Olshansky and Kartes (1998) regarding the necessity of considering the environmental factors of settlements, observing the necessary environmental standards and the necessity of using proper land use management tools to reduce risk hazards and improve resilience, Center of Emergency Management Australia (2001) on the need to consider the state of the infrastructure, including the level of communications and accesses, biological conditions, including the status of pollution, as well as geographical characteristics, such as distances and proximity, climate, topography, as well as the general results of studies by Rafiean et al. (2012) in special selection of the most suitable model of resilience based on the combination of carter and socioeconomic model due to the simultaneous attention of this model to its geographical features and its comprehensiveness, as well as attention to the local communities' participation, Rezaei (2010), Shokri Firoozjah (2017) and Anabestani et al. (2017) Regarding the low value of the calculated population, the resiliency number of the society is consistent and consistent with the lack of attention to infrastructure issues, locations, etc., which is below the baseline (3). As a result, all of the aforementioned components of the resilience of inhabitants of sample societies have been affected by its environmental dimension, which is often due to insufficient attention and insufficient handling of them, which reduces resilience of rural residents to flood risks.
Keywords: Environmental hazards, Flood, Vulnerability, Resilience, Spatial analysis, Golestan Gorganrud basin.
Alireza Khosravi, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam, Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared, Hamid Nazaripour,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2023)

Comparison of Results of GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis and Remote Sensing Indicators in Kahir River Basin, Iran.

Alireza Khosravi1, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam2*, Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared3,
 Hamid Nazaripour4

1. M.Sc. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
2. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3. Associate professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
4.Assistant professor, Department of Physical Geography, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.

Flood risk maps and Flood zoning techniques are useful tools to manage this hazard in the catchment and mitigation of flood impacts. In South Baluchestan and Kahir Basin, due to the existence of winter and summer precipitation regimes, the occurrence of flash floods is inevitable due to the establishment of rural communities and settlements in flood-prone areas, the flooding has caused many damages to the region's vulnerable population. In order to zone flood risk and prepare flood risk maps, climatic data, hydrological, land cover, and topography of the basin were prepared from reliable sources and according to scientific studies, 12 variables affecting flood risk in the form of five main components (Hydrology, vegetation, land cover, climate, and topography) were prepared. According to the regional conditions of the basin, using the opinions of experts based on scientific methods, the weight of each variable and component was determined by Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP). Using two methods of fuzzy overlay, Weighted Overlay, and the Geographical Information System facilities, a map of variables and components was prepared after reclassification and fuzzy membership function with appropriate operators. The results showed that the fuzzy overlay method concerning its dominant logic has a better distinction of flood-prone areas and can help determine flood hazard micro-zonation in the drainage basins like the Kahir basin. By comparing the results from the real data of the January 2020 flood obtained from satellite images. Due to poor infrastructure and high economic, the risk of flooding may be more harmful and widespread in the future.

Keywords: Flood, Fuzzy logic, Weighted overlay, Southern Baluchestan, GIS.

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