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Showing 5 results for Rostami

Behroz Nasiri , Zahra Zareei Chaghabalaki, Mansour Halimi, Mohammad Rostami Fath Abadi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

One of the most important components of the extent of pollutants mixing and air quality at near the Earth's surface is the height of boundary layer. Many variables involved in determining the height of the boundary layer of atmosphere. Although all of the troposphere (the lower ~10km of the atmosphere) is affected by surface conditions, most of it has a relatively slow response time. The lower part of the troposphere that is affected on a shorter time scale is commonly defined as the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The depth of the mixed layer has a significant effect on the concentration of air pollution, which itself is dependent on the intensity and duration of solar radiation and wind speed. According to Stull, one can describe the planetary boundary layer as “that part of the troposphere that is directly influenced by the presence of the earth’s surface, and responds to surface forcing with a timescale of about an hour or less.”  Surface temperature has a strong relationship with height of the PBL. As the surface cycles between daytime radiation and nighttime cooling the amount of convection taking place changes. When the temperature gradient is steep, more convection takes place to dissipate thermal energy in the most efficient manner. In other words, the greater the temperature difference between the surface and the lower troposphere, the higher convective eddies must reach to alleviate the gradient. Relating this to Stull’s definition of turbulence, it can be concluded that the height of the PBL varies with surface temperature. In fact, the spatial range of the PBL can vary from less than one hundred meters to several kilometers. The strong relationship between convective turbulence and height of the PBL is sometimes used to define the boundary layer and call it the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Analogous to the Stull’s definition but focusing on turbulence, Lloyd et all describe CBL as “a layer of air typically of order 1km in depth, well mixed by turbulence maintained by buoyancy due to heating at the ground. It is bounded above by stably stratified, no turbulent air and grows through the day.  In this study we aimed to analysis the status of ABL in 3 dust period days in Khuzestan province of Iran.

The Data were used in this study includes: The Daily data of dust concentration during 27Jan to 1 Feb 2015, the daily height of ABL also were used. The daily data of ABL were given from ECMWF with 1/8 degree spatial resolution. We used the Pearson correlation and synoptic analysis to assessment the condition of boundary layer at the mentioned days. For analysis the characteristic of ABL the climatic data of Wyoming University were used to assessment the thermodynamics of atmosphere. The spatial distribution of ABL height at the dusty day also were used for 12 UTC.

The results indicated there is the direct relationship between the ABL height and the concentration of dust in the mentioned days. So that in the days that the concentration of dust reaches maximum we fund that the height of ABL reaches maximum simultaneously and vis versa. The spatial distribution of ABL height shown that the height of ABL in the 29Jan reaches maximum that the maximum concentration of dust related to this day. And also the minimum concentration of dust observed in 27Jan and 1Feb that the in this day the height of ABL was minimum. The synoptic analysis also reveals that locating the low pressure system at the 500hp level that the Khuzestan province has been locating at the front of this system lead to transport the dust to study area.

In this study we reveal that the height of ABL in the dust days of Khuzestan has a totally revers behavior in compare to the air pollution days in Tehran. In the pollution days in Tehran the lowing of ABL height and inversion lead to intensify the concentration of pollution while in the dust days of Khuzestan the height of ABL were increased in compared with non-dusty days.

Mr Dana Rostami, Dr Seyed Asaad Hosseini,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

 Dust is one of the environmental hazards and atmospheric phenomena familiar to residents of the southern and southeastern parts of the country. Which each year causes a lot of damages to various sectors such as environment, agriculture, health, transportation, facilities, and so on. Therefore, in this research, we investigated and identified the sources of dust in the area, the intensity and frequency of dust, its governing patterns and dust-free areas during the 30-year statistical period (1984-1984). The research method is a combination of statistical, synoptic and remote sensing analysis. The data used include the hourly data of 22 synoptic stations (8 times per 24 hours), CDC1 data up to 2006, and then GDAS data, temperature, wind direction and wind speed, geopotential height at different levels. In selecting the studied days, it was tried to select the selected samples with a duration of three days and more, the spatial expansion of at least 4 stations with horizontal vision less than 1000 meters. For this purpose, were used the characteristics of the 11.3 and 12-micrometric wavelengths of the wavelengths were used to visualize the dust on the MODIS images from the ENVI 5.2 software environment, to track the wind direction from the GDAS data in the HYSPLIT software environment and to study the maps of various atmospheric levels from Temperature, wind speed, wind speed and geopotential heights were used from GRADS software and weather data stations. The annual frequency of the occurrence of days with dusty phenomena in the study area showed that during the statistical period of 1984-2013, a total of 11616 days with dust was recorded with the 06 code for south and southeast of Iran at the stations study. Most days with the dust event at Zabol Station with 1136 days and the lowest occurrence occurred at Bandar Abbas Station with 171 days during the studied period. In general, the annual survey of the data shows that the phenomenon of dust in the stations study in the past has been high and very high; however, in recent years, it has been expanding more and more than the past, and has been growing. The results of the monthly and seasonal surveys showed that the summer and the months of June, July, August and May are the most frequent and most frequent, with a peak of 1000 meters, respectively, and December have the lowest dust incidence and Zabul and Zahedan station

Dr Noredin Rostami, 2. Younes Kazemi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Developing urbanization and changing hydrological conditions of natural streams increases the flooding risk. This study tries to do flood hazard zoning in the Ilam city and determine the critical area of the urban regions against flooding by using AHP method and GIS environment. For this purpose, the parameters of the curve number, height, distance from the river, geology, land use, population, slope, soil, building density, worn texture buildings and accumulated flow as effective parameters in flooding hazard in Ilam city selected and of these parameters weighted by using Expert Choice software. The result of the Expert Choice software is transferred to the environment of GIS software and flood hazard map of study area prepared. Results of the study and flood hazard map show that areas with very low-risk, low risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk and very high-risk form the 0.8%, 8.5%, 49.6%, 32.54% and 8.56% of the of Ilam city area, respectively. Also, the central area of the city has the highest risk and the probability of occurrence of the flood due to the high density of population and residential areas in this area and its proximity to the seasonal rivers and old part of the city. Therefore, by examining the results of Expert Choice software, it is possible to identify the most effective factors in the occurrence of flood risk and prioritize them to address management solutions to eliminate or mitigate the effects of these factors.

Zeynab Basiry, Noredin Rostami, Dr. Amin Saleh Pour Jam,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

The main purpose of the research is the identification and prioritization of criteria and indicators affecting on lack of sustainable participation of rural communities in combating desertification plans in Dehloran, Ilam province. To determine the number of sample villagers, 189 family were selected using the Cochran formula. In this research, after determining the effective indices and also indicators in the lack of sustainable participation, the questionnaire was designed and its validity was determined by the relevant experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was also tested and validated by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed using AHP and Friedman nonparametric test. The findings of the research show that the results of prioritizing the indicators that affect the lack of stakeholder participation in the AHP based combating desertification plans from the experts' point of view, design-implementation, and educational-promotional criteria are the maximum and minimum priorities, respectively. The results of criteria ranking using the Friedman test in terms of rural residents also indicated that the economic criterion is placed in the first priority and design-implementation, social criterion and educational-promotional are in the next priorities, respectively. Likewise, the results of effective indicators ranking in the lack of sustainable participation of rural communities in combating desertification plans based on the Friedman test in term of the experts’ viewpoints indicate that “ignoring people's income as a direct incentive to implement combating desertification projects” are the most significant economic indicator. Similarly, in the compartment of executive design indicator, from the experts’ viewpoint “the lack of a comprehensive participatory management program to combating desertification” and from the viewpoint of residents of the village “the lack of attention to popular opinion in the design and development of projects are prioritized as the most important indicators. In prioritizing social indicators from the viewpoint of the experts “dependence of the villagers on the state power, distrust of the results of combating desertification plans as well as low literacy level” and in terms of villagers’ opinions, “distrust of the results of combating desertification plans, the dependence of rural residents on the state power, migration of youth” are introduced and prioritized as the most substantial indicators. In the educational-promotional criterion, in terms of both views “lack of training the residents of the area regarding combating desertification projects and the related purposes, as well as lack of utilizing the local promotional group”, are determined as the main important indicators.

Mr. Reza Barjas, Dr. Noredin Rostami, Dr. Amin Salehpourjam,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Prioritization analysis of effective factors in non-participation of local societies in desertification projects (Case Study: Ain Khosh region, Ilam province)
Participation in social affairs is a commitment and acceptance of individual and social responsibility that all human beings will have to accept. This commitment and responsibilities may take the form of definite and unlimited activities. By increasing the population and the complexity of the goals and efforts of the human community to advance economic, cultural, social and political goals, we inevitably need partnership and cooperation. Participation means using personal resources to participate in a collective action. The first step is to increase popular participation in desertification initiatives, identify and remove barriers to effective non-participation in project implementation. The main objective of this research is to prioritize the factors affecting the lack of public participation in desertification plans using the FUZZY-AHP method and the Friedman nonparametric test.
Materials and methods
The statistical population of the study consisted of households in Ein-e-Khosh village of Dehloran Ilam and experts of Ilam University and natural resources organization of Ilam province and Dehloran County with more than ten years’ experience in combating desertification issues. In this research, the indexes and sub-indicators related to library studies, questionaire from experts of the university, experts from the Natural Resources Department of Ilam province and Dehloran city, as well as referring to the region and interviews with the residents of the region were identified. Then, the questionnaire designed by the FAHP method evaluated by inconsistency rate and its validity and reliability by Likert scale, and finally tried to prioritizing them based on the following steps. First, the prioritization of the indicators was performed from the expert's point of view using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). Then, the prioritization of the indicators from the perspective of experts by application of Friedman test and finally, the priority of indices and sub-indicators by the local point of view with Friedman's test.
Results and discussion
The findings of the research showed that the ranking of indices using Friedman's nonparametric test is based on the average rating from the viewpoint of residents of the region, respectively, economic index, design-executive, educational-promotional, and social. Also, this prioritization from the perspective of experts using the FUZZY-AHP test is design-executive, economic, educational, promotional and social priority, respectively. Also, the results showed that in the total of 15 identified subcategories influencing the lack of public participation in combating desertification projects, from the perspective of experts, the sub-design of the design-executive entitled "Short-term, mid-term and long-term non-planning for participation" with the average rating of 11.68 was the most important and the sub-index, "Migration of youth in the countryside" with the average rating of 3.59, is the most insignificant sub-indicator. However, from the perspective of residents in the region, the underlying economic indexes "disregarding people's income as a direct incentive to implement combating desertification projects" with an average of 11.24, the most significant and sub-indicator of the design-executive "lack of full allocation of funds during the implementation of combating desertification projects" with average rating of 5.63 is the most significant sub-indicator, which indicates that economic indicators and design-executive, along with the sub-indexes, are the most important reasons for non-participation of people in combating desertification projects in the study area.
Due to the fact that the indicators and sub-indicators are identified based on the opinions of experts and locals in the study area, this has led to familiarizing the respondents with the research. In this research, the FAHP and Friedman test were used. According to the topic of the research in the field of public participation, the best tool for measuring the comprehensive statistical view of experts including experts and locals with regard to the study area is considered. In the reliability of the FAHP questionnaire, the responsiveness questionnaire has high reliability with regard to the multi-stage and multi-stage couples comparing method and the incompatibility rate test (mean 0.043 inconsistency rate). Cronbach's alpha test was used for Likert scale questionnaires. Results (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83) showed that the questionnaire had acceptable reliability. So, results is in consistence with other researchers' findings, including Saleh Pourjem et al. (2017).
According to the results obtained from prioritization, it has been shown that in the subject of participation, in spite of the difference between the views of experts and the people of the region, in some cases, the main priorities in the discussion of non-participation are almost similar; these results are consistent with the studies of previous researchers such as Saleh Pourjem et al. (2017).
It is suggested that the removal of obstacles to public participation in combating desertification projects be put on the agenda of trusteeship organizations and public participation in all stages of design, implementation and future protection in the combating desertification projects will be considered.
Keywords: People’s Participation, MCDM, FUZZY-AHP, Friedman Test

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