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Amir Saffari,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

Today, urban and regional issues related to sustainable development is a key challenge for policy-makers, planners and specialists in various disciplines. Geomorphologic studies can be useful and effective in analyzing and deriving acceptable means to assess the growth and development of the city, and to set criteria to determine the directions of urban development.    Landslides range of motions not only affect the human structures such as roads, rail lines and residential areas, but also lead to casualties. Tehran metropolis mountainous basins, including Kan, Vesk, Farahzad, Darake, Velenjak, Darband, Golabdare, Darabad, Sorkheh-Hesar, and Sohanak due to the lithology, geologic structure, weathered sediments, steep slope, rainfall and poor urban development are considered as one of the places where landslides are a range of geomorphologic processes can be studied.    At this research, using Fuzzy and AHP methods and by the use 8 factor variables such as lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, annual rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, distance from fault and drainage system. the map of landslide zonation hazard in mountainous areas of the city is prepared to determine risky strips. After the standardization of the criteria for the occurrence of landslides and using frequency ratio method and fuzzy model and functions, Landslide hazard zonation maps was prepared for evaluating from the fuzzy sum, fuzzy product and fuzzy gamma operator 0.8 and 0.9. Then the final map of landslide zonation, obtained from the above-mentioned method matched with the map of urban regions in mountainous areas. In this way the constructed region have been distinguished from very high and very low hazard zonation.    Lithological studies showed that most of the basin areas covered by Karaj Formation. About 45/7 percent of units with sliding movement in areas with "rock crystal tuff and tuff lytic green, with the layers of limestone" (unit Et2) of the intermediate tuff formation occurred. Cross of faults distance map with landslide density map showed that about 33/1 percent of landslides occurred within 200 m of the fault lines and 78/4 percent of landslides occurred within 500 m of drainage network. Most sliding movements (60/2 percent) in the range of 1900 to 2500 meters altitude and about 35/3 percent of this type of range of motion in height of 1500 to 1900 meters occurred. This area is about 81/6 percent of sliding movements in slopes between 15 and 40 degrees (26/8 to 83/9 percent) and about 17/6 percent on slopes less than 15 degrees (26.8 percent) occurred. In the aspect, sliding movements of the basin, mainly in the south-western slopes (about 23/2 percent), the South (about 17/5 percent), West (about 16/6 percent) and Southeast (about 77/1 percent), northwest (about 33/1 percent) occurred. About 88/9 percent of sliding movements in areas with average annual rainfall of 244 to 280 mm occurred. According to the zoning map, 12 percent of mountainous basins area (approximately 10,057 acres) is in the zone of very high risk, 33 percent (approximately 27,723 acres) is in high risk areas, 20.5 percent (approximately 17,143 acres) in the moderate risk zone, 30/ 7 percent (approximately 25,672 acres) in area and 3.8 percent of the total area of the basin, low risk (approximately 3172 acres) located in low risk areas. The results showed that approximately 5.2 hectares (about 0/05 percent) of the urban in zones with a huge landslide, about 51/5 acre (approximately 1 percent) in zones with high landslide risk and about 821 acres (equivalent to 25/16 percent) in the medium risk landslide zones are located and developed.     The final results indicate that some mountainous regions of Tehran Metropolis are apt to landslide with middle to high risk. (Apart from strengthening the vulnerable area) avoiding these areas is an important solution to decrease damages caused by landslide.

Amir Saffari, Amir Saffari, Ezatollah Ghanavati, Amir Karam,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)

Tectonic geomorphology is part of Earth Sciences, which deal with study of the interaction of tectonic and geomorphology. In other words it studies the effective tectonic processes in forming and changing the landforms. Geomorphic and morphometric indicators are suitable tools to the morphotectonic analysis for different areas. These indicators are used as the base tool to identify and recognition of tectonic deformation or estimates of the relative instability of tectonic activity in a particular region. Some of geomorphic indicators has been widely used, then the results of research projects are used to obtain comprehensive information about active tectonics. Full assessment of contemporary tectonics and tectonic activities, especially the young tectonic and its hazards need to Full understanding of geomorphologic processes speed and made for this purpose, geomorphological methods play an important role in this context.

     This research uses a descriptive-analytical approach, using library studies and aims at determininge the activity of Neotectonic in 7 Watersheds of Tehran metropolis (from west to east: Kan, Vesk, Farahzad, Darakeh, Velenjak, Darband and Darabad). In the first step, using topographic and geological maps of  under the studied area, faults, drainage networks and watersheds are identified, then to evaluation  the indicators of Mountain Front sinuosity (Smf), the main river sinuosity (S), the drainage watershed asymmetry (Af), rivers density index (D), hypsometric integral (HI), the ratio of the watershed shape (BS), the ratio of valley floor width to valley height (Vf), river longitudinal gradient index (SL) and Index active Tectonic(IAT) have been determined. Survey of these indicators by topographic and geologic maps and Google Earth images of the under studied area using software of Google Earth, Arc GIS and Global Mapper are derived and calculated. In the following, parameters and how they are calculated are given:

-Mountain Front sinuosity is the result from equation (1):

Smf = Lmf / Ls     (1)

In the equation (1), Smf is index of sinuosity Mountain Front. Lmf is the front along the foothills and mountains of the specified slope failure and Ls: straight line along the front of the mountain.

- The main river sinuosity index is as follows: S = C / V.  In this formula, S is main river sinuosity.  C: along of the river. V: valley along of the straight line.

- Rivers density index, drainage density is obtained from the formula:


Li is length in kilometers of drainage Watershed, A is area in square kilometers, μ is total drainage watershed in terms of kilometers per square kilometer.

- Hypsometric integral is an indicator which represents the distribution of surface heights variation from equation (2) is obtained:

HI= H - Hmin / H max – H min    (2)

In this equation Hi is hypsometric integral, Hmin and Hmax respectively are the minimum and maximum height and H is the height of watershed.

- The ratio of width to height of the valley floor is another geomorphologic parameters to investigate the tectonic forces in the region .This index is obtained from the equation (3):

VF =      (3)

VF, represents the relationship of the valley floor width to valley height, VFW: the valley, Eld and Erd to the height of the left and right and Esc is valley floor elevation valley.

- The ratio of the area ratio of the area and the equation (4) is obtained:

BS= Bl / BW      (4)

-BS; the shape of the watershed; Bl; length dividers watershed of water to the bottom of the watershed outlet and BW:  width of the flat portion of the watershed.

-The longitudinal gradient index (SL) for a range of drainage path is calculated and determined by the relationship: SL = (ΔH / Δ L) * L. In this regard, SL: the longitudinal gradient index, ΔH: height difference between two points measured, ΔL: during the interval and L: total length of the specified channel to assess where the index to the highest point of the canal.

The classification provided for indicators Sl, Smf, Vf, Bs, Af by Homduni et al (2008), this indicator is obtained based on the amount of 1, 2, 3 classified in three classes. Index of active tectonic (Iat) Geomorphic indicators by means of different classes Calculated based on the value of (S /n) is divided into four classes, That the division are characterized by class 1 with very high activity Neotectonic, Class 2 with high Neotectonic activity, Class 3 with medium Neotectonic activities and and Class 4 with low Neotectonic activity. In this classification of Class1 have the highest and Class 3 have the lowest Neotectonic activities (Table11).

On the basis of Iat indicator Neotectonic activities in the under studied area were assessment and results were is in table (13). Based on the data in Table (13) , watersheds of Kan and Darband hava a high Neotectonic activities and located in Class 2 and watersheds of Vesk, Frahzad, Darakeh, Velenjak and Darabad  have a medium Neotectonics activities and and located in Class 2, and Neotectonic activities are a high relative tectonic activity in all watersheds. Geomorphic indicators are reflecting activities in the metropolitan Tehran watersheds can say that tectonically active watershed has not yet reached stability and tectonic activity are relatively high. Geomorphologic indicators drainage watershed asymmetry, the main river sinuosity, the valley floor width to height ratio of density of rivers and valleys, structural geology and tectonic activity in the7watersheds of Tehran metropolis better show it.

The results show that Tehran metropolis Watersheds have a high relative tectonic activity in all watersheds, because of the proximity to the major faults (such as Mosha- Fasham and North Tehran faults) and minor faults, tectonic activity exists. Finally it can be stated that, due to the presence of multiple faults and background seismicity and tectonic activity in Tehran metropolis and its watersheds, occurrence of earthquakes in the study area is not unexpected and this issue requires serious consideration and management.

Batol Zynali, Sayyad Asghari Saraskanroud, Vahid Saffarian Zangir,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Drought is a concept that is generally understood on a basic level, but is difficult to quantify. Palmer defined a drought as a meteorological phenomenon that is characterized by ‘‘prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. A drought can alternatively be broadly defined as a temporary, recurring reduction in the precipitation in an area.

Aridity and drought are not synonymous. Aridity is a measure of long-term average climatic conditions. Both humid and arid regions experience droughts. However, the inter-year variation in precipitation is greater in arid regions and there is a greater probability of below average precipitation in any particular year. Arid regions are thus more prone to droughts and may experience more severe impacts from droughts.

In this research was used temperature and precipitation monthly data of Urmia, Tabriz, saghez, Maragheh, and Mahabad station in statistically period 1985-2014. Run test was used to study the homogeneity of data. Randomness and homogeneity of data was a confidence level of %95. SEPI Index and ANFIS model was used for determining and forecasting drought in Urmia lake basin. SEPI index is more complete than SPI. Results of SEPI were used in ANFIS model.

Fuzzy index SEPI[1]: Standardized precipitation index and evapotranspiration (SEPI) to address some of the disadvantages of SPI index is provided. Evapotranspiration and precipitation index SPI index and SEI standardized integration is achieved. The index is the result of drought monitoring phase of architectural models using fuzzy logic in a fuzzy inference system is designed. How to design this model and determine SEPI is described below.

Fuzzy architecture drought monitoring: for derivatization indices SPI and SEI using Fuzzy Inference System, Due to the structure of fuzzy models were considered.

SPI index[2]: Standardized Precipitation Index is an indicator widely used in Drought Monitoring. This index is one of the few indicators drought monitoring and could even say the only indicator that the time scale is considered. Depending on the time scale to determine the effect of different sources of agricultural drought, hydrological and so determined. Time scale can be determined from one month to several years. SPI index is used to calculate the only element rainy climate. Monthly precipitation amounts for each station in the desired time scale is calculated.

SEI index[3]: Since the index SPI Single Entry, rain, The SPI index values under the influence of changes in temperature and evapotranspiration parameter that is powerful factor in the drought, it will not be. So to enter the effect of temperature and evapotranspiration in SPI, SEI (evapotranspiration index Standard) To calculate this index, before any measures should reference evapotranspiration for the period to be estimated.

define the rules for combining indicators SPI and SEI: Different classes index SPI and SEI rules or the same combination of conditional statements in the form if, as a class of SEPI index in the lead, is defined. This rule only a combination of different modes SPI and SEI indices that lead to SEPI index shows. In this regard, the rules can be combined to fit different for successive written and stored in the knowledge base. Since the output of the resultant composition, indices SPI and SEI are involved in determining the status of SEPI, Weight each of the indicators with regard to the effect of precipitation and temperature parameters on the severity of the drought was considered As a result, SPI indices and weights 0.667  and 0.333, respectively SEI were included in the calculations.

According to the results, according to the research, education Anfis model with 75 percent of the data series is well done SEPI and much has been done to ensure education is nearly 100 percent. So that the graphic maximum of 0.26 percent error in saghez station on a scale of 6 months and the lowest average error of 0.10 percent in Urmia station is on a scale of 6 months. In modeling, validation data, the average error modeling is naturally higher than the average training error. Most average forecast error saghez on a scale of 6 months at the station 0.34 percent and 0.10 percent, the lowest on a scale of Urmia station is 6 months. But the coding maximum of 0.65 percent error in saghez station on a scale of 6 months and the lowest average error of 0.32 percent in Tabriz station is on a scale of 6 months. SEPI index in the time scale of 6 and 12 months is used for investigate the characteristics  of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system in order to drought and drought forecasting model. According to the findings in this study, the frequency of drought in the stations of Urmia and Saghez and Maragheh on a scale of 6 months is more than the scale of 12 months in the basin of Lake Urmia but in Tabriz and Mahabad Stations situation is the vice versa. The drought in Urmia Lake basin is increasing trend but temperature has increasing trend with more intensity. The highest and lowest percentage of drought was seen in Urmia and Mahabad station respectively. The results of the forecasting of index by ANFIS model showed that the most training error is in Tabriz station (0.51) and the lowest training error is in Maragheh station (0.36) in a scale of 12 months in coding. In validation data modeling the average of modeling error is higher than the average training error naturally. According to the definition of drought SEPI was presented based on amounts of 0.73 or higher or mild drought to higher floors as dry conditions arise The scale of 6 months in Urmia station with 13.14 percent to 10.89 percent saghez station, Tabriz stations with 5.58 percent, with a 5.1% Mahabad station and Maragheh with the amount of 4.82 percent, the drought has occurred. The time scale of 12 months in Tabriz station by 9%, saghez station with 7.26 percent, with 6.11 percent of Urmia station, Maragheh with 5.5% and the amount of Mahabad stations with a 3.44 percent, from months of study in the series, drought has occurred.

Results of SPEI are:

  1. Drought trend is increasing in urmia lake basin. Temperature has increasing trend extremely.
  2. The highest percentage of drought is in Urmia station and its lowest is in Mahabad station.
  3. Percent of frequency of drought in Urmia station, Saghez and Maragheh on a scale of 6 months is more than to 12 months, but the scale of Tabriz and Mahabad stations with the photos. Stations Tabriz and Mahabad is in the opposite situation.

Results of ANFIS Model are:

In study area and in ANFIS model whatever forecasting coming years is shorter; confidence of forecasting will be more.

Due to the errors amount obtained in model validation, in study area forecasting of drought by ANFIS model was done with confidence 94%.

[1] - The combination of indices SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and SEI (evapotranspiration index standard) based on the rules of the Fuzzy Inference System.

[2] - Standardized Precipitation Index

[3] - Standardized Evapotranspiration

Amir Saffari, Amir Saffari, Jalal Karami,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Investigation about the influence of land-cover and land use changes on soil erodibility potential, case study: Gharesou, Gorganrood
Land use and land cover (LUC) change associated with climatic and geomorphologic conditions of the area have an accelerating impact on the land degradation. Natural as well as human-induced land use land cover change (LUCC) has significant impacts on regional soil degradation, including soil erosion, soil acidification, nutrient leaching, and organic matter depletion. Since the last century, soil erosion accelerated by human activities has become a serious environmental problem. It has a manifold environmental impact by negatively affecting water supply, reservoir storage capacity, agricultural productivity, and freshwater ecology of the region. In recent years, many researchers have highlighted the environmental consequences of soil erosion.
Soil erosion estimation at a regional scale is influenced by the complexity of the soil erosion process and the availability of data describing the soil erosion factors. In the last decade, regional and national level assessments of soil erosion were carried out using different approaches, ranging from indicator or factor-based approaches to process-based models. However, the revised universal soil loss (RUSLE) and its modifications are still widely used because of its simplicity and a greater availability of input parameters.
Gharesou basin is one of the sub-basins of Gharesou, it suffered from severe erosion in some areas over the past years. This erosion has occurred for different reasons and one of them is land use change and weak management of water and soil resources. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of land-cover changes on the potential of soil erosion in Gharesou Basin, a sub-basin of Gorganrood, in Golestan province. For this, we have employed RUSLE Model and used landsat satellite images from the sensors of TM, ETM, and OLI for 1985, 2000, and 2015. The potential soil erosion in this study was estimated using RUSLE model, which can be described using following equation:
A = R × K × LS × C × P
where A is amount of soil erosion calculated in tons per hectare per year, R is rainfall factor , K is soil erodibility factor , L is slope length factor, S is slope steepness factor, C is cover and management factor, and P is erosion control practice factor. To run the RUSLE model in GIS, first, rainfall raster layer, soil, slope, Digital Elevation Model, and also layers of soil protection range were created. Each of the involved factors was calculated in separate units in the basin level. In this research, Gharesou basin was analyzed based on raster network data with 30 meters cell size, because, from one hand it's small
enough to show heterogeneity of the basin and on the other hand, it matches pixel dimensions of landsat satellite images.
The results of land-cover changes have revealed a decrease in dense forest areas, low forest areas and the mixture of orchard, forest and pastures in a thirty years period. According to the results of RUSLE, changes of the classes indicate a general trend to the soil loss in the basin. Therefore, Gharesou basin is a basin with increasing soil erosion potential. In the plain and coastal plain areas of the basin, that is the mainly cultivated area, the amount of erosion is different from the other areas, and soil loss process is decreasing. It's due to the changes of cultivation method from traditional to modern, increase of irrigated farming area, choosing more environmentally friendly plants, and also, increase in the area of cities and villages from 7.14 percent to 29.04 percent during 30 years. In the study classes, for output of RUSLE model, in every 3 years of study, the maximum area relates to the classes of 100 to 200 Ton per year that is more seen in the mountainous regions. In these regions, all factors except vegetation are toward soil loss. Also, during 30 years, the amount of dense vegetation decreased from 34.56 to 31.55. In fact the only factor in protecting soil in (prone to erosion) areas has given its place to less effective vegetation, so, the area of this region has increased and Gharesou basin is in danger of soil loss in mountainous and forest parts. Also, areas with more than 200 Ton in hectare, with the lowest amount, have had a tangible increase during 30 year of study and its amount has increased from 11.74 to 12.50. These areas are usually located in mountainous parts with no vegetation. Also, the average of soil erosion potential estimated in Gharesou basin for 1985, 2000 and 2015 is 102.02, 103.11, and 103.76 (ton per hectare per year). This amount was found in the sub-basins too and except the sub-basin 4 located in coastal plain areas of the basin, with farming use, the amount of other sub-basins is increasing. According to the results of study, mountainous parts of Gharesou basin, has the most damage due to the accumulation of involved factors in the potential increase of soil loss. So, the necessity of watershed management is observed. Also modification of cultivation pattern and soil conservation training in farming lands of foothills and hillsides are required.
Keywords: RUSLE Model, soil erosion, Gharesou, Remote Sensing, land-cover changes

Sahar Darabi Shahmari, Amir Saffari,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Landslide susceptibility mapping is  essential for  land use  planning and decision-making especially in  the mountainous areas. The main objective of this  study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps (LSM) at Dalahoo basin, Iran  using two statistical models such as an  index of entropy and Logistic Regression and to compare the  obtained results. At the  first stage, landslide locations identified by Natural Resources Department of Kermanshah Province is used to prepare of LSM map. Of the 29 lanslides identified, 21 (≈ 70%) locations were used for the landslide susceptibility maps, while the remaining 8 (≈ 30%) cases were used for the model validation. The landslide conditioning factors such as slope degree, slope aspect, altitude, lithology, distance to faults, distance to rivers, distance to roads, land use, and  lithology  were extracted from the spatial database. Using these factors,  landslide susceptibility and weights of each factor were analyzed by index of entropy and Logistic Regression models. Finally, the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves for landslide susceptibility maps were drawn and  the areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated. The verification results showed that the index of entropy model (AUC = 86.08%) performed slightly better than conditional probability (AUC = 80. 13%) model. The produced susceptibility maps can be useful for general land use  planning in the Dalahoo basin, Iran.

Mousa Kamanroudi Kojuri, Amir Saffari, Mohammad Solimani, Maryam Nemati Sani,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Ecologically-based Management Factors and criteria of River-Valleys in Tehran metropolis-Case Study: River-Valleys of Kan
Iran has seasonal rivers because of dry climate, low rainfall and different topography. These river- valleys have main role in forming, genesis, and sustainability of human settlements and provide different ecological services. The main services include beauty, store of green spaces, water supply, reduce and create temperature differences, local air flow and natural ventilation which are part of the functions. Tehran is roughly the same area as 730 square kilometers and its population is 8.7 million people. It is located in51° and 17´ to 51° and 33´ east longitude and 35° and 36´ to 35° and 44´ north latitude. The height of this city is 900 to 1800 meters. The north and north east of this city are located in peculiarity range of the southern part of the middle Alborz. This city includes 7 river valleys to the names Darabad, Golabdareh, Darband, Velenjak, Darakeh, Farahzad and Kan. The ecological role of these river valleys is reduced because of non- ecological axis developmental interventions by urban management and citizens. These interventions have changed river valleys to high risk space of skirt movements and flood. Kan is the most important river valley because of the breadth of the basin and permanent water discharge rate. The part of this river valley has changed to park (Javanmardan) by municipality. The purpose of this research is that to provide factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley.
ANP has been used in this research. To use this method for analyzing   factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley, firstly, these factors have been identified by library studies and scrolling. These factors include 4 criteria (natural: 15 sub criteria, social: 3, management:  6, economic: 2). the books, journals, reports, maps, aerial photos, satellite images and internet sites have been studied in library studies. In site studies, some information from library studies have been edited. After that, the findings of these two methods in form of questionnaire called factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley, was in charge academics and professionals. They were elected among pundits of urban management science, urban planning, geography and environment in Tehran. At first the number of them was 30 people came to agreement in two process about 4 factors and 18 criteria and determined importance and priority by Delphy method. Findings in Delphy method were analyzed through ANP and SUPER DECISIONS. In this process, firstly, a conceptual model and relation inter and intra clusters and nodes determined. These relations in this process are very important because paired comparison depends on this process. Assumption of equality of effects and similar relations in these factors is illogical because there are the grading of effects and relations in this research. Second, the factors have been compared to each other to create a super matrix based on paired comparison. Generally, in this process decision makers compare two different factors to each other and paired comparisons have grading of between1to9. In double- sided valuation, each factor is used to show initial inverse comparison. Inconsistent rate in paired comparison must be less than 0.1 like AHP. Third initial super matrix is created. It is the weights created from paired comparison and identified the importance of each factor in each cluster. Forth, the weighted super matrix was created. The weights of clusters was calculated in this process to identify the weight of final super matrix. Fifth, limited super matrix was created. The weighted super matrix reached for infinity band each row convergenced to a number and that number was the weight of factor. By this way limited super matrix was reached.
Based on ANP and table 1, management: 46%, natural – ecological: 26% and economic and social factors: 14% are important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Based on reached results, inconsistent rate is 0.003 and it shows that the weight is valid and review is not necessary. Among sub criteria in management factor, organizational pattern: 32%, method of management: 23% and policies: 21% are the most important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Among sub criteria in natural- ecological factor, flood, domain movements and building and texture of soil are the most important respectively 23%, 18% and 11.5% also in social factor, participation, security and public trust have the importance respectively equal to 49% 31% 19%. In economic factor, environmental assets and stakeholder’s economic participation have the same importance.
Based on this research, management factor (organizational pattern and the method of management) is the most important in ecosystem based management. But this approach, the management pattern and intervention to organize this river valley, need comprehensiveness and integrity of the subject (nature, society, management and economic), purpose (protection, resuscitation and use), factors (government, city council, municipality, private sector and people), duties (policy making, planning, designing and perform), method (collaborative), tools (knowledge, skill, rule, program, budget, machinery and materials) and management domain. Use of these factors and criteria need some infrastructure and reforms. The most important reform is reform of management structure, production of subject matter and topical program special to organize river valleys by ecological approach to release Kan of loading and contradictory this management can follow protection, resuscitation, sustainable use and continuity of ecological services.
Key words: ecosystem, ecosystem based management, analytic network process, river valley of Kan

Dr Amir Saffari, Dr Ramin Hatamifard, Dr Mansor Parvin,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

 Karst Geomorphology effects on the environmental hazard intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater resources (Case study: the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins)
Karst is the result of the dissolution (physical and chemical) in carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and evaporate rocks. Karst developing is affected by climatological and geological factors. In the other words Karst landscapes and karst aquifers are formed by the dissolution of carbonate rocks by water rich in carbon dioxide waters. Karst aquifers include valuable freshwater resources, but are sometimes difficult to exploit and are almost always vulnerable to contamination, due to their specific hydrogeologic properties, therefore, karst aquifers require increased protection and application of specific hydrogeologic methods for their investigation. The groundwater protection in karst aquifer has a special importance, because the transit time for unsaturated and saturated zone is so quickly that the attenuation of the pollutant. Karst groundwater vulnerability mapping should form the basis for protection zoning and land use planning. A conceptual framework was devised for vulnerability mapping based on this European approach.
Social and economic life of cities such as Nourabad, Alashtar, and numerous rural societies is connected to the Gareen anticline springs. In this paper we used PaPRIKa method for vulnerability assessment in the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins.
Material and Methods
 The Gareen anticline in the Zagros Mountain range is located in the active deforming Zagros fold-thrust belt and Sanandaj-Sirjan zon. Alashtar and Nourabad karst aquifers are located in the north of Lorestan province. There are several thrust faults with northwest–southeast strike such as Gareen-Gamasiab and Gareen-Kahman Faults. Nourabad unit is composed mainly by gray limestone rocks, embedded marl limestone, recrystallized limestone and pyroclastic rocks. One of the most important features of the structural geology of the Alashtar unit, is abundance of the sedimentary rocks and scarcity of igneous rocks in this area. In other words In the Study basins the main geological formations incloud: Bakhtiarian conglomerate, carbonates of Sormeh, Taleh Zang, Pabdeh and Kashkan Formations.
The groundwater vulnerability assessment methods (PaPRIKa) applied at the test sites were designed specifically for karst aquifers. They are based on various types of information concerning the physical characteristics of the unsaturated and saturated zones, the aquifer structure and its hydrological behavior.
The PaPRIKa method takes into consideration criteria for both structure and functioning of the aquifer. Based on EPIK and RISK resource methods, PaPRIKa method was developed as a resource and source vulnerability mapping method, allowing assessing vulnerability with four criteria: Protection, Rock type, Infiltration and Karstification. The P map (Protection) considers the protection provided to the aquifers by layers above the aquifers: the S (soil texture, structure and thickness), Ca (permeability formations), the Uz (thickness, lithology and fracture degree of unsaturated zone) and E (Epikarst aquifer). Moreover, including the catchments of water losses where the vulnerability is higher. R map (Rock type) considers the lithology and the degree of fracturing of the sutured zone. I map (Infiltration) distinguishes concentrated from diffuse infiltration. Ka map (Karstification development) assesses the drainage capacity and the organization of the karst conduits network.
To  calculate  the vulnerability  index,  the  four  mentioned  maps(P. R. I. Ka)  have been  combined  using  the  following  equation coefficients (eq.1):
PaPRIKa Index= 0.2 P + 0.2 R + 0.4 I + 0.2 Ka                                        (1) eq
Due to the fact that karst geomorphology has a great impact on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of water resources and the vulnerability assessment of these resources, fuzzy logic has been used to zonation of the Karst development in the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins.  In the fuzzy method used a gamma operator (eq.2):
µ Combination= ((Fuzzy Algebraic Sum) (Fuzzy Algebraic Product)) 1-γ                                                (2) eq                    
The vulnerability map for aquifers was prepared using the software Arc GIS10.4.
Discussion and Results
In the Gareen Antarctic region, due to the availability of suitable Karstification, includes: Lithology, Active Tectonics, Mediterranean climate (with average rainfall of between 454-448 mm and average temperature of 13 C˚) features are formed by various forms of karst such as closed pits (Doline, Swallow Hole, Aven, Polyeh (Peljee), several types of Karrens, dissolution Cavities, small and large Caves and Springs. The most important karst features in this area including Dolines (Solutional, Collapse, Subsidence and Dropout) which are known the Karst Nival. Based on the Karst development zoning map by using the fuzzy logic, 15% of the study area has been developed. Due to the vulnerability based on PaPRIKa method, the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins divided into 5 categories. Resuls show that the vulnerability of the study area is mainly classified as High or Very High, due to the highly developed Epikarst, which minimizes the protective function of the unsaturated zone. There are many karst landforms such as dolines and Swallow Holes that are highly vulnerable.
The final evaluation of the vulnerability ground waters in the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins using the PaPRIKa method shows that the study area is divided into five vulnerable (very high, high, moderate, low and very low). So that areas with a very low, low and moderate vulnerability are 27.3%, 22.3% and 20.6% of the basin area respectively. Also that areas with a high and very high vulnerability are 17% and 12.8% of the study area cover, respectively. Due to the lack of soil and plant cover, heavy snowfall and the formation of Karst-Nival (including Dolines) highlands of the Gareen Anticline have a very high vulnerability potential. Validation of the results of the karstic aquifers vulnerability to Electrical Conductivity (EC) data and monthly discharge of springs shows that the Zaz and Ahangaran springs are in a high vulnerability zone. In the aquifer of this springs, Rapid reductions in EC are detected after each recharge period. Also in contrast Rapid increases in EC with reductions in recharge. This situation shows the High developed of this aquifers, as a result, the potential for vulnerability in these aquifers is high.
But in the springs of Niaz and Abdolhosseini in the Nourabad basin, the EC chart has not changed much compared to recharge. Therefore, the aquifer of these springs is less undeveloped or low developed and also less vulnerable.
Key Words: Gareen Anticline, Geomorphology, Karst, Lorestan, Pa
Ezatollah Ghanavati, Amir Saffari, Ali Haghshenas,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

 Investigation of morphometric indices of Assaluyeh, Varavi and Kangan anticlines in Fars Zagros and their relationship with tectonic activity
Extended Abstract
Anticlines are the most prominent surface landforms whose geometry and morphology reflect mechanism of their formation and are keys to assessing the existence of deep faults that are effective in their formation and are among the most important seismic sources.
Detachment folds are formed by buckling of the rock units in response to shortening and are typically symmetric folds. Alternatively, asymmetric folds at the surface may be forced by the propagation of thrust faults at depth (fault propagation folds) or result from thrust movements along footwall ramps in the sedimentary pile (fault-ramp folds).The Zagros folds have often been interpreted as completely detached along the Hormuz salt.
Structurally, the study area is a part of the folded and coastal Zagros whose geological structure is simple and gentle and comprises a series of near-compact anticlines with a near-vertical axial surface and a northwest-southeast trend.
Outcrops of lithological formations in the study area include Surmeh, Fahliyan, Gadvan, Dariyan, Kazhdumi, Sarvak, Ilam, Gurpi, Pabdeh, Gachsaran, Mishan, Aghajari and Bakhtiari. In the northwestern part of the Kangan anticline, uplift of salt diapir along the Darang Fault has led to the exposure of limestone, shale, dolomite and anhydrite units of the Khami Group.
Assaluyeh is one of the most important economic bases in Iran and also one of the largest energy production areas in the world. With the rapid development of Assaluyeh region and increase of residential, urban and industrial constructions and refinery facilities, without attention to environmental hazards and especially earthquakes, it seems necessary to conduct this research.
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometric characteristics of the Assaluyeh, Veravi and Kangan anticlines and its relationship with active tectonics in the region.
At first, topographic, drainage network, slope, slope direction and tectonic maps of the anticlines were prepared using digital elevation model data, Landsat imagery and field surveys. Then, the geomorphic quantitative indices of the fold front sinuosity, aspect ratio, fold symmetry index, fold surface symmetry index, anticline crestline index, fold elevation index and spacing ratio were calculated. Qualitative studies were carried out on drainage pattern indices, triangular facets, wineglass valleys, linear valleys, fault scarps, springs, alluvial fans, etc. Finally, the relationship between all geomorphic and tectonic parameters was analyzed.
Results and discussion
Fold symmetry index is one of the most important parameters that show the degree of inequality of the two limbs of the anticline and thus the intensity of tectonic activity. In a completely symmetric anticline, the value of this index is 1, while in an asymmetric anticline the value of this index is less than 1. The index values for all three anticlines are less than one, but the Asalouyeh anticline shows more asymmetry, indicating a high tectonic activity on the anticline.
The fold front sinuosity index indicates the degree of tectonic activity or age of the folding system. The values obtained for this index in the three anticlines indicate that the anticlines are young and the tectonic forces are dominating the erosion.
The high value of the aspect ratios indicates the elliptical shape of the anticline, which is caused by the high stress perpendicular to the axis of the anticline. The index for Varai, Kangan, and Asalouyeh Anticlines are 0.7, 0.5 and 0.5, respectively, which again indicates nearly high tectonic activity in all three anticlines.
The spacing ratio index at the northern flank of Varavi and Assalouyeh anticlines and the southern flank of  Kagan anticline indicate a high value. Quantitative index of surface symmetry of folds also shows that all three anticlines are asymmetric and the asymmetry of Asalouyeh anticline is greater than Kangan and Varavi anticlines.
The drainage pattern is another indicator that, in the absence of tectonic evidence, can be a key to identifying tectonic activity.
The existence of asymmetric fork drainage networks is evidence of active tectonic evidence indicating lateral growth of anticlines. According to this criterion, Varavi anticline has grown to the northwest.
Comparison of the valleys shows that most of the valleys in Kagan anticline are of wineglass type whereas in Asalouyeh and Kangan anticlines linear valleys are more abundant. Some of these valleys are formed along transverse faults. The presence of numerous alluvial fans in the slopes of the Varavi anticline, indicates rapid erosion of the valley bed due to the rapid uplift and increasing valley slope. The presence of elongated and narrow V-shaped valleys is another evidence of the high tectonic activity of this anticline.
In seismicity studies and identification of hidden or blind fault studies, geophysical and geotechnical methods are expensive, time-consuming and require special equipment and are performed on a small scale. With the availability of landforms and features, risk assessment will be done at a lower cost, faster, and on a larger scale, if a relationship between landscapes and earthquakes can be established.
The geometry of the folds reflects the mechanism of their formation. Asymmetrical folds are associated with deep faulting and a detachment horizon, where the movement of sedimentary layers on the detachment horizon or at the tip of the hidden faults can cause an earthquake. The three anticlines of Assaluyeh, Varavi and Kangan are also part of the folded Zagros and have the characteristics of the folded Zagros.
In this study we defined a new index related to fold morphology, called fold surface symmetry index. Also we used fold morphology to detect the presence of detachment horizons and faults in the core of anticlines and their relationship to seismic hazard risk.
The results of this study show the transverse profile asymmetry of all three anticlines due to the association of these anticlines with the longitudinal faults in the anticline core and along their axes. The results of measurements of aspect ratios, fold front sinusitis, anticline ridge, and study of drainage patterns and tectonic landforms such as fault scarps, triangular facets, linear valleys also confirm the high tectonic activity of all three anticlines and the potential for earthquake hazard due to the movement of deep faults or any segments of them.
Masoud Rajaei, Ezatollah Ghanavati, Ali Ahmadabadi, Amir Saffari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

Analysis of the behavior changes of hydrological response units due to Residential development
(Case Study: Cheshmeh Killeh Tonekabon Basin)

Ezatollah Ghanavati *[1]
Ali Ahmadabadi[2]
Amir Saffari[3]
Masoud Rajaei[4]

Land use and vegetation changes directly lead to changes in the hydrological regime, especially runoff coefficient and maximum instantaneous discharge changes. Much of the land use change has occurred due to residential development, which has led to a decrease in residential and rangeland lands and agricultural lands in the northern regions of the country; This has led to an increased risk of flooding in these areas and downstream urban areas. Cheshmeh Killeh basin as one of the catchments in the north of the country in the last decade has witnessed the occurrence of various floods; Therefore, in this study, by extracting the hydrological response units of Cheshmeh Killeh catchment in order to identify changes in vegetation and land use of these units and the effect of these changes on the hydrological behavior of the basin, the runoff coefficient is one of these behaviors in this period of 29 years (1991-2018). paid. Therefore, in this research, hydrological response units have been identified and extracted as a working unit to determine the runoff production potential of Cheshmeh Killeh catchment. In order to monitor changes in density and vegetation cover using satellite images of the study area in 1991 and 2018, the normalized plant difference index was used; Then, by combining the layers of hydrological groups and land use, the amount of curve number was determined for each of the hydrological response units. According to the values ​​of the obtained curve number for each hydrological response unit, the amount of soil moisture holding capacity was extracted. Finally, by calculating the average monthly values, the amount of runoff from rainfall for 1991 and 2018 was estimated. The results of the study indicate a decrease in the amount and density of vegetation, an increase in the number of curves, a decrease in soil permeability and also an increase in runoff height during a period of 29 years (1991-2018) in Cheshmeh Killeh catchment (especially the northern parts of the catchment); In other words, settlement development, land use change and weakening of vegetation have intensified flooding in the basin; Therefore, it is necessary to carry out watershed management operations upstream to increase permeability.

 Keywords: Hydrologica response unit, Cheshmeh killeh, Runoff, Normalized vegetation difference index, SCS-CN model.

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