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Showing 18 results for Zahra

Ahmad Pourahmad, Asadollah Divsalar, Parvaneh Mahdavi, Zahra Gholamrezai,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

  Iran is a wide and great land that is located on Alps earthquake belt of Himalaya. Great part of the urban and village residency of the country have been exposed to the intensive earthquake and destructive. Sarab city with several other cities, including Tehran, Karaj, Abyek, Qazvin, Roudbar, Khalkhal ,Tabriz, Marand and khoy are located on Earthquake belt that Earthquake risk is too high.   In Eastern-Azerbaijan and Sarab, potential earthquake risk is very high, since there are a lot of active faults and historical evidences show the horrific and destructive earthquakes.   Sarab city located in the Sarab plain which have abundant faults in various directions. Earthquake as a natural phenomenon doesn’t have good results but what can make it a catastrophe, is the lack of prevention from its effects and no preparation for coping with its aftermaths.   The unsuitable establishment of structural elements and urban land-uses and atypical web of urban open spaces, the old ages of and low quality of the structures in the decayed area of the factors like this have main role in the increasing the amount of damage entered to the cities against to the earthquake.   It is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of the cities against the earthquake and to consider it as one of the main goals of the urban planning.   Main objective of this paper is planning for reduction of damages arising out of earthquake in Sarab city. The study area is the Sarab city with four urban regions and 15 districts. The present research is an applied study.   For this purpose, considering the goal of the study, nine factors including the type of structural materials, the quality of the buildings, the number of the floors, the population density, pedestrian width , the availability of open space and distance from river were identified and evaluated, so that for each of the indicators or factors, one layer of map with shp format was produced and then in an analytical hierarchy process and weighting to the variables, layers overlaying operation using available analytical functions was implemented in Arc Gis software. Finally the vulnerability map of the Sarab city was prepared. According to the results of AHP model, it is concluded that Sarab in terms of vulnerability has no appropriate status against earthquake risk so that the whole Sarab city is vulnerable to earthquake, but some of its neighborhoods due to low quality of buildings and vulnerability of streets network and inaccessibility to open areas and excessive compression are more vulnerable. Deteriorated urban area is one of the most vulnerable parts of the Sarab city during the occurrence of the earthquake. Therefore, to reduce the health and wealth damages which can cause by the earthquake in the city.  

Mostafa Karampour, Mohammad Saligheh, Meysam Toulabi Nejad, Zahra Zarei Choghabaki,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

In issues related to air pollution, the thickness of the boundary layer is known as the depth of the mixed layer because the pollution on the ground surface is mixed in this entire layer through turbulence processes. In most cases, the boundary of the area is clearly visible on big industrial cities. The depth of the mixed layer has an important effect in the concentration of air pollution which is dependent on the intensity and duration of solar radiation and wind speed. Usually after 2 to 3 hours from the time of maximum solar radiation, air temperature near the earth's surface reaches its maximum value. At this time convection of heat is formed in the air near the earth surface and transfers the heat from the surface to higher altitudes. These vertical movements will cause atmospheric turbulence and increase in instability. This is when the growth of the mixed layer reaches to its highest level. After sunset, night temperature inversion occurs near the surface. This temperature inversion is due to the rapid cooling of the Earth's surface. In such condition, the cold air layer is near the earth's surface and the warm air layer sits on top of it and air is in a stable condition.  As a result, the accumulation of contamination, if there are sources of pollutants, will increase in the earth's near-surface layer. If the conditions remain steady during the day, the mixed layer will not have much growth and as a result, contamination in the shallow layer near the surface of the Earth reduces solar radiation.

Each year, thousands of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter are emitted in the metropolitan area of Tehran and due to the geographical and climatic conditions of Tehran, temperature inversion phenomenon is not something unexpected. By formation of the inversion layer, these pollutants will remain near the earth's surface for a long time which in turn will be the cause of a lot of heart and respiratory problems. Therefore, identifying the characteristics of this layer on polluted days is of particular importance to the health of the residents of this city.

In this research, the study area is Tehran which is in the foothills of the southern Alborz and between longitudes 51 ° 2 'to 51 degrees 36' east and latitude 35 degrees 34 minutes and 35 degrees 50 minutes northern. The height of the northernmost point of this city is 1800 and up to 1200 meters in the center and 1050 meters in the south.

To conduct this research, inversion data including temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure and humidity and vertical navigation radiosonde data at the Mehrabad weather station from January to 29 December 2013, were taken from the Meteorological Organization of country. Then the statistics of daily vertical scroll of atmosphere above the Mehrabad synoptic station was received from the University of Wyoming. Also, the hourly data of air pollutants including gaseous pollutants CO, N2O, O3, SO2 and particulate matter (PM10) were prepared from the air quality control center (AQCC) for the stations Aghdasiyeh, Geophysics, Poonak, Rey and District 11.

After receiving information about the vertical scroll of the atmosphere in Mehrabad station, in order to have a closer examination of the vertical profiles of potential temperature changes in the lower atmosphere, using daily data from the radiosonde to obtain potential temperature changes in height were measured. Then, in order to identify the days with high pollution levels (the unhealthy condition for sensitive groups) and days with good conditions, so that all stations under study were the same, based on a standard index of air pollution Table 1 was developed. In the end, 4 days with critical inversion of potential temperature, including two polluted days (February 6th and August 16th) and two clean days (9 February and 5 June) were detected. Then according to the proposed method of Hefter, the approximate height of the boundary layer was calculated for these 4 days.

In this study, it was observed that the boundary layer height in contaminated cold season of the year reached 1,200 meters in the morning hours while in the afternoon in the cold samples, it grew to 1900 meters. In the warmer months based on the height of critical inversion layer in the selected days it reached more than 6,000 meters. In pure samples of warm and cold seasons, the boundary layer height had significant growth to the extent that in the cold sample of the year it reached to 2,100 meters in the morning and 2,600 meters in the afternoon. On June 5, which is intended to represent the clean and pure heating season, boundary layer height was of 5300 meters in the morning hours which shows a 4,000-meters increase in comparison to its polluted counterpart. The point to be noted is that since the active track of potential temperature can be considered as a measure of air stability, in the critical inversion, for the case of polluted samples of morning hours that were irradiated with inversion, active track of the potential temperature was very high in them. Thus on days with radiated inversion (polluted days) we can say that border of boundary layer was based on the inverted layer. Also the methods used in these types of inversions are more efficient for the determining height of the boundary layer.

Behroz Nasiri , Zahra Zareei Chaghabalaki, Mansour Halimi, Mohammad Rostami Fath Abadi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

One of the most important components of the extent of pollutants mixing and air quality at near the Earth's surface is the height of boundary layer. Many variables involved in determining the height of the boundary layer of atmosphere. Although all of the troposphere (the lower ~10km of the atmosphere) is affected by surface conditions, most of it has a relatively slow response time. The lower part of the troposphere that is affected on a shorter time scale is commonly defined as the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The depth of the mixed layer has a significant effect on the concentration of air pollution, which itself is dependent on the intensity and duration of solar radiation and wind speed. According to Stull, one can describe the planetary boundary layer as “that part of the troposphere that is directly influenced by the presence of the earth’s surface, and responds to surface forcing with a timescale of about an hour or less.”  Surface temperature has a strong relationship with height of the PBL. As the surface cycles between daytime radiation and nighttime cooling the amount of convection taking place changes. When the temperature gradient is steep, more convection takes place to dissipate thermal energy in the most efficient manner. In other words, the greater the temperature difference between the surface and the lower troposphere, the higher convective eddies must reach to alleviate the gradient. Relating this to Stull’s definition of turbulence, it can be concluded that the height of the PBL varies with surface temperature. In fact, the spatial range of the PBL can vary from less than one hundred meters to several kilometers. The strong relationship between convective turbulence and height of the PBL is sometimes used to define the boundary layer and call it the Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Analogous to the Stull’s definition but focusing on turbulence, Lloyd et all describe CBL as “a layer of air typically of order 1km in depth, well mixed by turbulence maintained by buoyancy due to heating at the ground. It is bounded above by stably stratified, no turbulent air and grows through the day.  In this study we aimed to analysis the status of ABL in 3 dust period days in Khuzestan province of Iran.

The Data were used in this study includes: The Daily data of dust concentration during 27Jan to 1 Feb 2015, the daily height of ABL also were used. The daily data of ABL were given from ECMWF with 1/8 degree spatial resolution. We used the Pearson correlation and synoptic analysis to assessment the condition of boundary layer at the mentioned days. For analysis the characteristic of ABL the climatic data of Wyoming University were used to assessment the thermodynamics of atmosphere. The spatial distribution of ABL height at the dusty day also were used for 12 UTC.

The results indicated there is the direct relationship between the ABL height and the concentration of dust in the mentioned days. So that in the days that the concentration of dust reaches maximum we fund that the height of ABL reaches maximum simultaneously and vis versa. The spatial distribution of ABL height shown that the height of ABL in the 29Jan reaches maximum that the maximum concentration of dust related to this day. And also the minimum concentration of dust observed in 27Jan and 1Feb that the in this day the height of ABL was minimum. The synoptic analysis also reveals that locating the low pressure system at the 500hp level that the Khuzestan province has been locating at the front of this system lead to transport the dust to study area.

In this study we reveal that the height of ABL in the dust days of Khuzestan has a totally revers behavior in compare to the air pollution days in Tehran. In the pollution days in Tehran the lowing of ABL height and inversion lead to intensify the concentration of pollution while in the dust days of Khuzestan the height of ABL were increased in compared with non-dusty days.

Hassan Zolfaghari, Zahra Nori Samoleh,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Drought is one of the most important hazards that occur in all the earth especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Every year, about half of the earth’s surface experienced droughts and while drought is not a constant feature of any climate but occur more frequently in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Although the occurrence of droughts cannot be prevented but by studying the nature and characteristics of droughts and also identify factors that affecting their occurrence useful information can be gained about drought and their destructive effects. The researches in recent years designed and proposed a lot of indices to study and analyze the droughts and today various characteristics such as intensity, duration, area and so on with these indices are studied. Many indices used by researches to analysis and identify properties of climatic droughts and dry periods. In these indices often the variables of precipitations, combination of precipitations and temperature, humidity or evaporation, crops yields and teleconnection climatic indices are used.

In this study using the CPEI index and 30 years (1980-2009) daily rainfall data in 40 synoptic stations overall Iran, to analysis and assess of Iran droughts suitable variables detected. Four seasons and annual period is considered in this study. To determine the appropriate variables in the design of suitable models and modeling of drought to assess and predict droughts Otun in 2005 proposed CPEI index as Conjunctive Precipitation Effectiveness Index. He selected 10 conjunctive precipitation variables as ORS(Onset of Rainy Season), CRS(Cessation of Rainy Season), LRS(Length of Rainy Season), TWD(The Total no of Wet Days), TDS(Total no of Dry Spell), TDW(Total no of Dry Days within a Wet Season), TDY(Total no of Dry Days within a Year), LDS(Length of the Dry Season), MDL(Maximum Dry Spell Length within a Wet Season), MAR(Mean Annual / Seasonal Rainfall Depth) and determined the relationships between variables in each synoptic stations and climatic regions. Since the units of measurement the rainfall variables are diverse, it is essential that the units be converted to a standard unit, in other words variables be standardized. The relationship between variables was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Finally, the right combination of precipitation variables for each station through the proposed formula Otun(2005) were determined. In the end, for each of the seasons and the annually period regionalization maps were prepared.

 All 40 synoptic stations were evaluated by Otun’s method (Aton, 2005). The results showed that 95 percent of stations in spring, 75 percent in fall, 57 percent in winter and 75 percent in annual period are compatible with used method. Thus, spring, fall and winter seasons and also annual period are compatible with above mentioned index. Among the used variables MAR, MDL, TDY and TDS which with respectively are as follows: total amount of precipitation in any period, the maximum duration of dry periods in a wet period, the total number of dry days in a wet period and the total number of dry period during wet period among the stations are more abundant. In annually period, in addition to the above mentioned variables, precipitation variable of LPS (length of dry period) also seen among some stations. Also, results showed that CPEI index can be used on most stations and climatic regions of Iran. It was also found that the spring compared the other seasons and annual period is more comparable on the base of CPEI index.   

  Otun in 2010 used the CPEI index in semi-arid region of Nigeria and has achieved good results. The results of our study show good agreement with Otun’s work. The use of this index in the study of meteorology, climatology, agriculture and many environmental projects can be beneficial because in many of these fields of study, precipitation and its characteristics have an important role. In general we can say that in regions where CPEI index does not show a high proportion or set of variables are not enough it is better to use other indices such as SPI and RAI. The results obtained in similar climate zones such as Nigeria has shown that CPEI index has very good ability to identify and explain the precipitation effectiveness variables which can be used in modeling of droughts and dry periods. There are many similarities between combination of precipitation variables that identified by CPEI index for Iran and other regions of the world. Similarities, especially with respect to MAR, MDL, TDY and TDS are abundant.

Saeid Hamzeh, Zahra Farahani, Shahriar Mahdavi, Omid Chatrobgoun, Mehdi Gholamnia,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2017)

As a result of climate change and reduction in rainfall during the last decade, drought has become big problem in the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Therefore drought monitoring and management is great of important. In contrast with the traditional methods which are based on the ground stations measurements and meteorological drought monitoring, using the remote sensing techniques and satellite imagery have become a useful tool for spatio-temporal monitoring of agricultural drought. But using of this technique and its results still need to be evaluated and calibrated for different areas.
The aim of this survey is to study the spatial and temporal patterns of drought using remote sensing and the regional meteorological data in the Markazi province. For this purpose, the MODIS satellite data between the years of 2000-2013 have been used to monitor and derived vegetation indices. Drought indices based on satellite data including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), and Soil Water Index (SWI) were obtained from the MODIS satellite data for the period of study for different temporal scales (seasonal, biannual and annul).Then, correlation between obtained results from satellite data and standardized precipitation index (SPI) have been analyzed in all time periods.
Results show that study area has a low to medium vegetation cover. According to the results, the climate situation of the study area is more compatible with the seasonal results of the VCI, and VCI was selected as the best indicator for agricultural drought monitoring in the study are. The obtained results from the applying of VCI over the area show the drought condition in 2000 and 2008 and the wetness in 2009 and 2010 during the study period.

Zahra Hejazizadeh, Meysam Toulabi Nejad, Zahra Zarei Chaghabalaki, Behzad Amraeei,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

This research was conducted to identify the dust storms in the Midwest of Iran from June 16 to 19, 2015. To investigate the synoptic conditions of the causes of this phenomenon, the ECMWF has an array of 0.125 degrees, including geopotential, omega, and sea level pressure, orbital and meridian components of the wind, specific humidity Soil moisture was applied to a depth of 10 cm. Similarly, for the purpose of routing the source of dust particles, the model of the Minimum Meteorological Parameters (HYSPLIT) Marv was used. The results of this study showed that in Lorestan province, non-ditches created by low-pressure thermal springs and high-altitude movements in Saudi Arabia caused the convergence and sucking of flows to the west of the country, as well as the establishment of a low-pressure cut at the middle levels of the atmosphere in the east of the Caspian. In the event of this risk, it has been effective. According to the average soil moisture from the surface of the earth to a depth of 10 cm in days with dust hazards, the moisture content of dust particles in the dust was less than 15%, due to the flow of streams from these fields without sufficient moisture, fine particles the soil is easily directed towards the study. A survey of Hysplit tracking maps shows that two general paths for the transfer of dust to the studied region can be detected. 1-Northwest - Southwest At an altitude of 1500 meters: passing through the dust nuclei formed in the northwest of Iraq and east of Syria, carry out the transfer of dust to the west-west of Iran. As these currents have been able to transfer dust to the southwest of Iran, this path can be considered the main route of dust dispersion to the region. 2- The western-eastern route at an altitude of 500 to 1000 meters: is the source of particles of this route inside the country (around Hurralazim) that entered the West of Iran and greatly reduced the horizontal visibility, which is the main source of dust on June 18 and 19. The investigation of the path of dust particles in the walnut shows that these particles were initially transferred to lower levels by low-pressure systems in the Midwest of Iran and then pulled in three directions on the ground.

Dr Manouchehr Farajzadeh, Miss Zahra Kazemnezhad, Dr Reza Borna,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)


Climate change in one area has severe impacts on water resources and, consequently, agriculture in that area. Therefore, studying the extent of the vulnerability of regions to adopting policies to reduce or adapt to new conditions is of particular importance. One of the methods for assessing the extent of damage to agricultural activities is the calculation of the vulnerability index. In this study, with the aim of assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change, The CVI index was calculated for 16 cities in Guilan province.

The results showed that the cities of Rasht (61.58) and Talesh (55.21) had the highest vulnerability and, accordingly, had the least adaptive power to climate change compared to other cities. And Langrood County (29.51) has the lowest number of vulnerabilities. The average value of the calculated index is 40.42 in Guilan province. In component R, the most vulnerable were Talesh (99.66) and lowest for Lahijan (2.27), In component M, the highest vulnerability was for Rudbar (97.21) and the lowest for Talesh (24.30), In component A, the most vulnerable were Rasht (89.99) and the lowest for Anzali (2.21), In component C, the most vulnerable were Shaft (66.66) and lowest for Anzali (1.89), In component U, the most vulnerable were Rasht (67.55) and the lowest for Astara (28.92), In component E, the highest vulnerability was for Talesh (76.49) and lowest for Lahijan (22.69), In component G, the most vulnerable was reported to Rasht (53.05) and the lowest vulnerability was reported for Sunnelk (23.24).

Zahra Taghizade, Ahmad Mazidi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2019)


Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the environmental phenomenon which has made difficult environmental conditions for citizen. This study aims to evaluate the spatial and locational variability of Esfahan urban heat island according to the role of land use. Thus an area about 190.2 square kilometers (km2) in Esfahan, as the microclimate, was studied. In order to analyze the relationship between land use and land cover changes on Esfahan urban heat island, the images of Landsat 7 (TM and ETM +) and Landsat 8 (OLI / TIRS) on 20 July 1989, 17 August 2005, 18 August 2014 have been used. The results show that the urban areas has experienced 31% changes in positive direction; while the agricultural sector and green space havehad a reduction of 25% in their area. The analysis of the intensity of heat island show that heated cores are related topoor and barren lands with about 37/33 and 36/5. Although the most area of thermal classwere related to warm thermal class in 1989 and 2005, the average thermal classes were about 63/8%in 2014. Moreover, the locational variation distribution of Esfahan heat island shows that the locationof the heat island has gradually changed. For example in 2014 it included small parts in the south of the city, military zones and barren lands in the south, some parts in the north west and north east areas and small areas in the east of Esfahan. This means that urban development isn’t the main factor of the surface temperature increase and urban heat development, but rather the type of land use has influenced the decreasing or increasing of air temperature.


Dr. Javad Sadidi, Mrs. Zahra Judaki, Hani Rezayan,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Designing and implementing a 3D indoor navigation web application
              Extended abstract
Nowadays, due to the complexity of interior space of buildings, the need arises for indoor navigation inside such spaces. Indoor navigation systems may be helpful for emergency evacuation of the crowd in natural hazards such as earthquake as well as human-made disasters. These systems can also act as a decision support system for officials. Literature survey on indoor navigation services shows that a large number of researches have been conducted around designing and implementing such systems but automatic indoor spaces topology extraction of the current building information models remains as a challenge. This research aims to introduce, design and implement a web-based indoor navigation system using CityGML data model in LOD4 (level of detail) to overcome the mentioned problem.
The architecture of the current research is a browser-based web application service such that the data model processing and graph creation is implemented on the server side, the client interface and calculated path are represented on the client side (browser). Through the CityGML data model processing, firstly, the building navigable spaces such as room floor, doors and stairs are extracted and then, each space as a node and the connections between the nodes are defined as edges, are imported to the navigation graph. Programming on the server side has been performed by Python language and web development languages including HTML (Hypertext Markup language), JavaScript, JQuery and AJAX are used on the client side. Cesium virtual globe has been exploited to display the data model and the calculated route.
To evaluate the introduced methodology and designed service, a three floor house with CityGML format in LOD4 was used as the case study. Generally, a client can request a 3D calculated path by selecting the source and destination points on the client browser. The server receives the request and returns the response as a 3D line to the client browser on the Cesium environment. In addition, a descriptive graphical user interface for visual inception of the route is offered to the users on their browser.
One of the advantages of the designed web application is that, the service is implemented on the browser. Hence, all devices equipped with a browser have possibility to run the 3D routing service. Besides the mentioned cross-platform capability, average expectation time of the graphical interface loading, data module processing and path finder module are 7.03 milliseconds, 12.42 seconds and 2.44 seconds respectively that visits a valuable criteria in emergency situations like an earthquake phenomenon. Regarding this fact that CityGML is a new data model and supported by a few software, the introduced architecture causes less implementation costs as well as automation of these systems.
Keywords: 3D indoor navigation, web application, interior space of buildings
B Sharifinia Zahra,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Evaluation and Evaluation of Resilience to Drought Hazards in Rural Areas Case Study: rural district Ghare Taghgan Neka
Extensive abstract
Concerns over the social, economic, and ecological impacts of climate change on human habitat have increased over the last few decades (McGranahan et al, 2007). According to the UN report, water shortages will occur in the near future in 18 countries, and by 2025 more than two-thirds of the world's population is projected to be in serious water shortages (Pozzi et al, 2013, 191 112; World Bank, 2008, 124). On the other hand, the number of disasters has increased over the past 20 years, reaching 400 from 200 accidents (Pittman et al, 2011, 83,94; Molen et al, 2011, 765-773). In this regard, droughts, the most dangerous natural disasters, affect a wide range of climates and ecosystems, and the geographical areas affected by them have increased rapidly in the last four decades (Kamara et al., 2018, 2318). Drought is a major threat to households and community’s dependent on agriculture for livelihoods (Anthopoulou et al, 2017). Because livelihoods in agricultural-dependent societies are more dependent on climate change (Pittman et al., 2017. (
It is central to the city of Neka; it requires a holistic perspective. The type of applied research and methodology used is descriptive-analytical. Librarian and field method (observation, questionnaire) were used to collect the required data. In order to assess the resilience of rural areas to drought in two economic dimensions (ability to return to employment and income generation and compensation of costs and losses) and in social dimension (awareness, knowledge, skills and preparedness and participation and Collaboration) Designed and developed a Likert-type questionnaire (¬1 very low, 5 = very high). The statistical population of this study is based on census of 6947 households in 24 villages with error of 0.07, ¬191 questionnaire as sample size and based on the relationship of sharing ratio of the number of samples in each village is specified and in villages less than 7 samples, the number has been upgraded to 7. Finally, 233 samples were used as the sample size based on questionnaire completion and analysis and were randomly distributed and distributed among households. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, the experts were first provided with validity and the validity of the research instrument was measured and the final indices and statements were extracted. The questionnaire developed at this stage was pre-tested in the study area and after confirmation of trust or reliability (Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84) the questionnaire was finalized for field research. Descriptive (inferential) and inferential statistical methods (single sample t, Friedman, cluster analysis) and VASP, ARAS and VIKOR models were used to analyze the data. Therefore, in order to evaluate and measure resilience in rural areas, firstly, annual moisture status was investigated based on SPI, SDI and GRI indices. Therefore, the moisture status of the study area during the 13-year statistical period (2006-2007) using the data of 9 Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) rain gauge data, the data of the discharge rate of 6 rivers Surface Flow Index (SDI) and the values Water level level of 9 piezometric wells of GRI index was calculated in DrinC software environment.
 Iran's position on the dry belt and the persistence of droughts over the past two decades have led to the emergence of drought-related crises, especially for villagers who are heavily dependent on water for production, due to climate change. Droughts in the study area were also not exempt from this rule and resulted in adverse effects beyond the normal state and the risk of drought among rural farmers, which could be due to their low level of resilience to this risk. Be it. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the economic and social effects of this phenomenon on the status of rural resilience against drought hazards. The results showed that among the sample villages, in the economic dimension, the highest average belonged to Tavaza Abad village of Bostan Khel with average of 3.11 and the lowest average belonged to Plazhartesh village with average of 1.63. In the social aspect, the highest average belongs to the village of Dukhaelo with a mean of 3.54 and the lowest average belongs to the village of Plazhartesh with an average of 1.55. Also, the average real perception of the respondents is less than three and is moderately low, indicating that rural resilience to drought is low.
Keywords: Rural Areas, Resilience, Drought, Gharaghgan Village
Mr Reza Bayat, Mr Mahmood Arabkhedri, Ms Najmeh Behnam, Ms Zahra Gerami,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

Soil erosion is one of the most important environmental issues in developing countries, including Iran that there is inaccurate information about its amount and distribution. For this purpose, the accuracy and distribution of erosion classes obtained from EPM and MPSIAC models as compared to BLM as ground truth values were evaluated in Shahriari watershed. First, the required data and information for MPSIAC, EPM and BLM models for basin erosion status was stored in a database. Then, using ARC/GIS9.3 software, erosion class maps were prepared based on each model formula and they have been intersected with the ground-truth map. Also a point map containing 1400 random points was also prepared for sampling the maps obtained from the models. Then, based on random sampling points map, each of the statistical indices of RMSE, RRMSE, MAE, MBE, NSE, CD, CRM and MSE were calculated. Also, to verify the spatial accuracy of the erosion class maps derived from the error matrix models and the Kappa coefficient of agreement, overall accuracy, producer accuracy and user accuracy. The results of the erosion of the models showed that the mean erosion intensity in MPSIAC model was 589 and in EPM model 287 m3/ km2.year that the basin erosion status is estimated to be moderate for the basin with the help of MPSIAC model and EPM model. The analysis of the above statistical indices shows that the RSME, MAE, MBE and MSE statistics in MPSIAC model have lower values. As a result, the MPSIAC model has less error than the EPM model. Overall, the results of the statistical indices showed that the MPSIAC model's erosion classes were more in line with the BLM output (as a ground truth map) than the EPM model. Also the kappa coefficient in MPSIAC is higher than in EPM model. Overall, the results show that the MPSIAC model erosion class maps overlap with the BLM model and in fact with the actual conditions of the area.
Mis Zahra Keikha, Dr Javad Bazrafshan, Dr Sirous Ghanbari, Dr Aleme Keikha,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

The occurred disasters in recent decades show that communities and people have getting incrementally vulnerable against the hazards. Therefore, social resiliency is the capacity of change, adaptation, and power of resisting against the social stresses and disasters. This research aims at the spatial analysis of the local community to have effective social indexes on resiliency against the environmental hazards in the Sistan region. The methodology of the research is applied due to its nature and descriptive-analytical with the quantitative-surveying approach based on structural equations modeling (SEM) due to its method. The statistical population of the research includes heads of households in 373 villages that 189 people were selected as a statistical sample in proportion to the population volume by Cochran formula using the stratified random sampling method. Inventory was used as a tool to collect data of research, and validity and reliability of tools were studied and confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha test and composite reliability, respectively. SEM method with partial least squares technical approach and SMART PLS3 software was used to analyze the research data in inferential statistics level. Findings of research showed that the path coefficients of social indexes relationship with social resiliency are significant based on t-value and p-value. In a way that t-value of this path is 11.28 and higher than its critical value, 2.58, and the p-value is lower than 0.05.  In addition, WASPAS model was used for the spatial analysis of the effective social factors on the resiliency of the studied villages. This showed that villages of Zahak city have the maximum Qi and villages of Hamoon city have the minimum Qi. Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the social indexes and the resiliency of the villagers. Moreover, the volume of the social index effect is high. Since villagers have higher Qi, they have more social resiliency. Hence, it is claimed that the villages of Zahak region have higher social resiliency.

Mahmoud Ahmadi, Zahra Alibakhshi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Evaluation of hot spots changes in Tehran city and satellite based on land use and its role in urban heat hazards
Expanded abstract
Problem statement:
Urbanization and human activities affect the urban climate and clearly affect the air temperature close to the surface. In Tehran and its satellite, factors such as climatic region, season, time of day and wind regimes, topography, urban environments, population density, residents' activity, vegetation structure and urban physical form play an important role in the formation of urban heat islands. The purpose of this research is to determine the type of spatial distribution of heat islands of Tehran metropolis and satellite cities using land use and land cover. Replacing natural land cover with impervious surfaces due to urban development has negative environmental, social and economic impacts, in addition to beneficial aspects. Most of the albedo belong to the built areas and the bare land and the smallest of the Albedo belong to the aquatic areas and vegetation. In this research, the hypothesis is whether the suburbs may have higher temperatures than urban areas depending on the type of land use? In fact, it is examined the spatial distribution of the heat island of Tehran and its satellites, in which the use of land and land cover are analyzed as a factor contributing to the creation, intensification or reduction of the thermal island.
Extraction and preparation of imagery data through the Landsat 7 Satellite ETM + sensor over the years 2001-2015 and selection of June as the hottest month of the study area. These images were extracted from Route 164 and Row 35 of the USGS. An assessment was carried out through the accuracy of ground surface temperature data by Landsat satellite images and obtained temperatures from the weather stations in the area based on the Taylor diagram. In order to investigate the spatial structure of the cells obtained in each map, each containing surface temperature and heat island extraction, it used the methods of world spatial autocorrelation (high and low clustering, spatial correlation) and local (Cluster and Outlier analysis, hot spot analysis). The high and low clustering statistics show how the concentration of high or low values ​​in the region. In the next step, the results of analysis of Anselin Local Moran and hot spots were compared in map format. Hot spots were analyzed in all studied regions and in all 7 cities. The area of ​​hot spots was investigated over the course of 15 years and the results were presented in table and diagram form.
Land use was surveyed for every 7 county. In the last section were studied, the relationship between hot spots in each city and type and land use changes over 15 years.
Surface spatial analysis of the surface temperature of the area showed that the cells follow a cluster pattern and their trend towards clustering. Any kind of land cover and land use will create special features in a place that can be increased or decreased with a specific microclimate.
Explaining and results:
After selecting the years 2001, 2005, 2010, and 2015 as the sample and survey of the temperature of each land use in that year, it was determined that artifact, pasture, bare lands, forest, aquatic areas, agriculture and green spaces were respectively have the highest to the lowest temperature in the area. On the other hand, in the area of heat island in a region are Rabat Karim, Ray, Islamshahr, Tehran, Shahriar, Karaj and Shemiranat, respectively.
In spite of the reduction of aquatic areas and even bare lands, because of the large impact of green space or agricultural land was reduced the extent of heat islands during the statistical period, and on the contrary, the reduction of green space and agricultural land in places where even their forest areas have grown, has increased the levels of heat islands. This suggests that the dispersion and extent of green spaces has a more effective role in reducing the heat island compared with the creation of limited forest and planted surfaces in one place. Hence, in Tehran despite the significant growth of artifacts, due to the increasing growth of green space, the heat islands has been reduced compare with the Ray, Robatkarim and Islamshahr cities, which are exactly on its suburbs.
Keywords: Heat Island, hot spots, land use, Tehran, satellite cities.
Hossein Jahan Tigh, Zeynab Dolatshahi, Zahra Zarei Cheghabalaki, Meysam Toulabi Nejad,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

The daily cycle of radiant heating from sunrise and sunset leads to the daily cycle of tangible and hidden heat fluxes between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. These fluxes, which cannot directly reach the whole atmosphere, are confined to the shallow layer near the surface, called the boundary layer of the atmosphere. . The processes that take place in this layer are important in various aspects such as the dynamics of fluxes and atmospheric systems, surface radiation, the hydrological cycle, and air pollution research. The thickness of the boundary layer of the atmosphere varies with time and place, and its size varies from a few hundred meters to several kilometers on land under different conditions. This thickness depends on various factors such as the type of atmospheric systems and their structure, surface fluxes, steep vertical arrangement and wind direction and surface cover. The depth of the boundary layer can be calculated by different methods. This depth, which indicates the thickness of the turbulence zone near the surface, is usually called the depth of the mixed layer or the depth of the mixture. The methods used to determine the boundary layer of the atmosphere or the depth of the mixed layer are commonly used to investigate air pollution. Estimating the depth of the mixed layer is one of the most important parameters in the pollutant diffusion model. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the causes of monthly fluctuations in the height of the western border layer of the country with respect to the barley station above Kermanshah.
Materials and methods
Data on inversions of Kermanshah meteorological station during February and August 2012; Obtained from the Meteorological Organization of the country. Also, the data related to the vertical barley survey in this station, which were collected by radio sound, were used and the statistics of daily vertical barley survey above the Kermanshah synoptic station were obtained from the climatic database of the University of Wyoming. After obtaining information about vertical barley survey in Kermanshah station, Skew-T diagram, indicators and profile information of atmospheric conditions were drawn to recognize the dynamic and thermodynamic status of the atmosphere during the selected days in RAOB software environment. Then, in order to study the lower atmosphere more accurately, the changes in the vertical index of potential temperature, using daily radiosound data, the curves of potential temperature changes in terms of altitude were plotted. Then, using Huffer's computational method, days with critical inversion at potential temperature were found. Then, using geopotential height, wind and vertical ascent (omega) data, the synoptic causes of boundary layer depth fluctuations (mixed) and the effective factors were investigated.
Results and discussion
The main purpose of this study is to implement Hafter's proposed model to investigate the monthly fluctuations of the height of the boundary layer of Kermanshah station. The results of using Hafter method in estimating the depth of the mixed layer of the city and its daily changes for Kermanshah station in August and February 2012. In this regard, the effective factors in minimizing and maximizing the mixed layer in every two months (August and February), including: the synoptic situation in the study area on selected days, heat transfer, humidity, vertical arrangement and wind speed were investigated.
The results showed that in August, the depth of the layer during the month was between 3680 to 10292 meters. In this month, temperature subsidence, type of synoptic systems and vertical wind arrangement have directly played a significant role in the growth or weakening of the layer. Considering the comparison of the role of effective factors in maximizing and minimizing the depth of the boundary layer in August, it can be concluded that all factors have a positive role in maximizing the depth of the mixed layer; while the vertical wind arrangement plays an essential role in minimizing the layer depth in this month. In February, the depth of the mixed layer was about 2273 to 7017 meters and significant fluctuations in the values ​​of the depth of the mixed layer were observed during the month. In this month, temperature subsidence, vertical wind arrangement and synoptic systems have been effective in changing the depth of the mixed layer. Comparing the results obtained from both months, it can be said that the amount of surface flux is higher in summer than in winter; thus, the average depth of the mixed layer in August has almost doubled to February. In general, it can be concluded that the depth fluctuations of the mixed layer in winter due to the passage of different systems and the occurrence of atmospheric instabilities, have more changes than in summer.

Zahra Mosaffaei, Ali Jahani, Mohammad Ali Zare Chahouki, Hamid Goshtasb Meygoni, Vahid Etemad,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Risk modeling of plant species diversity and extinction in Sorkheh_hesar National Park
Zahra Mosaffaei1, Ali Jahani2*, 3MohammadAli ZareChahouki, 4Hamid GoshtasbMeygoni, 5Vahid Etemad
1 Masters of Natural Resources Engineering, Environmental Sciences, College of Environment, Karaj
*2Associate Professor, Department of Natural Environment and Biodiversity, College of Environment, Karaj.
3 Professor, Department of Restoration of arid and mountainous regions, University of Tehran, Karaj
4 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Environment and Biodiversity, College of Environment, Karaj
5 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, University of Tehran, Karaj
Full identification of hazards and prioritizing them for non-harm to nature is one of the first steps in natural resource management. Therefore, introducing a comprehensive system of evaluation, understanding, and evaluation is essential for controlling hazards. This study aimed to model and predict environmental hazards following increased degradation in natural environments by ANN. Thus, 600 soil and vegetation samples were collected from inhomogeneous ecological units. Soil samples were prepared by strip transect method according to soil depth in four profiles (5, 10, 15, 20 cm). Vegetation samples were also collected using a minimum level method using 2 2 square plots according to the type, density, and distribution of vegetation. Sampling was done in two safe zones and other uses were modeled using ANN in MATLAB environment. The optimal model of multilayer perceptron with two hidden layers, sigmoid tangent function and 19 neurons per layer and coefficient of determination of 0.90. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that soil moisture content would be effective in decreasing biodiversity and flood risk as well as increasing the risk of extinction of endemic species in the region, and then the apparent and true gravity and soil porosity and distance from the road play a key role in the degradation of cover. Vegetation has increased flooding and extinction risk. Therefore, it is recommended that measures related to soil and vegetation restoration in this park be taken to reduce future damages as soon as possible.
Keywords: Modeling, Artificial Neural Network, Environmental Hazards, National Park, Vegetation
Ms Vahideh Sayad, Doctor Bohloul Alijani, Doctor Zahra Hejazizadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Iran is a country with low rainfall and high-intensity rainfall that is affected by various synoptic systems, the most important of these systems is Sudan low pressure, Therefore, recognizing the low pressures of the Sudan region is of particular importance, The purpose of this study is to gather a complete and comprehensive knowledge of the set of studies conducted about this low pressure, structure and formation and its effects on the surrounding climate. The present study was conducted using the library method and a search for authoritative scientific and research sources in connection with research on low pressure in Sudan and no data processing was performed in it. Thus, it has studied and analyzed the temporal and spatial changes of Sudan's low pressure over several years and its effect on the climate of the surrounding areas, especially Iran. In general, the results of this study can be divided into several categories, including studies on the recognition and study of Sudan low pressure, its structure and formation over time, pressure patterns affecting it at different atmospheric levels, and its effects on the climate of surrounding areas, especially Iran. Has been studied, The effect of this low pressure on seasonal and spring rainfall in Iran, snow and hail, floods, thunderstorms and also the effect of remote connection patterns on this low-pressure system have been studied, and finally, the analysis of these findings has been studied. It can be concluded that the Sudanese low-pressure system is a Low-pressure reverse in the region of Northeast Africa and southwest of the Middle East, which is strengthened and displaced in the upper levels of the Mediterranean and Subtropical jet stream and in the lower surface moisture injection from the Arabian Sea and Oman through high pressure. Saudi Arabia is inwardly the cause of severe instability in Iran and a major cause of heavy rainfall in various parts of the country.
Zahra Arabi, Ayub Badragh Nejad,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2022)

Drought is one of the environmental disasters that is very frequent in arid and semi-arid regions of the country. Rainfall defects have different effects on groundwater, soil moisture, and river flow. Meteorological drought indices are calculated directly from meteorological data such as rainfall and will not be useful in monitoring drought if the data are missing. Therefore remote sensing technique can be a useful tool in drought measurement. Drought is a recognized environmental disaster and has social, economic, and environmental impacts. Shortage of rainfall in a region for long periods of time is known as drought. Drought and rainfall are affecting water and agricultural resources in each region.
Materials & Methods
The present study is a descriptive-analytic one with emphasis on quantitative methods due to the nature of the problem and the subject under study. In this study, the Tera Sensor Modis satellite images from 2000 and 2017 were used to verify the existence of wet and drought phenomena. In the next step, by examining the rain gauge and synoptic data of the existing stations and using a standardized precipitation index model of three months (May, June and April), the sample was selected. Next, we compared the temperature status indices (TCIs) and vegetation health indices (VHIs) in these three months to determine the differences in these indices over the three months. Modi satellite Tera satellite was used to find out the vegetation status in the study area. Subsequently, using the condition set for the NDVI layer, the vegetation-free areas were separated from the vegetated areas. Experimental method was used to determine the threshold value of this index. For this purpose, different thresholds were tested, with the optimum value of 1 being positive. NDVI is less than 1 plant-free positive and more than vegetation-free. MODIS spectral sensing images for ground surface temperature variables, with a spatial resolution of 1 km, including bands 31 (bandwidth 1080/1180 central bandwidth / 11.017 spatial resolution 1000 m) and 32 bands- 770/11 Central Wavelength Band 032/12 Spatial Resolution Power (1000 m) Selected for months that are almost cloudless. All images have been downloaded from the SearchEarthData site and have been edited. The total rainfall of June, April, and May for the 20-year period was provided by the Meteorological Organization of Iran. ARC GIS software and geostatistical methods were used to process the Excel data. Also, to estimate the correlation between the data Pearson's correlation coefficient was used.
Results & Discussion
The standardized precipitation index is a powerful tool in analyzing rainfall data. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between remote sensing indices and meteorological drought indices and determine the efficiency of remote sensing indices in drought monitoring. Correlation between variables with SPI index was evaluated and calculated. The results of the indicators are different, so a criterion should be used to evaluate the performance of these indicators. SPI index on quarterly time scale (correlated with vegetation) as the preferred criterion Selected. According to the results of correlations, the TCI index with the SPI index had a strong correlation with other indices. In the short run, this index has the highest correlation with thermal indices at 1% level. The correlation between meteorological drought index and plant water content and thermal indices increases with increasing time interval. Positive correlation between vegetation indices and plant water content with meteorological drought indices indicates that trend of changes is in line. Therefore, the TCI index makes drought more accurate and is a better method for estimating drought.
The results showed that among the surveyed fishes, the highest drought trend was observed in the eastern part of these provinces and covered more than 50% of the area. The trend of changes in this slope was statistically significant. According to the results of correlations, the TCI index with the SPI index had a strong correlation with other indices. It can also be concluded that the Modis images and the processed indices along with the climate indices have the potential for drought monitoring. Using maps derived from drought indices can help improve drought management programs and play a significant role in mitigating drought effects.
Drought, remote sensing, correlation, climate index.

Mrs Masoumeh Alidadi, Professor Bohlol Alijani, Dr Mohammadhossein Nasserzadeh, Professor Zahra Hejazizadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Comparative analysis of snowfall events in Iran with emphasis on the location of the polar plateau and remote connection patterns

Extream snowfall event that may occur at any time during the cold season, has significant social and economic implications. Therefore, the economic and social consequences of these events reveal the importance of identifying the synoptical mechanisms associated with the extream snowfall events. In order to achieve this goal, using daily precipitation and temperature data during the statistical period of 1951-1 2016 and based on multiple criteria, the two three-days extream snowfall events were identified during February 7-9, 1972 and February 2-4, 1988. After selecting samples, a statistical analysis of the teleconnection indices was done and then, using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data, the combined patterns of surface and lower, middle and lower troposphere were plotted in the form of three-days mean. Results obtained from analysis of teleconnection indices and their correspondence to the synoptic patterns indicate the weakening of the tropospheric polar vortex and its division into multi-centers in the periods of extream snowfall events. In the event of February 7-9, 1972, though the centers were moved to mid-latitudes, but they are not completely out of the Arctic and to some extent maintain their position in this area. In February 2-4, 1988, the vortex centers have shown a more equatorwards displacement towards the mid-latitudes that the emergence of negative phases of the NAM and AO represent such a situation. However, in both events, the strong and main center of the polar vortex is located in the eastern hemisphere and therefore in a state close to Iran. The weakening of the sub-tropical jetstream in the eastern hemisphere, especially in the Mediterranean, has resulted in the transmission of potential vorticity tabs to mid-latitudes. The equatorwards progress of these tabs has led to the formation of the trough in the western and eastern Mediterranean regions that accompany with a ridge between them, led to the formation of omega bundle patterns and split flow, respectively, in the events of February 1972 and 1988 in this geographical area. The southern boundary of the progress of the troughs has specified by index contour of the edge of the vortex by 552 gpdam, that extends to the southern part of Iran and in the February 1972, event compared with the pattern of the February 1988, had the more-equatorwards progress toward the middle latitudes, and as a result, over Iran.
Keywords: extream snowfall event, teleconnection, polar vortex, the edge of the vortex, blocking patterns.


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