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Showing 7 results for ahmadabadi

Ali Ahmadabadi, Abdolah Seif, Somaye Khosravi, Amanalah Fathnia,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2015)
Abstract

Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas, leads to  desertification and land degradation is a concept that refers to any reduction of soil potentials. In Iran, that 85 percent of its area is classified in arid and semi-arid climates, and  one percent per annum growth rate of desertification and its increasing trends, finding ways to evaluate this phenomenon and its causes in the form of models seems essential. In Iran, especially southern areas due to their arid climatic conditions, are considered to be areas prone to desertification. This study aims to evaluate and analyze the vulnerability of desertification in the Mond watershed located in the northern coast of the Persian Gulf.

     In order to evaluate the potentials of desertification in the Mond watershed, geological, the erosion (water erosion potential), rainfall, slope, elevation levels and land use maps are used.  To identify vegetation cover conditions Landsat ETM + sensor data and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) are used.

     Where in reflected in the near-infrared band (Band 4, Landsat ETM+) and the reflection in the visible band (band 3 sensor ETM+) respectively. Overlaps and combines the above criteria is done using E-VIKOR (VIKOR developed) a method of multi-criteria decision-making models (MCDM). This method is based on a compromise plan proposed in the compromise solution is justified determines solutions that are as close to the ideal solution and has been created through special credit decision-makers. VIKOR use linear approach normal. The normal value in VIKOR  is not related method unit of measure. Also standardization effective indicators of desertification has been done using a linear scale.

      In this study, the ANP method (Analytical Network Process) was used for weighting criteria. Analysis method Network, is one of the popular methods of multi-criteria decision problems. This method complex relationship between and among the elements of the decision by replacing hierarchical network structure considers. Table 1 shows the weights of the effective criteria in desertification. In this study 7 criteria are used that results show criteria’s of climate and vegetation, have the most effective measures in the area of desertification and erosion (water and wind) have the least amount of importance in the region.

Table 1: weight criteria of effectivein desertification

criteria

vegetation

erosion

Precipitation

Landuse

Geology

Slope

Elevation levels

weight(W)

0.21

0.18

0.15

0.14

0.13

0.11

0.08

    After mapping the effective indicators in evaluating desertification separately, Standardization of maps, weighting the index, To obtain amount and   , Finally, the amount of , was produced Zoning map of desertification that in it Mond watershed in the province Bushehr in terms of desertification is divided into five ratio and the area is provided in Table 2.

Table 1: Percentage and  area zone of desertification

amount vulnerabilities

Area (ha)

Area (in percent)

Very low

516300

11

low

598900

13

Average

1438025

30

High

2168675

46

Very High

40825

1

    Studies show that more than half of the Mond basin have on the surface with average risk of desertification and In the continuation of the current trend of soil degradation, desertification prone zones and will be reduced all lead to the deterioration of the natural ecosystems and human life quality.


Masoumeh Gholami, Ezzatollah Ganavati, Ali Ahmadabadi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-2020)
Abstract

Simulation of floodplain zones in Tehran's metropolitan watershed (case study: Kaan basin)
Ezaatollah Ghanavati, Associate prof. Geographical science faculty, Kharzmi University
Ali Ahmmadabadi. Assistance prof. Geographical science faculty, Kharzmi University
Negar Gholami, MA in Geomorphology, Geographical science faculty, Kharzmi University
Extended abstract
Floodplains and adjacent rivers are always at risk from flood events due to their specific circumstances. Flood prone area identification in the watersheds is one of the basic solutions for destructive flood control and mitigation. Flood mapping is one of the best methods for flood prone area planning and identifying. Considering the importance of flood hazard, it is important to understand the role of uncertainty and incorporate that information in flood hazard maps. The hydrodynamic modeling approach is suitable for accounting various uncertainties, and thus lends itself to creating probabilistic floodplain maps. For  this purpose,  flow  boundary  conditions,  peak  instantaneous  discharge with  different  return  periods,  cross  sections and their distance and roughness coefficients for each cross section were entered to HEC-RAS hydraulic model in Kaan watershed  located  in  the Tehran  province,  Iran,  and  this model was  then  run  and  flood water surface profile at different return periods were estimated. In the Kaan Basin, most residential and agricultural lands are located in a very small distance from the river bed. The rapid growth of construction, human activities and land use change in the downstream of the basin have caused a change in the hydrological cycle and runoff production. Floodplain mapping using hydrodynamic models is difficult in data scarce regions. Additionally, using hydrodynamic models to map floodplain over large stream network can be computationally challenging. Some of these limitations of floodplain mapping using hydrodynamic modeling can be overcome by developing computationally efficient statistical methods to identify floodplains in large and ungauged watersheds using publicly.
The aim of this study is to determine flood areas within 20 kilometers of the Kaan River by using the HEC-RAS model and Arc GIS software to identify flood lands in different return periods.
The Kaan basin is located in the central Alborz Mountains. This basin is limited to south, north, east and the west respectively to Tehran, Jajrood Basin, Darakeh Basin and Karaj River Basin. The most important River in the area is the Kaan River and originated from high mountains.
Most commonly, the hydrodynamic modeling approach is used to create flood hazard maps corresponding to a rare high flood magnitude of 100-year return period or higher. Although this approach can provide very accurate floodplain maps, it is computationally demanding. As a result, the modeling approach to flood hazard mapping works well for individual streams, but its efficiency drops significantly when used to map floodplains over a large stream network. In this research, floodplain areas in the Kaan basin in return periods of 2 to 20 years are determined using the HEC-RAS model and the HEC-geoRAS extension. For this purpose, digital maps 1: 25000, DEM (10m), discharge values of Sulaghan Station, morphological characteristics of the river bed and cross sections have been used. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) play a critical role in flood inundation mapping by providing floodplain topography as input to hydrodynamic models, and then enabling the mapping of the floodplain by using the resulting water surface elevations. Finally, the data is entered into the HEC-RAS software and analyzed. After determining the flood ranges in the various return periods at each cross-section, enter the results to the Arc GIS software and the flood zoning maps were obtained.
In this research roughness coefficients (Maning,s coefficients) for each cross section were obtain be the
n= (nb+n1+n2+n3+n4) m                                                             (Eq.1)
Geological map and field observations have shown that the main difference between the widths of the valley in the study area is related to the type of rock. The results of the hydrodynamic model show that in the river upstream, the increase in discharge had led to the water level increase and expansion in the floodplain surfaces. But in the middle and low slopes in the downstream of the river, due to the reduced discharge, the river has a larger lateral extension and the flood areas are larger than the upstream of the river. Also, for a longer period of return, the discharge rate and the water level increase and the flood plain was more extensive. The results show that in the downstream of the basin due to instability the bed, existence of wide and eroded chanels, high ability in sedimentation, erosion of the channel bed, and low impact of vegetation, this section They can be restored and regenerated and constantly changing. Due to the location the Tehran-North high way from the Kaan basin, had the construction of roads and structures, the flood plain areas of the river should be fully observed or retrofitted.
 
Key words: Environmental hazards, Flood, Flood areas, Kaan River, HEC-RAS
 
 
 
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Masoomeh Hashemi, Ezatallah Ghanavati, Ali Ahmadabadi, Oveis Torabi, Abdollah Mozafari,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)
Abstract

Earthquakes as one of the most important natural disasters on earth, have always caused irreparable damage to human settlements in a short period of time. Severe earthquakes have led to the idea of developing an infrastructure plan to reduce the risks and damages caused by it. The urban water supply system is the most important critical infrastructure that is usually damaged by natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and floods; hence, the function of the pipelines of the water system determines the degree of resilience and design of the infrastructure against multiple natural and man-made hazards. Water network pipelines are the most vulnerable. In this regard, seismic modeling and spatial analysis of the effects of seismic urban water supply network in Tehran were investigated and seismic indices PGV, PGD.PGA of Tehran were calculated and the extent of the area's vulnerability was carefully evaluated. The ANP model was also used to weight the above indices. Questionnaires were prepared and completed by experts in the field of research in order to investigate the interactions between the criteria in terms of their effectiveness or susceptibility. The ANP conceptual model was developed and implemented in SUPER DECISION software. After drawing the hazard status, the calculation of the water supply network vulnerability using SAW method was considered and earthquake risk status on the water supply network was calculated. To calculate the earthquake risk based on R = H * V, the values of these two components (seismic power, vulnerability) are multiplied. This calculation was performed in GIS software on the layers of vulnerability and the final result of this calculation was shown in the amount of risk map. The calculated risk level for the entire water transmission network due to earthquakes has been shown. The results show that more than half of the transmission line network is located in the low risk zone and about 33 percent of transmission networks are in a relatively low risk zone. But high-risk and very high-risk areas account for about 20 percent of Tehran's total area, which is relatively large and will involve many neighborhoods
Mrs Masumeh Gholami, Dr Ali Ahmadabadi, Dr Ezatollah Ghanavati,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)
Abstract

The process of erosion and sedimentation on river banks is often accelerated by natural events and human activities, which lead to natural hazards. This process has also faced serious risks in Jajrud river, urban and rural settlements, agricultural lands, construction structures around the river. The Jajroud River has important importance and effects in securing agricultural water rights, feeding underground aquifers, providing drinking water in the region and the green and natural spaces of Fashm, Migun, Lavasanat and downstream, which has been subject to many changes in recent years due to direct and indirect human interference. including the expansion of urban and rural construction, river engineering operations and wall construction along the river, encroachment on the river boundary and changing the course of the river channels, the use of non-native vegetation on the banks of the river, and as a result, the eco-hydro geomorphological conditions of the river have become unstable. The phenomenon of erosion and sedimentation in Jajroud river has brought negative consequences such as changing the bed, accumulation and settling of large amounts of sediment and overflowing of canal water and as a result the risk of flooding.
 
Masoud Rajaei, Ezatollah Ghanavati, Ali Ahmadabadi, Amir Saffari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)
Abstract

Analysis of the behavior changes of hydrological response units due to Residential development
(Case Study: Cheshmeh Killeh Tonekabon Basin)

Ezatollah Ghanavati *[1]
Ali Ahmadabadi[2]
Amir Saffari[3]
Masoud Rajaei[4]


Abstract                                                                                                                                          
Land use and vegetation changes directly lead to changes in the hydrological regime, especially runoff coefficient and maximum instantaneous discharge changes. Much of the land use change has occurred due to residential development, which has led to a decrease in residential and rangeland lands and agricultural lands in the northern regions of the country; This has led to an increased risk of flooding in these areas and downstream urban areas. Cheshmeh Killeh basin as one of the catchments in the north of the country in the last decade has witnessed the occurrence of various floods; Therefore, in this study, by extracting the hydrological response units of Cheshmeh Killeh catchment in order to identify changes in vegetation and land use of these units and the effect of these changes on the hydrological behavior of the basin, the runoff coefficient is one of these behaviors in this period of 29 years (1991-2018). paid. Therefore, in this research, hydrological response units have been identified and extracted as a working unit to determine the runoff production potential of Cheshmeh Killeh catchment. In order to monitor changes in density and vegetation cover using satellite images of the study area in 1991 and 2018, the normalized plant difference index was used; Then, by combining the layers of hydrological groups and land use, the amount of curve number was determined for each of the hydrological response units. According to the values ​​of the obtained curve number for each hydrological response unit, the amount of soil moisture holding capacity was extracted. Finally, by calculating the average monthly values, the amount of runoff from rainfall for 1991 and 2018 was estimated. The results of the study indicate a decrease in the amount and density of vegetation, an increase in the number of curves, a decrease in soil permeability and also an increase in runoff height during a period of 29 years (1991-2018) in Cheshmeh Killeh catchment (especially the northern parts of the catchment); In other words, settlement development, land use change and weakening of vegetation have intensified flooding in the basin; Therefore, it is necessary to carry out watershed management operations upstream to increase permeability.

 Keywords: Hydrologica response unit, Cheshmeh killeh, Runoff, Normalized vegetation difference index, SCS-CN model.
 
 

Masoomeh Hashemi, Ezatallah Ghanavati, Ali Ahmadabadi, Oveis Torabi, Abdollah Mozafari,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)
Abstract

Introduction
Earthquakes as one of the most important natural disasters on earth, have always caused irreparable damage to human settlements in a short period of time. Severe earthquakes have led to the idea of developing an infrastructure plan to reduce the risks and damages caused by it. The urban water supply system is the most important critical infrastructure that is usually damaged by natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and floods; hence, the function of the pipelines of the water system determines the degree of resilience and design of the infrastructure against multiple natural and man-made hazards. Considering the inability to prevent earthquakes and the inability of experts to accurately predict the time it is necessary to know the status of earthquake-structure and seismicity in Tehran to determine the amount of earthquake risk in order to make the necessary planning for structural reinforcement. Theoretical and field studies of tectonic seismicity in the Tehran area show that this city is located on an earthquake-prone area around the active and important faults of Masha, north of Tehran, Rey and Kahrizak. The occurrence of 20 relatively severe earthquakes illustrates this claim. Regarding the location of faults in Tehran city, it is necessary to assess the vulnerability of Tehran water facilities.
Research Methodology
The present study is a practical-analytic one. Considering the severity of earthquake damages, it is necessary to conduct earthquake hazard zonation studies in different urban areas and to determine important indicators of damage assessment such as maximum ground acceleration, maximum ground speed, maximum ground displacement. Three indices were considered for mapping earthquake seismic zones and their integration into the GIS presented a seismic hazard map. In the analysis of earthquake risk, it is necessary to evaluate two indicators of risk and vulnerability. To prepare the general hazard power mapping the weights obtained from the ANP model were applied to the existing raster layers via the Raster Calculator command. In this way, the standardized layers are multiplied separately by their respective weights and finally overlapped. In order to evaluate the vulnerability, a series of evaluation indices are introduced and ANP techniques are used. The relative value of each index is then calculated using the multivariate approach using the SAW technique. In order to calculate the earthquake risk based on R = H * V relation, the values ​​of these two components were multiplied. This calculation was performed in GIS software on the risk and vulnerability raster layer and the final result of this calculation was displayed on the map.
Description and interpretation of results
In this study, we tried to estimate the relative risk and risk of seismic hazard on the water supply lines in Tehran, using available data and scientific methods, and map the risk level. These lines should be prepared first by the amount of earthquake hazard risk and then by the risk map, to estimate the earthquake risk on the water supply network. first the earthquake risk then the status of the hazard lines should be calculated. The vulnerability of the water supply lines was calculated using the ANP model by multiplying the total potential hazard risk then substrate transfer network vulnerability risk map obtained transmission network. The highest risk was in the west and north of Tehran. The maps showed the risk potential and the vulnerability of the lines. These areas had high seismic potential and the density of the lines was higher in these areas. Water transmission facilities are at risk and earthquake hazards may be affected by damage to the transmission lines, drinking water to a large population will be difficult, as well as performing necessary zoning to prevent future expansion of the facility in place. These analyzes are a prelude to applying corrective techniques to pipelines to reduce their vulnerability and prevent newly created pipelines from locating in vulnerable areas. Since the results of this study are risk maps along the route of the water supply lines, so in order to prepare a risk control program, we can identify the high risk pipeline map and identify the pipeline vulnerability. And, depending on its location, provided an appropriate prevention and control plan for the conditions surrounding the pipeline environment.

Fateme Emadoddin, Dr Ali Ahmadabadi, Seyed Morovat Eftekhari, Masumeh Asadi Gandomani,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)
Abstract

Introduction: Land subsidence is one of the environmental hazards that threatens most countries today, including the majority of Iran's plains (Ranjabr and Jafari, 2010). Damages caused by subsidence can be direct or indirect. Infrastructural effects are direct and indirect effects of subsidence, but economic, social and environmental effects are indirect effects of subsidence (Bucx, et al., 2015). The environmental effects of subsidence are related to other effects of subsidence, including the infrastructural, economic and social effects of subsidence. The southwest plain of Tehran is considered one of the most important plains of Iran due to its large areas of residential, agricultural and industrial lands from various aspects, especially economic, political and social. The subsidence of the Tehran plain was first noticed by the measurements of the country's mapping organization in the 1370s. Since 2004, the responsibility of investigating this phenomenon in the plains of Tehran was entrusted to the Organization of Geology and Mineral Explorations of the country. Although several researches have been done in the field of subsidence factors, amount and zoning. In the field of estimation of subsidence and changes in water level, spatial correlation of subsidence with changes in water level and estimation of vulnerability due to subsidence according to the density of population, settlements and facilities in the southwestern plain of Tehran has not been done.
Methodology: In the current research, we will analyze and estimate the spatial regression of the subsidence phenomenon by InSAR technique with water level changes from 2005 to 2017, as well as the environmental effects of subsidence in the southwest plain of Tehran by using Quadratic analysis method (O’Sullivan and Unwin, 2010). The criteria map of the current research is overlapped using the ANP method (Ahmedabadi and Ghasemi, 2015) weighting and finally with the SAW method (Emaduddin et al., 2014) in the Arc GIS 10.8 software, and the vulnerability map due to land subsidence in the study area is prepared.
Results: The average subsidence in 12 years is about 9.9 cm per year. Average subsidence has occurred in four main zones. Maximum and minimum subsidence have been observed in B (near the Sabashahr) and D (in east of plain) zones respectively. The results of the interpolation of the depth of the underground water in the study area indicate that the general trend of increasing the depth from the south (10 meter) to the north (more than 90 meter) of the plain. The results of spatial correlation showed that there is a significant direct relationship between the spatial layer of the average subsidence rate of Tehran Plain and the spatial data of the underground water level, and the R value is equal to 0.61. The distribution map of the underground water depth of the study area in the form of Quadrat analysis shows that in the main part of the plain, the depth of underground water is at an average level. The general trend of changes in the level of underground water is decreasing from northwest to southeast and is in 5 levels. The distribution of the networks shows that the rivers have three linear trends from north and northwest to south; their dispersion is mostly in the center of the study area. The flood rate is higher in the central plain networks. In study area, there are important arterial roads such as Tehran-Qom highway, Tehran-Saveh highway and Tehran Azadegan highway. The southern and northeastern areas of the study area are urban settlements such as Islamshahr, the 18th and 19th districts of Tehran Municipality and other residential areas such as Sabashahr. The major part of the region has fertile soil and the occurrence of subsidence can have negative effects on the fertility and texture of the soil in the study area. The results of vulnerability analysis due to subsidence show that there are 5 vulnerability classes in the study area including very low, low, medium, high and very high.
Conclusions: All in all most of the study areas (central, northern and western networks) are in medium, high and very high vulnerability. About 14,600 hectares of the study area are in medium vulnerability. Which is continuous from the west to the east of the study area. Most of the urban infrastructures are moderately vulnerable to subsidence. About 17,000 hectares of the southwestern plain of Tehran are very vulnerable. That more than half of the area of ​​this area is covered by settlements and urban infrastructures. Therefore, the phenomenon of subsidence causes irreparable damage to the settlements and infrastructures in the southwest plain.

 


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