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Showing 18 results for ahmadi

Mahmoud Ahmadi, Hassan Lashkari, Parasto Azimi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2015)

Understanding the climate of a region as a first step and most immediate action is considered research for development projects Climatic phenomena such as floods every year irreparable damage to the soil, pastures, forests, urban and rural facilities, human and animal import Climatic phenomena such as floods every year irreparable damage to the soil, pastures, forests, urban and rural facilities, human and animal import. The first factor in causing flood is rainfall intensity that occurs at a certain time. Therefore necessary infrastructure projects, and one of the main issues in hydrological and hydro-climate is awareness of the occurrence and amount of rainfall, most likely for different periods.

     In order to implement the model of Synoptic convergent in this research and estimated probable maximum precipitation in the South West region of the Caspian

   1: The 1:50,000-scale Digital Mapping the location of all stations in the study area, Climatology, rainfall and hydrometric surveys in selected were identified on the map.

   2: The maximum instantaneous discharge rate of the highest daily rainfall stations selected surveys (1976-2011) are also studied.

   3: collection of the highest daily rainfall statistics selected stations, monthly and annual precipitation data for the period (1986-200),Facts about the daily atmospheric phenomena (cloud, wind speed, dew point temperature, air pressure) with an interval of 3 hours to 3 hours, Statistics continuing 12-hour maximum dew point of the surface (in degrees Celsius) and wind speed times (NAT) for the stations of Anzali, Rasht, Astara, Ramsar, Ardabil, Pars Abad For the first 10-day period, 10-day and 10-day return period for calculating the 50-year-old third, 80-year and 100-year and monthly statistics on the average pressure of the selected stations establishment station.

   4: Select the desired storm rainfall in 24 hours and 48 hours to obtain a return period of 50 years, 80-year and 100-year 12-hour maximum dew point and wind speed persistence for long periods, the separation of each month, and the resolution of each decade, through software SMADA and HYFA.

   5: Purvay of Rain maps and DAD chart is also the main stages of this work.

   6: Finally, weather maps, humidity maps and omega air maps at ground level, 700 level and 850 hp prepared from

    Days prior to completion until the day of rain showers in the stormy period from the NCEP / NCAR site and was ready in GRADS software environment.

     In order to realize the adiabatic saturation warmest period of the most intense storms in 1355-1390The maximum instantaneous rate of discharge and daily rainfall statistics, the most comprehensive and stations on their occurrence in the previous chapter, was studied.So the four pervasive  hurricane was  selected. Then, rain storms map were plotted in the GIS software environment and use of IDW method and Using data from the windy days selected on rainfall stations in the study area. In order to obtain the rainfall in the whole region,were regressed  between the two parameters: precipitation and elevation; and was estimated average of rainfall in the cumulative area and rainfall amount in during of the storm days. Based on the height - area tables of ​​each storm separately, DAD curves was drawn based on average rainfall in columns cumulative and cumulative area. Then we reviewed and interpreted weather maps at ground level, elevation Maps, humidity maps and omega maps at 850 hPa level. Survey maps showed Tongue of immigrant anticyclons in North West Europe that usually is deployed on the Black Sea will advection cold air from the above widths on the Caspian sea and is transmited very wet weather to the south and West south Caspian Sea. After analyzing weather maps, the next step is obtain  to water for showers.To calculate the rain water the best way is getting the hottest adiabatic saturation that occurs with the maximize the dew point temperature and wind speed. After obtaining the maximum dew point and wind speed factor, we would like to calculate the coeffcient storm. After obtaining the coefficients of the storm,obtained its P.M.P by multiplying the amount of rainfall for each storm.

     According to the obtained PMP,was adopted rainfall continued for 24 hours with the numbers 276/95. PMP obtained showed that the storm dated 2/10/2001 of 24-hour duration, has been most intense and pervasive from the two other samples.

Javad Sadidi, Hamed Ahmadi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)

The term "Game GIS” implies to real spatially enabled games in which a special part of the world is virtually simulated, represented and managed. In fact, game GIS is an integrated system consists of video games and geographical information systems, aimed to simulate and representing spatially enabled environment. The achieved result of implementing a game GIS service can be exploited before a crisis for wise designing of a city and diminution of the aftermath casualties. As the decision making process plays the key role to reduce the losses, the need arises for using the models as much as close to the reality. By this, it is possible to use the virtual world in in the form of a game rather than experiencing the real world with real wounded and killed persons in. This enables us to recognize and manage a test environment for promoting the managing the real environment of a city during and before a natural hazard disaster like an earthquake. The game GIS may be counted as a service for sharing and dissemination of spatial information as well as online GIS to have a visual and synoptic management of the earth plant facing various disasters. The current research is aimed to design and implement a software architecture for an earthquake game in Tabriz city (Iran).

The study area is district 10 of Tabriz located within a fault zone. According to field surveys, 82.1 percent of buildings in the study area may be vulnerable against earthquake in terms of the quality of building construction.

Methodology of the research to design, program and implement the game GIS service are undertaken as the following processes: data collection, database creation and software production.

The collected data includes master plan maps of the district 10, building quality, number of floors, building façade materials, age of building, street network (adopted from the master plan of Tabriz) and population of each parcel.  Also, some regions are assumed as hospital, relief-rescue center and treasury money.

To design the software, 2D environment of MapControl and for implementing the game into the 2D environment, ArcEngine of ArcGIS have been exploited. The mentioned engine gives us possibility to use of analysis and modelling capabilities as much as closer to the ground reality which are compatible with available geometry of the terrain (Amirian, 2013, 17-19). The MapControl is a framework in which the map and game area are displayed. Symbology is used to show the persons as well as equipments. Briefly, the stages undertaken during the current research can be explained as the following:

  • Data collection based on available sources via field surveying.
  • Data processing and creating a database from street networks and building owned the age, materials, floors fields.
  • Calculation of vulnerability rate for each building separately as well as the amount of deconstruction damage per Richter.
  • Drawing the street and alley network to prepare network analysis dataset.
  • Preparing special network analysis database and evaluation in various situations.
  • Using the gained layers and implementation of the scenario.

After that, the conceptual architecture of the software has been designed based on the scenario.

The game GIS services has been designed with 6 different classes offer numerous functionalities responsible for displaying program commands and different views of the game. Finally, the service is designed and implemented in a real schema for crisis management application. The resulted game is played in 4 stages. In the first stage, the player starts with a 5 Richter magnitude earthquake and ends while the player gets to 8 Richter. The designed software simulates the destruction rate of buildings based on the influential factors, wounded transfer routing and rescue operation. The game player gains credit according to his quickness and agility. The player would go to the next stage with one Richter magnitude higher, if gains enough credits during each stage. The result of the current research as a Game GIS service, can be used in earthquake simulation happens in various magnitudes for management of decreasing the effects of earthquake, quick reaction, maneuver and education. Considering the achieved results, designing and performing the game GIS service over the web based on open source technologies rather than being desktop and commercial service, can be suggested as a new research frontier for the future researchers.

Manijeh Ahmadi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

   In the recent years there has been attention on the management of dangerous wastes because of their incremental growth, since ignorance toward this problem will result in numerous environmental, social and economical problems. Finding an optimized place for the urban and rural waste burial, with least environmental danger and economical optimality is one of the main objectives of this paper. In the presented study, the research method and the type of practical research is description-analysis and for data gathering, we used the library and athletic studies. The data analysis has been done by a scoring method (5-0) and the web analysis method which is a multi-objective decision-making method. Since in the ANP method the qualitative and quantitative factors and the correlation of the factors have been taken into account, we used social, economical and environmental factors for evaluation of the waste burial centers and their impacts on the towns and villages of the Zanjan province. The process of evaluation of the optimal waste burial centers is done in some stages including preparation of distance maps, prioritizing from the importance point of view using the geographical information system technologies (GIS), determination of the weights and at last, merging the resulted maps using the ANP method. The research results show that the prioritized regions in the map are based on the waste burial places. Based on this method, the 5th priority in the maps and especially in the final map shows the most suitable place and the 1th priority shows the least value and the 0 priority has no value for the waste burial places.

Hamzeh Ahmadi, Gholamabass Fallah Ghalhari, Mohammad Baaghideh, Mohammaf Esmail Amiri,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Climate change stand as the most important challenge in the future. Horticulture is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable sectors to the climate change. Climate change and global warming will endanger the production of agricultural products and food security. Because of required longer time to fruit production, fruit trees are heavily susceptible to damage from climate change. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of climate change on thermal accumulation pattern in Apple tree cultivation regions of Iran based on the outputs of new CMIP5 models and radiative forcing (RCP) scenarios.
The present study was carried out using a statistical-analytical method. In this study, two types of data was used; baseline data for past period and model output simulation data for the future period. Observation data for baseline period for 53 weather station was extracted from the Iran meteorological organization (IMO). Afterwards, the data for the upcoming period up to the 2090 horizon were processed using the HadGEM2-ES model from the series of CMIP5 models of the MarksimGCM database based on the radiative forcing scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5. The future period will be refined in the mid-term (2020-2055) and the far future (2056-2090). Afterwards, based on the thermal thresholds, thermal accumulation in Apple tree cultivation areas in Iran processed.
The results showed that based on statistical indices on the output of CMIP5 models, the output of the HadGEM2.ES general circulation model is accompanied by fewer simulation errors in illustrating the climate change of the future period than the observation or baseline period. In fact, based on the evaluation criteria or error measures, this model shows a higher compliance with observational data. In general, the model has a lower accuracy than precipitation in the simulation of rainfall, which is due to the complexity of the precipitation process as well as the structure of the climatic models. One of the fundamental issues that have emerged in recent decades is the change in the potential status or heat accumulation of different regions due to the increase in air temperature. The results showed that due to temperature increase, in the mid and far future heat accumulation will increase compared to the baseline period in Apple tree cultivation areas. Increasing of heat accumulation will reduce the length of the Apple tree growth period, and in fact the Apple tree will complete its vegetative and reproductive cycles sooner. This condition will have negative effects on the quality, taste and color of the Apple varieties. For example, according to the RCP8.5 scenario in the physiological threshold of the apple tree 4.5 C° , in the mid term (2020-2055) and far future (2056-2090) will be 1132 and 2171 active degree days respectively compared baseline period. These conditions equivalent to the  51% and 42% respectively. Based on the RCP4.5 scenario, these conditions will be 390 and 680 active degree day, equivalent to 9.3% and 15.1%, respectively, compared to the baseline period.
The results showed that the heat accumulation in Apple tree cultivation areas in the future period will increase compared to the baseline period. One of the most important effects of climate change on the Apple tree  cultivation will be due to increased heat accumulation in the upcoming period. Increasing the heat accumulation will reduce the length of fruit tree growth period, and in fact the fruit tree will complete its vegetative and reproductive cycles earlier. According to these conditions, the areas of Apple tree cultivation in the future will be extended to higher regions. These conditions are important for cold regios fruit tree such as Apple tree, in facr increase in heat accumulation will reduce the length of the growing season and, as a result, reduce the quality and yield of the fruit. Based on the spatial distribution, the least heat accumulation in the highlands, especially Northwest and central Alborz, will occured. In natural landscapes of low elevations, valleys and plains in the Northeast, central Southern part of the Zagros and around Lake Urmia, higher heat accumulation will occured in the future. Therefore, one of the effects of climate change on fruit trees will be due to increased heat accumulation in the upcoming period. Increasing the potential or heat accumulation will reduce the growth period of the fruit trees, in fact, the fruit trees will complete their vegetative and reproductive cycles sooner.
Ma Mahmoud Ahmadi, Fj Farzane Jafari,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Problem statement
The occurrence of terrible floods due to climate change has caused much damages in different parts of the world in recent decades, and the effect of these changes is more pronounced in dry areas. Floods are the most common environmental damage. On average, 60 floods occur annually in Iran, with an average annual flood loss of 141 people, meaning more than 2 deaths per year per flood event.
Research Methodology
The study area consists of six stations located in Hormozgan, Kerman, Yazd, Kohgiluyeh, and Fars provinces. In this study, two types of ground and high data are used as follows:
A) - Using daily rainfall data of the 44 years (1967-2014) statistical stations of the region obtained from the country's Meteorological Organization
B) Use of high-level data. Includes revised data for geopotential heights, sea level pressure, wind direction, meridian wind, omega, and humidity, from the National Center for Environmental Excellence at Colorado. To conduct synoptic analysis, the circular environmental method was used; after observing the daily rainfall during the statistical period of all rainfall over 50 mm in selected stations of Yazd, Jiroft, Shiraz, Bandar Abbas, and Yasuj, 118 heavy rainfall events were investigated. After identifying and separating days, 105 observation systems were identified and analyzed.
After the evaluation and control of the pressure maps of the sea of the systems of landing, 4 patterns were selected and identified.
Explain and interpret the results
The results showed that heavy precipitation occurred in the months of December, December, February, February, and November, respectively. Since November, with the retreat of high-performance dynamic systems to the southern latitudes and the influx of western winds from high latitudes on the area, conditions for the occurrence of heavy rainfall are provided. Most centers with 9 heavy rainwater systems of Sudan's lowland, 6 the moderate Sudanese-Mediterranean component of the Middle East has been on Iraq, and the four satellite systems have been the Mediterranean-Sudan-Mediterranean integration. The most frequent Sudanese pattern in 2-day continuity with 17 cases was Sudan-Mediterranean integration pattern with 7 cases in 3-day continuation, Sudanese-Mediterranean integration pattern in the Eastern Mediterranean, 4-day continuity with 7 events, and equidistant Mediterranean pattern The continuity of 2 to 4 days has been due to the increased load of Mediterranean systems ranging from 70 to 90 mm.
J Hatami, S Sabetghadam, F Ahmadi-Givi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

 Investigation of the daily minimum visibility meteorological conditions using RVR data at IKA airport during 2013-2014
Hatami, J. 1, Sabetghadam, S. 2*, Ahmadi-Givi, F. 3
1M.Sc. Student, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran
2Assistant Professor, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran
3Associate Professor, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran
Atmospheric visibility is defined as the greatest distance at which an observer can see a black object viewed against the horizon sky, which is usually known as visual range. It shows the degree to which the atmosphere is transparent to visible light, therefore its impairment results from light scattering and absorption that can originate from natural or anthropogenic sources.  Visibility is an important atmospheric parameter in landing and takeoff of an aircraft. Reduced visibility due to snow, rain, fog, and haze is an important consideration in the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Visibility and the related quantity Runway Visible Range (RVR) are meteorological parameters that are crucial for the operations at an airport. The Runway Visible Range is defined as the range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface marking or lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. A large number of aviation accidents are happened cause many passengers to die. Today, safety is very important in aviation. In fact, it is a competitive factor among aviation companies. Measuring the exact visual range is one of the most important factors in flight security. According to the international standards, whenever the visual range is less than a certain threshold for runways, take-off and landing will not be authorized, and pilots will be ordered land on an alternative airport that costs airlines a lot of expenses.
   One of the methods in determining the runway visual range is to use instruments such as transmisometer and forward scaterometer to measure the amount of scattering and absorption of light by the atmosphere. A transmissometer measures the extinction of light over an atmospheric path between an emitter and a receiver and it  is directly related to the extinction. A forward scatter meter measures the amount of light scattered by a small measurement volume. RVR instruments usually locate at three places across each runway that is mandatory for operation in international airports.
    For the first time in Iran, data obtained from the RVR system from Imam Khomeini International Airport are applied in this study to examine the circumstances under which the runway visual range reached its minimum during two years 2013 and 2014. The high accuracy of these devices is a valuable factor for researchers to get more precise results. The data used include visibility range, temperature, dew point temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction, which are measured using the RVR system.  The main part of this study concentrates on fast decreases of RVR, meaning a decrease of visibility to below 1500 m which takes more than 10 minutes. Therefore some cases of RVR data have been investigated in more detail utilizing one-minute observations are presented. For these cases, some meteorological parameters are investigated before and after  this fast decrease of RVR occurred. These parameters as well as RVR are plot to find out what happened before and during each specific event.
    Results show that the critical low visibilities were mainly occurred in May and March and no cases of low visibility were seen between July to September. This can be due to the impact of more atmospheric systems and variable weather conditions in the relatively cold months. The highest visibilities were mostly occurred in July-September, due to the weakness of atmospheric systems and their less frequency of occurrences. Low visibility days were usually accompanied by dust, fog, mist and precipitation events.During 2013 and 2014, categorizing the weather events that may lead to the decrease of visibility to less than 1500 meter, shows that the 45 percent of the cases with the low visibilities caused by by dust, 35 percent by haze, 15 percent by fog and 5 percent caused by haze.
    For the critical cases, case studies show that the high relative humidity and the change of wind direction were also favored in the occurrence of low visual range. Case studies of the events suggest that these factors differ from one another based on how they are formed. After the fast decreases of RVR, the relative percentage of RVR events show an increasing in relative humidity especially during fog and precipitation.
Keywords: runway visual range, scattering and absorption of light, low visibility.

Hamed Haidari, Dariush Yarahmadi , Mostafa Karampour,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

Dust phenomenon is one of the climatic fronts that is often formed in the dry and desert regions of the world, and is known as a natural hazard. Occurrence of walnuts causes dust, damage to the environment and the occurrence and exacerbation of respiratory, cardiac, air traffic and threats of tourism, agriculture and so on. Also, in the health section of the compounds in calcium dust, more than 2.5 g of it causes the appearance of kidney stones, and blood vessels. Iron causes swelling of the conjunctiva and retinal inflammation, as well as the syndrome. Magnesium causes depression, depression and dizziness of the individual. Short-term breathing of aluminum leads to coughing and irritation of the lungs and prolonged breathing causes damage to the lungs. In recent years, the identification of dust source areas has attracted the attention of researchers in numerous studies, and have introduced various areas around the world as the main source of generous production. The country of Iran, and in particular the Western and Southwestern logic of Iran, is constantly experiencing the phenomenon of dust and its problems. In the west of Iran, desert areas are located in the deserts of southern Iraq, Saudi Arabia and far away from Syria and North Africa. The geographic location of the southwestern part of Iran and its proximity to these deserts have led to a frequent occurrence of the phenomenon of dwarfs, which are different throughout the year.
In this research, two categories of data were used: the first group is data on climatic elements or unstable elements.
The annual climatic layers of the region were used for a 30-year statistical period of 2016- 2016. Measurement data on the temperature of surface temperature was obtained from a MODIS sensor in a 17-year statistical period (2000-2016). The second group of data layers and information on the ground factors or factors were stable. The layers of these variables included:
  1. The digital elevation layer of the area with a precision spacing of 30 meters from this layer was used as the elevation layer of the area.
    2. The slope of the region, in percent, which is the layer derivative of the digital elevation model and derived from the same specifications of the DEM layer.
    3. The surface layer of the surface layer that was taken from the MODIS surface coating product
    4. Layer of vegetation on the surface of the earth, which was also taken from the 1 kilogram MODIS vegetation cover
    5. Soil layer that was prepared by the country's water and soil organization
 The method of conducting analytical and statistical research in which the main objective is the determination of areas conducive to the formation or expansion of dust cores. In this regard, the establishment of land-based and climate databases is the first stage of work, after forming the required databases, the formation of information layers These data are in the GIS environment. In order to form these layers, the interpolated models in GIS were used and the optimal model was selected in such a way that less error values ​​were obtained. After forming the existing layers, we classified and weighed each layer based on the AHP weighting algorithm. Finally, due to the assigned weights, the overlaying of the weights of the layers in the GIS environment was obtained and finally a potential capability map of the formation of local dust collectors in Lorestan province was obtained.
 The rainfall factor is the most important and most important factor in determining the areas susceptible to becoming dusty. The weight of this factor in determining and identifying areas susceptible to dusty cores was equal to 239%. Vegetation factor, which was prepared using the NDVI indicator of the MODIS product, was the second factor in the development of dust-prone areas with a weight of 199.99. Relative humidity factor is the third factor or component that influences the determination of suitable areas to become the local focus of dust. The weight of this factor is equal to 0.15. The wind speed factor is in the fourth place in terms of determining the areas susceptible to dust. The relative weight of this factor is estimated at 116.0. As shown in Table 14, slope and elevation factors are the least important factors that can play a role in the production and development of dusty centers. The weight of these factors in identifying areas susceptible to formation of dusts is 0.024 and 032.2, 0 is detected. The calculated incompatibility index for this weighing is as high as 4.8, as shown in Table 15, which indicates that the contradiction between the offered weights of indices relative to each other is less than the allowed threshold (12).
 Neutbay expressed the highest concentration of areas susceptible to dust mites in the eastern region, especially the northeast of the province, which includes the cities of Azna and Aligudarz. There are also parts of this category in the southern regions of the study area, including the cities of Poldokhtar and Rumshagan. In the central regions of the province as well as in the northwest of the province including the Khorramabad, Delfan, Dynasty and Dorood districts this class is not observed. In the southern parts of the city of Kohdasht, small parts of the floor of the potential centers of dust are also observed. This flooring has the most risk of becoming a dusty focus. The power source of many of the province's dusty incidents can also be said to be areas where some of them are currently potential sources of dust. Since they have played a major role in the identification and detection of these areas, rainfall and vegetation cover, these areas are exactly in line with parts of the province, which, firstly, have a mean rainfall of less than 250 mm, and the density of vegetation is less than 2 / 0 (NDVI index), which represents a very poor vegetation and, in fact, a lack of viable vegetation. In terms of land use, these areas, or inferior land, or very rangelands, are very weak.

Mohhamad Soleimani Mehranjani, Ali Movahhed, Ahmad Zanganeh, Zeinab Ahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

 Explain the Processes of Modernization on the Spatial Mismatch in Urban Neighborhoods
(The case of, Region 4 of Tehran Municipality)
Modernization processes and modern urban planning policies have had significant effects and consequences on the spatial transforms of cities in the world and Iran. Among that processes, we can mention the growing gap between social groups and urban spaces based on a number of contexts and mechanisms that, from the late 1960s onwards, have been conceptualized and measured experimentally under what is called the “spatial mismatch hypothesis”. The basic methodology for estimating the state of spatial mismatch in cities or urban regions is based on the logic of “spatial segregation” between social groups and land uses simultaneously; Because based on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, it is not possible to explain the segregation mechanisms between social groups in the city without considering its relation with segregation mechanisms in urban spaces or land uses, and vice versa. Based on such methodological logic, the present paper has assessed the state of spatial (mis)match in Region 4 of Tehran Municipality. The method of data collection was in the form of libraries and data available in the Statistics Center (General Census of Population and Housing in 2016 and at the level of demographic blocks of the region), Road and Urban Development Organization, Municipality of Region 4. Variables used to analyze the spatial mismatch in the region
The level of education, employment in study abroad and inside the country, employment and unemployment status, level of housing infrastructure, type of housing ownership, changes in land use pattern and the amount of daily commutes in the study area.
 Findings obtained based on the defined variables and techniques used in Segragation Analyzer and ArcGIS software show that the state of spatial mismatch in this urban region (like many other cases in cities around the world) is high, but its intensity is higher in terms of job and literacy of social groups in relation to the state of activity and residential land uses. Relying on such findings, some strategies and policies have been proposed to reduce the state of spatial mismatch in Region 4, and to contribute to a more even and equitable distribution of development in this region and hence reduce poverty among the lower classes.
Urban modernization, spatial mismatch hypothesis, socio-spatial segregation, Region 4 of Tehran Municipality
Mahmoud Ahmadi, Zahra Alibakhshi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Evaluation of hot spots changes in Tehran city and satellite based on land use and its role in urban heat hazards
Expanded abstract
Problem statement:
Urbanization and human activities affect the urban climate and clearly affect the air temperature close to the surface. In Tehran and its satellite, factors such as climatic region, season, time of day and wind regimes, topography, urban environments, population density, residents' activity, vegetation structure and urban physical form play an important role in the formation of urban heat islands. The purpose of this research is to determine the type of spatial distribution of heat islands of Tehran metropolis and satellite cities using land use and land cover. Replacing natural land cover with impervious surfaces due to urban development has negative environmental, social and economic impacts, in addition to beneficial aspects. Most of the albedo belong to the built areas and the bare land and the smallest of the Albedo belong to the aquatic areas and vegetation. In this research, the hypothesis is whether the suburbs may have higher temperatures than urban areas depending on the type of land use? In fact, it is examined the spatial distribution of the heat island of Tehran and its satellites, in which the use of land and land cover are analyzed as a factor contributing to the creation, intensification or reduction of the thermal island.
Extraction and preparation of imagery data through the Landsat 7 Satellite ETM + sensor over the years 2001-2015 and selection of June as the hottest month of the study area. These images were extracted from Route 164 and Row 35 of the USGS. An assessment was carried out through the accuracy of ground surface temperature data by Landsat satellite images and obtained temperatures from the weather stations in the area based on the Taylor diagram. In order to investigate the spatial structure of the cells obtained in each map, each containing surface temperature and heat island extraction, it used the methods of world spatial autocorrelation (high and low clustering, spatial correlation) and local (Cluster and Outlier analysis, hot spot analysis). The high and low clustering statistics show how the concentration of high or low values ​​in the region. In the next step, the results of analysis of Anselin Local Moran and hot spots were compared in map format. Hot spots were analyzed in all studied regions and in all 7 cities. The area of ​​hot spots was investigated over the course of 15 years and the results were presented in table and diagram form.
Land use was surveyed for every 7 county. In the last section were studied, the relationship between hot spots in each city and type and land use changes over 15 years.
Surface spatial analysis of the surface temperature of the area showed that the cells follow a cluster pattern and their trend towards clustering. Any kind of land cover and land use will create special features in a place that can be increased or decreased with a specific microclimate.
Explaining and results:
After selecting the years 2001, 2005, 2010, and 2015 as the sample and survey of the temperature of each land use in that year, it was determined that artifact, pasture, bare lands, forest, aquatic areas, agriculture and green spaces were respectively have the highest to the lowest temperature in the area. On the other hand, in the area of heat island in a region are Rabat Karim, Ray, Islamshahr, Tehran, Shahriar, Karaj and Shemiranat, respectively.
In spite of the reduction of aquatic areas and even bare lands, because of the large impact of green space or agricultural land was reduced the extent of heat islands during the statistical period, and on the contrary, the reduction of green space and agricultural land in places where even their forest areas have grown, has increased the levels of heat islands. This suggests that the dispersion and extent of green spaces has a more effective role in reducing the heat island compared with the creation of limited forest and planted surfaces in one place. Hence, in Tehran despite the significant growth of artifacts, due to the increasing growth of green space, the heat islands has been reduced compare with the Ray, Robatkarim and Islamshahr cities, which are exactly on its suburbs.
Keywords: Heat Island, hot spots, land use, Tehran, satellite cities.
Manijeh Ahmadi, Mohsen Kalantari, Mostafa Mohammadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Today, various social ills such as addiction, cultural issues and problems have been added to the issues raised in the past and require extensive studies and planning in this area to preserve the small human capital of rural settlements and be used for sustainable rural development. The present study has spatially analyzed the effective factors for drug addiction and abuse. Today, various social ills such as addiction, cultural issues and problems have been added to the issues raised in the past and require extensive studies and planning in this area to preserve the small human capital of rural settlements and be used for sustainable rural development. In recent years, drug abuse has increased worldwide, so that now all countries in the world are incurring significant costs as a result of the damage caused by this phenomenon. Drug abuse has incurred enormous social and economic costs through its devastating effects on human health and the increase in crime and mortality in society, and as a result has become a major threat to societies. There is no specific agreement on the root causes of drug abuse, so that the factors associated with it are numerous and varied, including individual contexts, family characteristics, and social and environmental factors.  The present study has spatially analyzed the effective factors for drug addiction and abuse.

Research Method
The type of research is applied and the nature of the research is descriptive-analytical. Independent variables in this study are physical and demographic factors in the study village. The dependent variable of this study is the situation of addiction and drug abuse in Dizajabad village. The validity of the research indicators was reviewed and modified by the professors and the reliability value was calculated based on Cronbach's alpha of 0.784. The statistical population of the present study is villages at risk of addiction and drug abuse. This village was identified through interviews with law enforcement experts and statistics available in this organization as well as unofficial statistics. The number of these villages includes four villages (Sayan (Mahdieh town), Dizajabad, NoghtehBandi and Choreh Nab) which were selected as a sample village using the lottery method of Dizajabad village. The study population in Dizajabad village includes people who are addicted to drugs and abuse in Dizajabad village, which have been collected through irregular interviews, as well as for comparison and assessment between addicts and other people. The questionnaire was completed in all residential units where people lived and the Cochran's formula was used for accurate sampling.
The baseline map was used to perform the analyzes. Using Cochran's formula, 115 residential units belonging to people with addiction and drug abuse were selected as a sample. In order to analyze descriptive data from Excel software and also for correlation between physical characteristics, population of people with addiction and drug abuse, Spss software and Human Whitney and two-group T tests were used in Arc Gis / Arc map environment. Hot Spot Analysis, kernel density estimation and standard deviation ellipse tests were used.
Interpretation of results
Findings show that the spatial distribution of addiction and drug abuse in Dizajabad village is not evenly distributed and are mostly concentrated in the northwest and southeast, which are in these two areas due to the high density of residential units. . According to the tests of hot spots of addiction and according to the studied items, the two southeastern and northwestern parts of the village have hot spots and the standard deviation ellipse in this map indicates that its direction is northwest, southeast. This direction is influenced by the shape of the village. The pattern of drug distribution in the village also indicates that it is concentrated in two parts, northwest and southeast. The median center indicates that the southern and to some extent the southeastern part are more addicted than the other parts. The reason for the increase in the points of addiction and abuse in the two mentioned parts is the density of the residential unit and the existence of a network of winding and unbalanced passages, especially in the southeastern part. Centers of addiction and drug abuse by kernel density estimation method show that the two parts of the northwest and southeast of the village are more affected by drug addiction and abuse.
Keywords: Spatial distribution, Drugs, Addiction, Suburban villages, Zanjan Township

Hamed Heidari, Darush Yarahmadi, Hamid Mirhashemi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

Revealing surface reflection forcings of land cover in Lorestan province using MODIS sensor products

Human interventions in natural areas as a change in land use have led to a domino effect of anomalies and then environmental hazards. These extensive and cumulative changes in land cover and land use have manifested themselves in the form of anomalies such as the formation of severe runoff, soil erosion, the spread of desertification, and salinization of the soil. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the temperature inductions of the land cover structure of Lorestan province and to analyze the effect of land use changes on the temperature structure of the province. In this regard, the data of land cover classes of MCD12Q2 composite product and ground temperature of MOD11A2 product of MODIS sensor were used. Also, in order to detect the temperature inductions of each land cover during the hot and cold seasons, cross-analysis matrix (CTM) technique was used. The results showed that in general in Lorestan province 5 cover classes including: forest lands, pastures, agricultural lands, constructed lands and barren lands could be detected. The results of cross-matrix analysis showed that in hot and cold seasons, forest cover (IGBP code 5) with a temperature of 48 ° C and urban and residential land cover (IGBP code 13) with a temperature of 16 ° C as the hottest land use, respectively. They count. In addition, it was observed that the thermal inductions of land cover in the warm season are minimized and there is no significant difference between the temperature structure of land cover classes; But in the cold season, the thermal impulses of land cover are more pronounced. The results of analysis of variance test showed that in the cold period of the year, unlike the warm period of the year, different land cover classes; Significantly (Sig = 0.026) has created different thermal impressions in the province. Scheffe's post hoc analysis indicated that this was the difference between rangeland cover classes and billet up cover.   
materials and Method                                                                                                                
 In this study, to reveal the relationship between land cover levels and different land use classes, cross-information matrix analysis was used in the ARC-GIS software platform. Since one of the main objectives of the study was to investigate and reveal the albedo inductions of land cover classes in Lorestan province, so the relationship between these two factors was investigated by cross-matrix analysis technique. In this regard, two sets of data were used. The first set of data was related to land cover classes of MODIS sensor composite product with a spatial resolution of 1 km and hierarchical data format (MCD      
   12(Q2 (MCD product) which was obtained from the database of this sensor

 Land cover classes or perhaps it can be said that land use is one of the most important shapers and determinants of climate near the earth. In this study, it was observed that in general, 5 major land cover classes in the province are separable, among which rangeland and forest lands account for 85% of the total land cover of the province. On the other hand, it was seen in this study that the average spatial albedo of the province in spring, autumn and winter is about 0.2, which is very close to the global value of this component, but in winter the average value of this index in the province reaches 0.3, which can be increased Shows attention. The five land cover classes in the province had their own unique albido induction in winter, which was separable and distinct from each other, but in spring, summer and autumn, no significant distinction of albido induction of these land cover was revealed.                                                                                                                                       

Keywords: Land cover changes, Land surface temperature, Cross-information analysis matrix, Lorestan province

A Mahmoud Ahmadi, J Jamal Karami,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2023)

One of the most important issues that has always affected the Iranian climate and has left many socio-economic consequences and financial losses climate change is. On the other hand  Sea level pressure is one of the most important climatic elements that can affect other climatic elements such as temperature, humidity and wind. The study aimed to evaluate CMIP5 models based on CORDEX and Verdai dynamics Seasonal pressure anomalies in Iran among CMIP5 models based on CORDEX project dynamic models BCC-CSM, HadGEM2-ES, GFDL and MIROC model HADGEM2-ES had a higher level of correlation and efficiency than other models.
The data of 36 synoptic milestones during the statistical period (1960-2005), the data of the HadGEM2-ES model were applied by using the CORDEX model and the RCPs scenarios for the two historical periods (1960-2005) and predicted during Three periods of near future (2040-2011), middle future (2070-2041) and distant future (2099-2071) were used. Six methods R2, MAE, MBE RMSE, t-Jacovides and t-Jacovides / R2 ratio were used to evaluate the model performance. The results showed that the model has good performance in low altitude areas. Seasonal anomalies in all seasons, scenarios and time periods studied are positive and winter shows the maximum pressure anomalies between seasons.
The maximum seasonal pressure anomaly of Iran in all seasons, scenarios and periods studied corresponds to the altitudes, including its epicenter in the Alborz and Zagros heights and high geographical offerings and the minimum pressure anomaly corresponding to low and low areas such as Khuzestan plain and The southern coast of the country.
Dr Abdolmajid Ahmadi, ,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (5-2023)

Extended abstract
Landslide risk zoning is one of the basic measures to deal with and reduce the effects of landslides. Vernesara watershed is one of the areas where many landslides have been observed in different parts of it. In this research, in order to zone the risk of landslides using the entropy index, first the ranges of landslides were determined, then the effective factors in the occurrence of range movements were prepared in the ArcGIS software environment, and a landslide susceptibility map of the studied area was prepared. . The prioritization of effective factors using Shannon's entropy index showed that the slope layers, land use, surface curvature, topographic humidity index and topographic position index had the greatest effect on the occurrence of landslides in the region. Also, zoning landslide sensitivity with the mentioned model and evaluating its accuracy using the ROC curve shows the very good accuracy of the model (79.6 percent) with a standard deviation of 0.0228 for the studied area. The zoning map shows that the low-risk areas cover only 13% of the area and more than 56% of the area is in the area with high risk of landslides, which indicates the high potential of the area in the occurrence of landslides. . Construction at a distance from fault lines, waterways and the steep Asmari Formation and safety of communication routes are the most important measures to reduce the amount of damage caused by landslides in Vernesara watershed.
Key words: natural hazards, landslide, entropy, folded Zagros.
Kaveh Mohammadpour, Ali Mohammad Khorshiddoust, Gona Ahmadi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Dust storm is a complex process affected by the earth-atmophere system. The interaction between the earth and atmosphere is in the realm of the climatologists and meteorologists, who assess atmospheric and climatic changes, and monitor dust spread. Dust is the main type of aerosols which affects directly and indirectly radiation budget. In addition, altogether they affect the temperature change, cloud formation, convection, and precipitation. The most important studies about dust analysis have considered the use of remote sensing technique and global models for analyzing the behavior and dynamics of dust in recent two decades. To achieve such a goal, this paper has used MODIS and NDDI data to study and identify the behavior of atmospheric dust in half west of Iran.

Materials and methods
The western region of Iran is the study area. The data used in this study are divided into two categories: ground-based observations in 27 synoptic stations extracted from the Iran’s Meteorological Organization during the period (1998-2010) and satellite MODIS images during the first to fourth days of July 2008 as atmospheric dust extremes. Data was analyzed by using ArcGIS and ENVI software and NDDI index. 
Results and Discussion
According to results, interpolated map for the number of dusty days during the study period over the western half of Iran showed that the scope of study area does not involve an equal system aspect quantity of occurrences. The number of dusty days occurrences increase from north toward south and the sites located in northern proportions of the area have experienced lower dust events. In contrast, maximum hotspots are occurring over southwestern sites such as: Ahvaz, Ilam, Boushehr and Shiraz. Therefore, principal offspring of dust input has been out of country boundaries and arrived at distant areas. Also, based on results obtained using satellite remote sensing images and applied NDDI index, maximum of intense dust cover is observed over Fars, Ilam, Boushehr and Ahvaz provinces on the first, second, third and fourth of July. However, the lowest rate of index situated in extent far such as: East and West Azerbaijan provinces. Thus, parts located on the north of the study area experienced less dusty days and the maximum dust cores were located in the southwestern (mostly Khuzestan). The long-term results were consistent with the daily average of NDDI index in the whole study area and indicated the hotspot areas (Ilam, Ahvaz, Omidyeh, Bushehr and Shiraz) during the first to fourth days of July 2008. However, the level of dust cover in the region has reduced when a wet and cloudy synoptic system passes over the central and northwestern parts of the study area.
The climatic interpolated map interpretation indicated that increase of dust concentration based on ground-based stations, which are consistent with dust concentration, is overshadowed by the latitude and proximity of sources of dust source in the Middle East. Also, the long-term climatic results of ground-based observations were consistent with the NDDI index calculated on dust extremes in the whole study area and in the southern areas (Ilam, Ahvaz, Omidyeh, Bushehr and Shiraz) during study days of July, 2008. Therefore, dust occurrence increases from north to south and the maximum hotspots over southwestern confirm the proximity of the south western region of Iran to deserts and sedimentary plains and their direct relationship with dust sources in the Middle East. These regions highlight the volume and expansion of dust outbreaks, which were well detected due to the satellite imagery and spectral characteristics of MODIS for monitoring changes in the dust phenomenon.
Overall, the use of satellite remotely sensed data/images not only cover the ground-based observation datasets gap to identify, highlight, and analyse the dust phenomenon, but also takes a much more geographical approach in analysing environmental hazards such as dust. It is also suitable for studies of atmospheric compounds such as atmospheric aerosols.

Zynab Dolatshahi, Mehry Akbari, Bohloul Alijani, Darioush Yarahmadi, Meysam Toulabi Nejad,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

This study was aimed at examining the types of inversion and their severity using the thermodynamic indices of the atmosphere such as SI, LI, KI and TT at Bandar Abbas Station for 2010-2020. In this study, Radioosvand data at the Bandar Abbas Station was obtained and used from the University of Wioming for the last 11 years (3.5 local) during the last 11 years (2010 to 2020). The results of the analysis showed that the average number of inversion phenomenon in Bandar Abbas was 501 cases per year, as in some days several types of inversion were observed at different altitude. Of these inversion, about 31.6 % are related to radiation temperature inversion, 4.3 % front, and another 64.1 % for subsidence inversion. Due to the air session underneath, the share of subsidence inversions is more than other types of inversion. In the meantime, the most severe inversion of subsidence was 1354 and the weakest inversions were with 29 cases and fronts. In general, the long -term average intensity coefficient of inversion of Bandar Abbas station with a coefficient of 0.062 indicates that the intensity of the city's inversion is mostly extremely severe, which can be very destructive effects both environmentally and physical health in the city's residents. Bandar Abbas follow. The correlation between the inversion elements also showed that by reducing the thickness of the inversion layer, the intensity of temperature inversion also increased.

Javad Sadidi, Hassan Ahmadi, . Ramin Rezae Shahabi, Amir Pishva, Omid Kheyri, Godratallah Nooraie,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

The pervasiveness of the concept of vulnerability in various dimensions has led to the emergence of the theory of vulnerability in the spatial sciences. According to the theory of vulnerability, in any given space, there is a coefficient of vulnerability, while the levels and amplitude of safety are not evenly distributed on the surface of that space. Residential use is one of the most important and main uses in the urban land use system, and safety management and attention to its defense requirements are very important due to the high population density in large cities. The present study is in the field of assessing the vulnerability of residential uses against external threats with a passive urban defense approach in District 10 of Tehran, which was conducted in the form of spatial studies and by implementing an analytical model in three steps. First, the principles and requirements of passive defense were identified and classified into three groups of structural, demographic and spatial parameters, and using the questionnaire and expert survey tools, the priorities of passive defense principles in relation to residential spaces were determined. Then, based on the network analysis process, the weight of each criterion was determined and the weight of the ANP model was applied to the spatial layers of the region in ArcGIS software. The results of the model showed that in terms of structural indicators, more than 78% of residential units in the region are in the group of structures with high vulnerability and in terms of demographic indicators, in 88% of residential units in case of external threats, the level of vulnerability is high. In terms of spatial indicators, more than 92% of residential spaces are adjacent to several incompatible uses and have the highest vulnerability. In general, the results of overlapping layers showed that more than 86% of residential units in the area are located in vulnerable zones and the vulnerability of residential units in these zones is very high.

Dr Mohammad Rahmani, Dr ّfarhan Ahmadi Mirghaed, Dr Sareh Mollaaghajanzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2024)

This study aimed to assess the habitat quality of the Tajan watershed in northern Iran through land use changes from 1992 to 2052 and to investigate its relationship with landscape metrics, including number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), edge density (ED), largest patch index (LPI), landscape shape index (LSI), and splitting index (SPLIT). Landsat 8 and 4 images were processed to produce land use maps for 1992, 2022, and 2052 using maximum likelihood, cross-combination, and CA-Markov methods in ENVI and TerrSet software. Habitat quality was also assessed using InVEST in three scenarios based on the land use maps. Relationships were analyzed using least squares regression and Spearman's correlation test. The results showed that from 1992 to 2052, forest and agricultural areas had the most decreasing (-82,460 hectares) and increasing (76,392 hectares) changes, respectively. Habitats in the central part of the watershed had higher quality than those in the northern and southern parts. The relationship between habitat quality and land use changes is significant and inverse (-0.95<R<-0.85, P-value <0.01), with indirect and significant NP, PD, ED, and LSI metrics (-0.46<R<-0.35, P-value <0.05), and weak for LPI and SPLIT metrics. This study confirmed that the quality of habitats in the study area has decreased under the influence of land use changes and landscape features in the past 30 years, and the same trend is likely to continue in the next 30 years. The results of this study can be used as a basis for decision-making in the direction of land use development in the region and its environmental protection.

Mrs Mozhgan Shahriyari, Dr Mostafa Karampoor, Dr Hoshang Ghaemi, Dr Dariush Yarahmadi, Dr Mohammad Moradi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2024)

Flash floods are one of the most dangerous natural events and often cause loss of life and damage to infrastructure and the environment. This research investigated the occurrence of the most intense continuous monthly floods (October-March) from 1989 to 2021. Precipitation data from 115 synoptic stations were selected. Then, the total rainfall of 1 to 9 days was sorted according to intensity. Using Minitab statistical software and the Andersen-Darling index, heavy rains were extracted based on the 95th percentile. Then, based on the criteria of the highest and lowest number of rainy days, the highest and lowest accumulated rainfall, the wettest and driest months were determined. Considering the three criteria of intensity, continuity, and rainfall coverage, the strongest storms in the wettest months were selected. The data used for synoptic analysis include the average sea level pressure data, the height and vertical component of the wind at 500 hPa, the wind and humidity field specific to the pressure levels 925, 850, and 700 hPa, and the horizontal moisture flux values specific to the pressure level 925, 850 and 700 hPa. The probability of the occurrence of atmospheric rivers was identified by the moisture flux extracted from the specific, meridional, and meridional wind components. The results showed that the storms of October 27-31, 2015, November 5-7, 1994, December 12-16, 1991, January 11-15, 2004, February 3-9, 1993, and March 13-15, 1996 were the strongest in the wettest months. During the storms of October, November, February, and March, moisture has been transported from the southwest of the Red Sea by atmospheric rivers to the western, southwestern, southern, and southeastern regions of Iran.

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