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Mohammad Ali Saghafi, Abbas Ali Aliakbari Bidokhti,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (4-2014)

Nowadays air pollution in large cities such as Tehran have dramatic effects on public health, hence study of the way air pollutions varies with meteorological parameters appears to be important. One important aspect of sustainability of large cities such as Tehran, is controlling the emissions of pollutants as the meteorological (climatic) conditions are becoming more acute in terms of air pollution and temperature rise. In this paper some recent records of near surface meteorological parameters as well as some pollutants records are examine to observe how they change daily, monthly and annually and how they are correlated. Considering the variations of winds and temperature (extracted from a 2D sonic anemometer at 10 m at the Institute of Geophysics, Tehran University in the northern part of central Tehran, with one minute intervals) and hurly data of CO and PM10 concentrations for the same station for 2007, their relations were investigated. Also using upper air meteorological data (at 00.00 and 12.00 UTC) from Mehrabad Airport station, the stability of the atmosphere during this period was analysed. Here the buoyancy frequencies that are measure of stability of air column were calculated. For averaging of winds two methods based on the real wind vectors and wind unit vectors were used. By correlations between the pollutants concentrations and meteorological parameters, their relationships were considered. Based on the probability distributions of winds for 2007, it was found that most of the time wind speeds were in the range of 0.5 and 2 m/s. Hence most of the time due to this weak wind there was a condition of air pollution accumulations over the city and only local winds could move the polluted air over the area. Annual cycle of variations of mean surface winds had small amplitude that appears to be due to high mountain ranges that surround the city from north and east. The annual cycle of CO variations showed a peak in autumn and winter while PM10 amounts showed a trough in winter and spring. The higher values of CO in winter seems to be due to the surface temperature inversions and improper burnings of the fuel of vehicles as well as the domestic heating systems. This was indicated in the correlations between temperature and CO concentration.  In annual cycle the correlation between CO and PM10 concentrations was about 0.4 which increased to 0.7 for spring time. This may indicate that in this season the sources of these two are similar and one of them may be used to estimate the others is the sources are not changed. There are two maxima in the daily variations of CO which coincides with minima of wind in morning and evening transition times. In this study it was found that due to calm meteorological conditions (often od local origin, called mountain breezes) over the city air pollution problem is a serious problem requiring more emission control. Also trend factors as the pollutant sources (traffic) and the depth of the atmospheric surface layer are important. It is particularly noticeable that during the midday as the depth of the mixed layer increases, the air pollution concentration is reduced substantially. At night surface drainage flow from north of the city and surface radiation cooling creates near surface inversions that can limit mixing and ventilation of the polluted air from the area leading to higher values of gaseous pollutant over the city.  Also lager stability in the air over the city at higher levels in autumn and winter is due to subsidence inversions as a result of the prevailing meteorological conditions of high pressure systems over this area in these months. Such conditions seem to have increased the creation of more acute conditions for air pollution over the city. For a more resilient city in terms of air pollution, some mitigation need to be undertaken in the face of climate change effects that are deteriorating the atmosphere of the city.  

Esmaeil Ali Akbari, Nafiseh Saadat Miraii,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)

Urban planning has to perform seismic pathology of urban streets in seismic cities. Streets and roads are the most important spaces and urban elements in the cities which should be considered not only in space occupation and connecting spaces and urban activities but also in seismic vulnerability and on this basis it is planned to reduce environmental hazards and on top of earthquake-related. Many physical and functional characteristics of urban spaces and the distribution and concentration of the urban population take shape to comply with the location, capacity and function of the city streets network. Therefore, one of the most essential and the most important topics in the study of seismic cities is understanding of the relation between seismicity and urban streets through seismic vulnerability studies. This paper aims to assess factors and patterns of seismic vulnerability of urban networks with a prevention planning view in the 3rd district of Tabriz City.

    This research has descriptive-analytic method and the statistical population is street network of 3rd district of Tabriz city. Data and layers of information have been prepared by documentary method and have been processed using the Delphi method and the method of ranking and rating IHWP in GIS. The main factors and indicators influencing streets vulnerability have been selected based on the eight indicators. These indicators include distance and proximity to faults, quality of buildings, the degree of closeness (width of the wall), building density, population density, the traffic service or traffic volume toward roads capacity, access to health centers and services and the land use system. The final map of seismic vulnerability has been produced by combining eight layers of information related to above mentioned indicatorsand based on it the seismic vulnerability levels and factors of the street network has been analyzed.

    The final results of the seismic vulnerability of streets have been categorized in the 5 classes of vulnerability including very low, low, medium, high and very high. From total area 18.4% is estimated very low, 29.37% low, 31.77% medium, 14.21% high and 6.22% very high. Thus, taking into account the streets with medium, high and very high degree as vulnerable axes, it is concluded that 52.2% or more than half of the streets are seismic vulnerable and other half are relatively stable.

    Within the vulnerable and unstable network, more than 20% of the streets are in high and very high vulnerable classes. Street network with high and very high vulnerability are mainly arterial streets with commercial and service land uses in the scale of trans-regional or secondary roads leading to artery of trans-regional which have high population density. These streets compose a high degree of closeness, increase in traffic service level, population density and land use system with the concentration of commercial, recreational and trans-regional land uses are the main causes of vulnerability. But, in the narrow streets (8 to 10 meters), the degree of closeness of arterial streets, traffic parameters and user system have increased the seismic vulnerability index. Spatial pattern of streets vulnerability has an increasing trend from East to West and from North to south. The results show Spatial intensity of vulnerable streets is located at the center of the district and on Vali Asr, Shariati, Aref  and Razi Streets. Thus, the efficient and sustainable streets are located in the East of the under studied district.

    The results also show that high vulnerable streets has less distance to fault and more distance from medical centers. In addition, they have high traffic and lower quality buildings and high risk land uses (electric and gas infrastructure) are located there. Since the wide streets are more often subject to less obstruction, this characteristic in seismic time cause to transfer the traffic of narrow passage to the main streets. Grid pattern of streets and frequency of intersections by slowing down the speed of the vehicle increase the volume of traffic and lead to an increase in seismic vulnerability.

Alireza Hosseini, Hediyeh Akbari Ghamsari,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Classifying daily climate circulation patterns has always been considered by climatologists. Investigating climate changes such as rainfall and the temperature in a same single time and place suggests that these changes are strongly influenced by atmospheric circulation patterns.

Regarding so, climate changes, known as variables here, such as rainfall, temperature, and other related phenomena, which are exemplified as flood, drought, glacial, and etc. are associated with special types of climate circulation patterns. The continuity and alternation of the systems are classified or identified climatically, therefore weather classification system is one of the main objectives of the synoptic climatology (Huth, 1996). Since every weather type creates its own special environmental condition, lack of identification in weather type frequencies leads to a difficult environmental explanation and alternation (Alijani, 1380: 64).

Identifying atmospheric circulation patterns different things that can be expressed inductively such as frequency, intensity, and spatial distribution of climate changes in rainfall and its physical causers (VicenteSerrano and LopezMoreno, 2006).

Heavy rainfall in many watersheds, particularly in the basin and sub-basin which involve less time exposure, causes floods and it also damages human, natural resources, infrastructure utilities and equipment. Before the occurrence of this kind of rainfall, it requires a deep understanding of the synoptic systems of their creator. This understanding is only possible through the classification and identification of rainfall patterns which used to cause floods in the studied basins.

The present study also aims at identifying and classifying the synoptic patterns of rainfall during the statistical stage of the study in the basin which caused flood in Taleqhan basin.

Taleqhan basin with area of (65/1242) per square kilometers is located in "36֯, 5', 20" to "36֯, 21', 30" north latitude and "50֯, 36', 26" to eastern longitude "51֯, 10', 18".

The study area is 120 kilometers away from North West of Tehran and located in a relatively high mountainous area in Alborz Mountain. This area is ranging from 1700 meters to 4400 meters above sea level. Average rainfall in this basin ara is 515/16 mm and its annual temperature fits 10.5 centigrade.  About 79 percent of rainfalls occurs from the cold weather period in November to March. It is also know as semi-humid cold weather based on the De Martonne classification.

Circulation algorithm (CA) and pattern clustering algorithm (PCA) were determined based on the daily methods in synoptic scale by applying information from stations in Taleqhan basin (Gateh deh, Dehdar, Dizan, Snkranchal, armouth, Ange, Joostan, Zidasht). In order to classify the weather type, daily average rate of 500 HPa and the sea level pressure (SLP) were extracted and reconstructed over the period (1980-2011) at the 2.5 degree of NCEP. Selected range includes 608 points from latitude of 10 to the 60 of northern degree, and latitude of 10 to 80 of eastern degree.

Principal components method mixes the interrelated points and reduces the matrix size, so 13 main components are remained that they includes 93 percent of the total variance. This study employs S array and Varimax rotation to identify different types of weather. It also makes use of K-Means clustering method to classify daily weather types. And finally, a matrix was formed in 118×608 dimension for 118 common days of rainfall among stations. All days were divided into four groups. They offer the most common climate circulation patterns in the proposed area. At the end, and finally integrated maps of sea level pressure and 500 HPa were drawn for each weather type. 

According to the results from factor analysis, 13 main elements were selected that they included 93% of the total variance of the data. According to the above mentioned method, all days (118 days) during the statistical period (1980-2011) were divided into 4 groups which provide the most climate circulation patterns in the study area. Then, integrated maps of sea level pressure and 500 HPa range were drawn for each of the types. Clusters were numbered according to the K-Means arrangement, and they were named based on the pressure patterns and the way circulation lines were ordered.

The classification shows two different resources for rainfall in this basin.

A: Those rain systems that are entered to the country from the West and South affect this basin. These systems humidity are caused by the Red Sea, the Mediterranean sea, the Black Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean. (B) Some parts of the Caspian coast rainfalls and the northern part of the Alborz mountain that has received their humidity from the Caspian Sea and it has infiltrated northern high-land, causes the rainfalls. It enters the basin from the wide valley of Sefid Rood. According to the rainfall measuring stations data, the least rainfall area is in western, which includes low-land areas. And the most rainfall area is its northern east. Rainfall in this area, in terms of rainfall time distribution in a year, is the Mediterranean. It does not involve a complete dry climate in summer and it takes 3 to 4 percent of the total rainfall.  Rainfall in the basin, respectively, is distributed in winter, spring, fall, and summer.

Ali Bayat, Mohammad Saligheh, Mehri Akbari,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Cyclones as the most important factor in the turbulence of mid-latitude regions are low pressure centers that have one or more closed Isobaric curves. Mid-latitude cyclones are responsible for transfer of the heat and moisture between the tropics and the polar regions. Mediterranean cyclones have the most important role in Iran's rainfalls and get from different tracks to the country and affect Northwest, West and South West of Iran in the cold period of the year. Cyclones are the prevailing weather phenomenon in Mid-latitude region and studying the characteristics and effects of these phenomena has always been of interest to climatologists and meteorologists. Iran which is located in mid-latitude region, actually is located in the path of one of the world's largest cyclone formation and the Mediterranean Sea has a main impact on the rainfall occurrence in Iran. Regarding the importance of cyclones in rainfall occurrence in Iran, especially in cold season, studying this atmospheric event seems very necessary.
The aim of this study, is to identify, tracking and analysis of the winter season (December, January and February or DJF) rain producing cyclones using special database and algorithm during three recently decades (1979-2009). 
In this study, in order to specify, tracking and statistical analysis of the DJF rain producing cyclones, relative Vorticity of 700 hPa were received from ECMWF data center  with AWT IMAGE spatial resolution  and temporal resolutions of 6-hourly for a 30 years period (1979-2009). The study domain includes Mediterranean and Middle East, from AWT IMAGE E to AWT IMAGE E and AWT IMAGE N to AWT IMAGE N.
Cyclone identification will follow the approach presented in Blender et al. (1997) and Flaounas et al. (2014), including two important points and conditions: 1- A cyclone is considered to be a relative Vorticity extrema, thus the aim will be to look for the maximum value of relative Vorticity at the 700 hPa level in a box of AWT IMAGE grid points. 2. For the intensity of the cyclone, the threshold of relative Vorticity, is considered equal or greater than AWT IMAGE. Then by 6-hour tracking the maximum amount  points of Vorticity  and connecting them to each other, identification and routing of cyclone is implemented. The track AWT IMAGE can be written as AWT IMAGE, where AWT IMAGE describes the cyclone position in sequential time steps t = 0, … , T, which are given at 00, 06, 12 and 18 GMT. The initial position is considered the first detected maximum of relative Vorticity. During the cyclone detection and tracking method, different threshold values are commonly applied to eliminate, for instance, the weakest centers and short living systems. For this reason, the threshold of equal or greater than 8 time steps (3 days and more) is considered based on Alijani (1366) to eliminate short living cyclones.
In this study, climatology of cyclones such as genesis and lysis centers, tracks and frequencies in the Mediterranean Basin and Middle East were analyzed. The results showed that, center and eastern part of the Mediterranean region include Aegean Sea, Cyprus, and northern borders of Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea and also Red Sea, Sudan and Iraq, are most important cyclogenesis centers in winter season.
These cyclones which form in these cyclogenesis centers, move to the east with two eastward and northeastward distinguished directions. In northwest of Iran, the cyclones by passing over West and East Azerbaijan and Ardebil provinces in eastward and northeastward directions, move into western and southern shores of Caspian Sea. In southwest of the country, the cyclones are entered into Iran over Khozestan, Chaharmahal and Kohkilouyeh provinces. Part the cyclones are moved into center and northeast of the country with northeastward direction and other part by crossing over southern shores of the country move to the southeast of the country. In mid-west of the country, the cyclones are arrived into Iran in three different tracks. The most important path is Kordestan's path which the cyclones in the origin of Mediterranean are entered eastward into Iran by crossing over Zanjan and Hamadan provinces, under the Alborz ranges are moved into east and northeast of the country. Two other paths are observed in Ilam and Kermanshah Provinces which in these tracks also the cyclones are approximately moved eastward into center and northeast of the country. The results also showed that eastern part of the Mediterranean region specially Cyprus, Aegean sea, Adriatic sea, Red sea and Sudan and also Iraq are most important wintertime cyclogenesis centers of Iran. The main entrance paths of the cyclones includes northwest, mid- west and southwest. The averages cyclones lifetime are 4.5 days, movement speed is about 20 km/h and also travelling length is about 1700 km. Of the other notable results we can refer to decreasing of the rain producing cyclones during 3 last decades. 

Mr Seyed Abdolhossein Arami, Professor Majid Ownegh, Dr Ali Mohammadianbehbahani, Dr Mehri Akbari, Professor Alireza Zarasvandi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

The analysis of dust hazard studies in southwest region of Iran in 22 years (1996-2017)
Dust storms are natural hazards that mostly occur in arid and semi-arid regions and there are many harmful consequences. According to the topographic-climatic conditions in Iran and the significant increase in the number and severity of dust storms occurrence in recent decades, especially in the West and Southwest regions where the dust storms are the most important environmental crisis. Studying this phenomenon is necessary for better management its harmful effects.
Since most of the research are implemented as different case studies, and there is no comprehensive study that review a wide range of existing researches with overall results in the southwestern parts of Iran, in this study a comprehensive overview of available literature reviews are addressed including dust spatio-temporal variations, modeling, detection, and health issues.
This research is based on a library research and search of valid national and international scientific articles about the dust crisis and no data-processing. We attempted to analyze temporal and spatial variations in the south and southwest of the country using the available studies and the challenges of this phenomenon in the past and present to provide a new perspective to apply a comprehensive land management and managing environmental hazards in Iran with all the problems.
A review of the history of dust storm studies from information sources showed that most researchers (61.40%) used a synoptic method to study dust storms, and the most important indicators that were considered by the researchers in physical properties were frequency and density, 34.21% and 34.21% of the studies respectively.
Dust detection methods show that the use of thermal or reflective bands cannot detect dust phenomena with high precision, therefore, a model which applies both bands simultaneously should be developed. In other words, applying a combination of reflective and thermal
spectra of Military Origin Destination Information System (MODIS) could offer better
results in detection of dust storms in the study area. Studies indicate that most of the storms
originate outside of Iran. Moreover, exposure to airborne contaminants, especially when the
dust storms occur in the Middle East, can lead to an increase in the related disease outbreak
in the study area. For instance, there was a 70% increase in referring to medical centers for
lung related problems when a dust phenomenon occurred.
The Results showed that in cold seasons where low height and western waves is formed on the European and Mediterranean Sea, due to the heaviness, cold air in these days, can penetrate low latitudes and their trough is located over the Middle East area. Under warming condition, the front of rough is formed as ridge, then engendered turbulence and wind. In the warm seasons, thermal low pressure is rapt to ward in the high latitude, and severe dryness
of the area is also due to the fact that the dusty phenomenon is intensified in the area. Dust
storm occurrence in the summer due to bareness of the land, transparency of the atmosphere,
dryness of the air and the vast plains, which can reduce the formation of local instability in
the case of a sharp rise in air temperature. The dispersal of deserts and sand sea is mainly in
the northwest of Khuzestan province, especially in Fakkeh and Moussan which are located in the western borders of Iran with Iraq, which cover most of the Azadegan plain and west of the Karkheh and Mollasani and Maroon Rivers, and ultimately end in the Omidiyeh and Aghajari regions. Results show that the border between Syria and northwest Iraq, west and southwest of Iraq to east and northeast of Saudi Arabia are the main sources of dust in the studied region
. Synoptic conditions considering simultaneously with the occurrence of dust
storms showed the significant role of cyclonic systems in the occurrence and transfer of this
phenomenon. With the phenomenon occurrence during the warm period, the significant
strengthening in low pressure of Iraq along with the trough formation in Zagros causes the
formation and transfer of dust towards Southwest Iran. Simulation studies of dust particles
movement paths have shown that most of the paths are from the northern and central parts
of Iraq and Syria and the source of dust storms are deserts and dry regions of the northern
and central parts of Iraq and Syria. In addition, the study of the transmission paths of particles
in dust storms indicates the presence of a lower level jet, which causes horizontal
displacement of dust particles in a shallow layer and prevents its vertical propagation in the
higher layers of the atmosphere. In general, although the dust phenomenon is transnational
and uncontrollable, it can introduce limitations in terms of circulation patterns and statistical
properties at different time intervals to the different planners via its time and scope which
will necessitate appropriate programs for combating and adaptation.
Keywords: Dust, Air pollution, Spatio-temporal pattern, Southwest, Iran.

Nima Sohrabnia, Dr Bohlol Alijani, Dr Mehry Akbari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Modeling the discharge of rivers in selected watersheds of Guilan province during climate change
   In this essay, we investigated the effects of climate change on the rivers of selected basins of Guilan province, one of the northern provinces of Iran for the period 2020 to 2050 under three climate scenarios: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5. For this purpose, rainfall and temperature data from 45 climate data stations and 20 hydrometric stations from 1983 to 2013 were used. The average precipitation and temperature at basin level were calculated by drawing both Isohyet and Isothermal lines by usage Kriging method. Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator tests were used to determine the significance of the data trends and their slope, respectively. The results showed that temperature has increased in all catchments during the study period and this trend was significant in most of them but no significant trend was observed for precipitation. Discharge has also decreased in most basins and this trend was significant in Shafarood, Navrood and Chafrood basins. However, for future periods, precipitation is not significant in any of the climate scenarios, but the temperature is increasing in all scenarios except for the RCP2.6 scenario. Rivers discharge in the RCP2.6 scenario is not significant in any of the basins, but in the RCP4.5 scenario the Shafarood and Ghasht-Roodkan catchments have a significant reduction in the 95% confidence level. In the RCP8.5 scenario, the Chafrood and Shafarood basins have a 99% confidence reduction trend.
Population and technology growth, increased water consumption and climate change have led many researchers to study and model water resources in the present and future periods. Especially in areas like Iran that are facing a lot of water stresses. The purpose of the present study, which was carried out in the Guilan province, is to provide information on the present and future status of surface water resources, and to prepare them for facing the problems of potential water resources exploitation.
In this study 45 synoptic, evaporative and rain gauge stations and 20 hydrometric stations data with sufficient statistics were used. The period of study is also between 1983 and 2013. In this regard, after calculating the average precipitation and temperature values of each basin using Kriging model, first, the annual average of precipitation and temperature values ​​of each basin were calculated. Then, multivariate regression was used to obtain the regression equations between precipitation, temperature and discharge data, then by using SDSM model and climate scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5) future temperature and precipitation data were generated. By placing these generated data in the Created regression equations, the discharge of the rivers was calculated for the period 2020 to 2050. The trend of time series and their slope were analyzed respectively by Mann-Kendall and Sense tests.
   The study of the annual average precipitation trend of the selected catchments during the study period showed that all the basins had no significant trend at any of the confidence levels (95% and 99%). However, for the temperature there is an increasing trend. In Chafrood, Zilaki, Chalvand, Lavandevil, Tutkabon, Chubar, Lamir, Hawigh, Dissam, Shirabad, Ponel, Samoosh, and Polrood basins there is significant trend at 95% confidence level. For the Hawigh River basin there is significant trend at 99% confidence level. Also in most of the basins there is a downward trend of rivers discharge. In addition, in the three basins of Chafrood, Navrood and Shafarood, there is a significant decreasing trend at 95% confidence level, which is also significant at 99% confidence level for Navrood and Shafarood rivers.
Analysis of future data showed that precipitation is not significant in any of the climate scenarios, but the temperature is increasing in all scenarios except for the RCP2.6 scenario in RCP2.6 scenario. For rivers discharge there was no significant trend in any of the basins, but in RCP4.5 scenario there is a significant decrease in 95% confidence level in Shafarood and Ghasht-Roodkan. Also in the RCP8.5 scenario, a significant decreasing trend of flow discharge at 99% confidence level is observed for Chafrood and Shafarood basins. Finally, the catchments were grouped according to the level of risk involved with decreasing discharge. The results of grouping showed that most of the basins in the three scenarios were in the medium risk group but Shafarood, Chafrood and Ghasht-roodkhan watersheds have higher risk than the other watersheds, respectively.
Investigation of river discharge trends for the period 2020 to 2050 in different scenarios showed that the basins of Ghasht-roodkhan, Chafrood and Shafarood are more sensitive to climate change than other basins. Overall, escalating temperature trends in future and precipitation irregularities can create very difficult conditions in future to use these resources. Especially, this study's concordance with other studies in Iran and the study area confirms that such crises are more likely to occur..
Keywords: Climate Change Scenarios, Rivers Discharge, Man-Kendall, Sen’s Slope estimator, Guilan Province

Zynab Dolatshahi, Mehry Akbari, Bohloul Alijani, Darioush Yarahmadi, Meysam Toulabi Nejad,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

This study was aimed at examining the types of inversion and their severity using the thermodynamic indices of the atmosphere such as SI, LI, KI and TT at Bandar Abbas Station for 2010-2020. In this study, Radioosvand data at the Bandar Abbas Station was obtained and used from the University of Wioming for the last 11 years (3.5 local) during the last 11 years (2010 to 2020). The results of the analysis showed that the average number of inversion phenomenon in Bandar Abbas was 501 cases per year, as in some days several types of inversion were observed at different altitude. Of these inversion, about 31.6 % are related to radiation temperature inversion, 4.3 % front, and another 64.1 % for subsidence inversion. Due to the air session underneath, the share of subsidence inversions is more than other types of inversion. In the meantime, the most severe inversion of subsidence was 1354 and the weakest inversions were with 29 cases and fronts. In general, the long -term average intensity coefficient of inversion of Bandar Abbas station with a coefficient of 0.062 indicates that the intensity of the city's inversion is mostly extremely severe, which can be very destructive effects both environmentally and physical health in the city's residents. Bandar Abbas follow. The correlation between the inversion elements also showed that by reducing the thickness of the inversion layer, the intensity of temperature inversion also increased.

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