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Farhad Azizpour, Vahid Riahi, Ali Moazeni,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

Environmental hazards are considered as one of the main obstacles for achieving sustainable human settlements development (particularly in rural areas). Today, with a new look at crisis management, using all managerial, organizational and planning accomplishments before the crisis, is an essential and rational concern. Rural settlements of the country along with cities always are threatened by a variety of environmental hazards, but what makes these spaces different from the cities is the high-intensity of vulnerability due to its physical decay texture. In this regard, one of the key elements in confronting the possible crisis that must be taken into account is the crisis management bases in which all prevention, preparedness and response measures, including disaster relief, temporary accommodation for the injured, etc. is provided and minimizes the consequences of potential crisis. Being located in the Kahrizak fault zone and the placement of hazardous industries in this region, is the main reason for selecting Kahrizak district as a study area in this research.    To achieve goals of constructing crisis management bases which indeed is the tactic ability of crisis management system (CMS), it is required to set the site selection criteria and standards for constructing them in such a way that provide more operational activities and develop the level of their impacts. In this regard, in the first step, the final criteria for site selection of crisis management base were selected after reviewing previous studies. Then, after surveying the experts and also the localization of criteria on the basis of area condition, seventeen final criteria were determined. For quantitative criteria, data were collected through organizations and reference centers and for a single qualitative criterion (cultural convergence), the questionnaire instrument used in gathering data. After collecting data using library and field methods, a combination of two models: fuzzy logic and hierarchical analysis process (AHP) applied for optimal location of crisis management base.    To determine the impact level of each criterion in the site selection process in two above-mentioned models, the standards for each of the seventeen criteria was determined with the help of combination method. The standards of some of the criteria determined using the standards in related organizations and some other standards proposed by experts and also through the localization by the researcher. Afterward, initially fuzzy standardized common scale maps produced from all information layers in a raster format. Then selected criteria by experts in the format of AHP model were compared with each other through pairwise comparison method. As a result of this comparison, the weight of criteria was determined which indicates the preference degree of each criterion over the others. At last, all standardized (fuzzified) layers multiplied in each of the final weight resulting from Analytical Hierarchy Model and in total converted into weighted fuzzy layers. In the next step, following the process of fuzzy model, fuzzy addition and multiplication operators were applied on output layers. Finally, to modify the layer resulting from fuzzy addition and multiplication, the Gamma operator was used. As such, after producing layers of different fuzzy gammas, essential assessment was conducted for selecting appropriate and ideal gamma. In order to do this, produced layers of each fuzzy gammas were compared with the study area for optimal location and the establishment of crisis management base. Since the gamma 0.9 had the most conformity to suitable zone in the layers of study area, it was selected as the appropriate gamma. However, to ensure the selected location, field study was conducted.     According to the research findings, the following conclusions were obtained: Site selection criteria for rural crisis management base not only has an environmental essence (built and natural), but socio –economic criteria are important as well Effective criteria for site selection of rural crisis management base, affected by regional and local requirements are not the same. Localization of criteria is a necessity that should be considered in site selection. Standards based on site selection criteria depending on the type of services, goals and location at multiple spatial levels (regional, local, urban and rural) is different: in the other words one size does not fit all Site selection is not only based on the location within overlaying information layers by using the models, but the final choice is done after field evaluation and visit.

Farhad Azizpour, Mohammed Saeed Hamidi, Jamshid Chabok,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

Among the various environmental hazards, flood is the greatest and most important climate crisis which takes every year the lives of thousands people and impose severe damages on human society and environment. Today, it is clear that controlling all hazards, including floods is not possible. Suitable management can only minimize the damages. The literature on natural disasters management indicated that in the process of natural disaster management and their vulnerability mitigation, there are two dominant paradigm: technic-based approach and community-based approach.

Community-based approach welcome the local cooperation and participation in disaster management process and calls for strengthening local capacity through the participation of all individuals and groups at the local level. This approach is not only appropriate to provide solutions for disaster reduction, but build disaster preparedness. Because disaster preparedness planning requires special attention to local participation. In the geographic area of Bashar River Basin, due to the lack of suitable agricultural land and greater quantity of water for rice crop, villages have been built at rivers edge. So that, most of the houses and farms in the villages are located very close to the river. However, these locations are extremely vulnerable to flooding. This study reviews the status of local participation and its impact on reducing flood risks. Also, this research focuses on factors influencing local community trends and choices in the participation rate.

This study is applied research in terms of purpose and uses descriptive-analytical method. According to the nature of the study, data were collected through fieldwork and library research methods using observation, interview, questionnaire and evaluation card techniques. To understand different characteristics of community, Likert scale and one-sample t-test were used and measurement scale for data was ordinal. Also. The method of selective experimental approach based on profit was taken to evaluate the level of different trends in Community's financial participation for reducing detrimental effects of flood. To recognize the community awareness and perception toward flood risk and the probability of its occurrence in the future, the willingness level to participation and to explore the effective factors on villager’s decisions and to utilize modern management techniques the selective experimental approach based on evaluation card and logit model were employed.

The results of statistical analysis showed that in the study area, 86.5% of the community have experienced the damages caused by flooding and forecasted the likelihood of heightened chance of flooding in the future. Finding showed that although the people use traditional methods for managing flood, but they tend to employ modern methods such as dam building for reducing flood risk. This help them to increase the safety factor for their locations and farm lands. In spite of the fact that the villagers expressed the higher safety factor for new management methods such as (dam building, river broadening and preventing the destruction of forest and environment), but it seems that improper functioning, adverse consequences (environmental and socio-economic) of projects implementation (dam building) as well as the inability of villager's financial participation (high cost of this kind of methods), are barriers to using them for lowering the flood risks and damages.

The review of the possible role of some intervening variables to predict local communities' participation in decision-making processes showed that low-income, old age of the samples with high average (47.61) and education with lower average (3.16) are the most important factors influencing community decision making. The results of binominal logit model showed that the proposed variables is significant at the 5% level. If the offer price increase, the chance of residents' acceptance of participation will decrease and vice versa.

Adel Solimani, Hassan Afrakhteh, Farhad Azizpour, Asghar Tahmasebi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) on climate and global warming Indicates that climate change and global warming in particular is one of the most important challenges of the world and drought, as a consequence of climate change around the world, has always influenced the many countries, including Iran. However, it seems that the climate changes, particularly in the West and Iran, especially among farmers and rural communities vulnerable to the effects of economic, social and environmental impacts that are more significant. In other words, Continuous droughts are faced villagers and farmers with various problems and challenges, In this regard, villagers Choose the local and specific strategies in the face of this creeping disaster that improve them adaptive capacity to drought. Nowadays, special emphasis is put on the notion of adaptive capacity instead of vulnerability. So the need to have research in rural levels obvious, especially in Iran where there has not yet been any deep and encompassing study on the concept of adaptive capacity in rural level. adaptive capacity to climate change is the ability of a system or an individual to adjust to climate change or climate variability so as to minimize the potential damages or cope with the consequences. Therefore, adaptive capacity is the ability to plan and use adaptation measures to moderate the effect of climate change. There is an increasing need to develop indicators of adaptive capacity to determine the robustness of response strategies over time and to understand better the underlying processes.

Adaptive capacities of villagers depend on certain factors or attributes such as their knowledge on and number of times they use a particular adaptation strategy. Other factors are the availability and accessibility of the adaptation strategy. Also, the number of consultations that a villagers makes on a particular adaptation strategy affect whether the villagers will be lowly or moderately or highly adaptive to drought.

Identifying the overall level of adaptive capacity to drought in rural areas, in order to Effective management is special importance, Because that by identifying and ranking of adaptive capacity in rural areas, adopt appropriate management strategies to reduce the damage caused by drought is possible.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is assessing the adaptive capacity to drought of between four villages in the central part of the city Rawansar in Kermanshah province. For this purpose five most effective and important index to measure the  adaptive capacity to drought as follows:  Knowledge, Use, Availability , Accessibility and Consultation, according to the literature, were selected. Then by using one sample T-test, the effectiveness of each of the above-mentioned indicators on the villagers adaptive capacity were reviewed and approved from the point of view Village contributors of the central city Rawansar (N = 48) who were selected by census method. In the next step, to determine the index weight, using the snowball technique and purpose sampling, 10 experts in jahad  agricultural  office in Rawansar city were selected and their comments were used. The results by TOPSIS technique based on these indicators, showed that rural areas of Hasan Abad and Zalu Ab  in the Rawansar city, had the greatest adaptive capacity to drought, While  rural areas of Dawlat Abad and Badr had fewer adaptive capacity to drought. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is a multi-criteria decision analysis method, which  is based on the concept that the chosen alternative should have the shortest geometric distance from the positive ideal solution (PIS)and the longest geometric distance from the negative ideal solution (NIS).It is a method of compensatory aggregation that compares a set of alternatives by identifying weights for each criterion, normalising scores for each criterion and calculating the geometric distance between each alternative and the ideal alternative, which is the best score in each criterion.The findings of this study could have recommendations for rural planners to effective crisis management in order to reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience villagers to drought.

Khadijeh Karimi, Vahid Riahi, Farhad Azizpour, Aliakbar Taghilo,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Human settlements as local -spatial systems are subject to continuous dynamism and transformation. In the meantime, rural settlements including; in Iran, as the most important establishment of population and activity, are exposed to the deepest environmental, ecological, social, economic and cultural changes. It is evident that in these developments, a variety of different and different forms of internal and external interactions Are creative However, most of these factors are somehow influenced by the management system that plays a role in the rural areas. This system, having different patterns, has a different effect on spatial systems.
The issue of drought has recently been the major concern all over the country and particularly in Urmia Basin. This is considered as a key factor in Urmia Lake crisis. Urmia's rural settlements are also affected by the management  factor in a variety of spatial dimensions. The crisis of the dramatic decrease in Urmia Lake water and its management (decisions making) has posed a serious challenge to rural areas. This article  to pursue to base management as a foreign  factor on the basis of a good governance approach to the analysis and analysis of the role It focuses on the transformation of rural settlements in Urmia.
 This research is applied in terms of its purpose and based on descriptive-analytical method. The statistical population of the study was the experts in the institutions related to the county crisis management. Experts from sample target communities were 70 people who were identified by a sample size determination method with an unknown community. A sample sampling method was used to select the samples. Data and information was collected using library and information technology. The questionnaire was used to assess the role of the management system in the framework of the components of a good governance approach and Referring to related research backgrounds, they were identified. To measure the normal distribution of data and appropriate regression selection, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Dorbin Watson's tests were used. Also, for measuring the direct and indirect effects and the correlation between the components, Pearson's path analysis and Pearson correlation tests were used in SPSS software.
The findings of the research shows that the villages affected by the disaster management system in facing the risk of drying the Lake Urmia have encountered inappropriate environmental, social, economic and physical changes. These changes are influenced by the military mechanism that It is not due to being state-owned, focused, and open-minded; they are not accountable, legitimate, and efficient. In the meantime, the weakness of the legitimacy of failure in effective performance has had a direct impact on the disaster management inefficiency. Of course, other components such as weakness of pivotal justice, weakness of accountability, weakness of orientation affect the components of the weakness of legitimacy and weakness of the role Effectiveness has doubled disaster management inefficiencies.
The assessment of the disaster management system of Lake Urmia, based on the governance framework, indicates that the management system has not been efficient. This ineffectiveness, however, is heavily influenced by the weakness of legitimacy. But, indirectly influenced by other factors, including weakness of orientation, weakness of justice, and weakness of accountability. The important thing in this regard is the impact of the indirect factors on the legitimacy factor. By considering the nature of their direct and indirect factors, it is clear that the weak role of the villagers and the means to participate in disaster management, the cause of all problems In the countryside. Restoring Lake Urmia without paying attention to the villagers living around the Lake Urmia will be difficult. Therefore, giving villagers the role of the main beneficiaries of Lake Urmia Basin can help restore Lake Urmia.infact,Communities are the first responders in case of a disaster. Therefore, community-based disaster risk management should be the core of any risk reduction approach. community based  Disaster risk management focuses more on community participation and  reducing underlying risk, encouraging preventive action before a disaster. and  focuses on participation on design,  decision  and  performance for better management of disasters.

عزیزی Azizi, افراخته Afrakhteh, عزیزپور Azizpour,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Land cover changes as a basic factor in environmental change act and has become a global threat. In this research, changes in land cover in rural tourism areas by neural networks, Markov chains in software ArcGIS, ENVI, Terrset using the TM and OLI satellite imagery, Landsat Satellite was surveyed for a period of 30 years for three periods of 1985, 2000, and 2015. The findings of the first stage show that land cover changes at the period 1985-2015, were classified in five class residential spaces, Commercial, Green, Empty and mountainous spaces and communication networks. In this study, the area of mountainous and empty spaces (13.25%) has decreased and in contrast, has decreased the amount of green spaces (6.221%), Residential (5.258%), commercial (1.264%) and communication networks (0.529%). Changing land cover as one of the most important environmental risks has been directly influenced by the Commodification phenomenon. Also, the findings of the prediction using the Markov-CA chain showed that with the continuation of the current and excessive loading on the ground, on the horizon of 2030, green cover (Agriculture, gardens and grassland, garden and residential)  and  wild land  and mountain cover have been reduced and to cover residential and commercial villas will be added. Based on research findings concluded that land cover changes in rural tourism areas in order to achieve more profits has become incompatible applications. This change in land cover, in addition to the economic, social impacts, has led to the formation of environmental hazards in the Bharang area. Developing tourism in the study area by removing agricultural land from the production cycle has led to an increase in urban activities and the formation of new activities (service, Residential Garden, residential villa) instead of traditional activities(agriculture and livestock) that are economical. And by loading too much ecological power tolerable land, while posing environmental hazards, causing incompatible activities next to each other, they do not match. Therefore, tourism, which gradually formed over the years and now it has become a part of rural texture, Spatial Conflict and heterogeneity two strains has created for them. Spatial Conflict created, due to changes in land cover and acceptance of incompatible activities that derive from human-nature relationships. This means that the rapid and unpredictable trend of tourism development, the rural landscape has encountered a problem and with changes in land cover, has led to inconsistencies between different activities and eventually has shaped the Spatial Conflict.
Farhad Azizpour, Vahid Riahi, Somayeh Azizi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

As information about disease and mortality grows, so do appropriate methods for analyzing this type of data that meet different needs. One of these methods is spatial analysis of the disease, which considers its geographical distribution along with other risk factors. The present study is an attempt to depict the spatial pattern of coronary heart disease distribution in rural settlements of Damavand and to explain the factors affecting the spatial distribution of this disease in the study area. Spatial analysis of corona prevalence using spatial statistics analysis methods can extract and analyze the spatial patterns governing the geographical distribution of this disease. For this purpose, the present study seeks to answer the following questions:
  1. What pattern does the spatial distribution of coronary heart disease in the rural area of Damavand city follow?
  2. What factors have influenced this spatial distribution pattern?
Due to the nature of the subject, the present study is of the combined type and in terms of applied results. The method of data collection is based on documentary-library and survey-field data. Initially, the statistics of the number of patients with coronary artery from the beginning of April 2020 to the end of July 2020 were collected by referring to Damavand health center. Then spatial analysis is applied to them. In order to study the spatial pattern of corona disease distribution and to recognize its non-random structure from various statistical indicators such as mean, percentage, hot spot analysis and also to properly understand the pattern of hot spot clusters by measuring directional geographical distribution (standard ellipse) in GIS software environment. Used. After describing the structure and pattern of dispersions, one should look for the cause and reasons of dispersions. Thus, in field surveys, after determining the number of patients with coronary artery disease, snowball interviews were conducted with 23 residents of Damavand city in order to identify and analyze the factors affecting the spatial distribution pattern of coronary heart disease in this city. After conducting the interviews and collecting the data, in order to analyze them, the underlying theory in the Maxiquida software environment was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the factors affecting the prevalence of the disease in the study area as independent variables with coronary heart disease as a dependent variable in SPSS environment. Then, Moran's spatial autocorrelation analysis model was used to know the type of distribution pattern of the identified factors.
This part of the findings is divided into two parts according to the questions raised in the research:  Spatial distribution pattern of coronary heart disease in rural areas of Damavand city Out of a total of 67 villages, 21 rural points (31.34%) and 1 rural point (1.49%), respectively, have the lowest and highest number of patients with coronary heart disease. Based on the analysis of clusters of hot spots and elliptical curve of geographical distribution, most hot spots are located in the west and northwest of the city and the villages located in these spots with low health centers have almost high population density that are adjacent to each other and They are close to the cities and on the main road. Most of the cold spots are located in the east and southeast of the region.
Factors affecting the distribution pattern of coronary heart disease in rural areas of Damavand city After determining the spatial pattern of corona disease distribution in the rural area of ​​Damavand city, the effective factors in the spatial distribution pattern of this disease should be identified and analyzed. These factors include: Weak official information on coronary heart disease; Weak local community attention to the principles of health exposure to corona risk; Simplifying the risk of coronary heart disease; Short geographical distance between settlements; High level of inter-residential interactions; Weakness in providing health services. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the factors affecting the prevalence of the disease in the study area as independent variables with coronary heart disease as a dependent

Sorayya Ebrahimi, Abdolreza Rahmanye Fazli, Farhad Azizpour,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2022)

Factors affecting the adaptation of rural settlements to the water crisis of Lake Urmia Case study: Miandoab County

Problem statement
In recent years, Lake Urmia, the largest lake in Iran, has faced severe water shortages, which has raised concerns in terms of economic, social and environmental consequences in the surrounding communities, especially in rural areas. Livelihood dependence of rural community stakeholders, to the natural resources and agricultural products have caused the harmful effects of drying Urmia Lake to be more visible. The drying up of Lake Urmia is not limited to this lake, but human communities have also suffered a lot from their sphere of influence. Due to the human effects of the drying of Lake Urmia,  it is necessary to analyze the effects of this phenomenon from a human perspective in research. Identifying the adaptive capacity of rural community stakeholders makes it possible to adopt appropriate management strategies to reduce the damage caused by lake drying. Therefore, despite the importance of the subject of this research, it seeks to study the factors and forces affecting the adaptation capacity of rural settlements in the face of the drying crisis of Lake Urmia in the city of Miandoab and so on.

Research Methodology
In terms of methodology, strategy and design, the present study is a combination of (mixed), sequential and explanatory exploratory, respectively. In this study, for a detailed study of community mentalities, a discourse on effective factors to increase the adaptive capacity of rural settlements in the face of drying or water retreat of Lake Urmia, the combined method of (Q) was selected. The research discourse community included local managers (governorate experts, heads and employees of government departments, districts, rural districts and Islamic councils) as well as local experts in the sample villages of Miandoab city. Targeted sampling method (snowball) was used to select the statistical sample. Q statements were also compiled using first-hand sources (expert opinions, local managers, field observations, etc.) and codified sources (books, articles, publications, etc.) using the library and field methods. The Q questionnaire was also used to assess the attitude of experts. In order to analyze the data of the Q (Q) method matrices, heuristic factor analysis based on the individual method (Stanfson method) was used.

Description and interpretation of results
 In reviewing the findings of the exploratory factor analysis model with KMO criterion, Bartlett test confirmed the sufficient number of samples and its appropriateness for the research. To investigate the most important influencing factors, the specific value and percentage of variance were calculated and the number of factors was determined by pebble diagram and Kaiser Guttman criterion. The results showed that the most important factors and forces affecting the increase of adaptation capacity to the drying of Lake Urmia in the sample villages of Miandoab are: 1) Increasing economic capital and the use of natural resources, 2) Increasing social capital and investment, 3) Developing infrastructure facilities and improving the skills of villagers, 4) Economic diversification and improving rural management .. Among these factors, the first factor with a specific value of 5.40 and a percentage of variance of 24.55 was recognized as the most important factor and effective force in increasing the adaptation capacity of the studied villages against the drying of Lake Urmia. Thus, economic and natural factors, as the most important assets of the villagers, are endangered at any time by the drying up and retreat of the water of Lake Urmia and have a direct impact on the livelihood of the villagers.

Keywords: Adaptation capacity, Lake Harumiyeh, Miandoab County.

Parastou Darouei , Parviz Zeaiean, Farhad Azizpour, Vahid Riahi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

Agricultural activities, as a foundation of growth and development and part of the rural development process, guarantee the economic life of many villages in the country. However, in recent years, other products' water scarcity and resource limitations have affected these activities. This issue has severely challenged the sustainability and life of rural settlements.
In this regard, organizing and developing an optimal cropping pattern is necessary to achieve the goals of sustainable agricultural and rural development in Iran. To achieve this goal, the cultivation of crops must be commensurate with the capabilities of production resources, especially water resources.
Therefore, determining the appropriate spatial distribution of agricultural lands for the cultivation of various crops is one of the primary foundations for implementing optimal cropping pattern. Accordingly, the present study seeks to identify suitable spatial zoning for wheat and barley cultivation as the main crops in agricultural lands in traditional Lenjanat regions, which are exposed to a growing water crisis.

Data and Methodology
According to the main purpose of the research, the data obtained from spatial distribution maps of current cropping patterns and spatial distribution of suitable lands for crop cultivation.
This study prepared the suitability maps of the major agricultural products at a distance of 10 km on both sides of Zayandeh Rud River in Lenjanat region using multi-criteria decision-making methods.
Thus, the agronomic-ecological needs of the two major crops in the area (wheat and barley) were determined, and a standard map for each crop was classified using ArcGIS software. Then, the digital layers were combined by allocating the weight obtained from the Analytical Hierarchy Process and the Simple Additive Weighting method. Finally, talent assessment and land zoning was performed in four categories from unsuitable to very suitable for cultivating wheat and barley crops. Using the analytical hierarchy process method and experts' opinions led to high accuracy results.

Results and Discussion
The results of the land suitability map showed that 90.6% of the agricultural lands in the study area are very suitable and relatively suitable for the cultivation of the wheat crop. The northern and eastern regions, located in Falavarjan county and the north part of Mobarakeh county, are the most suitable areas for wheat cultivation. As we move from the north and east to the west of the study area, the capability areas for wheat cultivation decrease. Limiting factors in these areas are unsuitable soil texture, low temperature, shallow soil, high slope, low rainfall and drainage.
As for barley cultivation, a large part of the area, equal to 30635.3 hectares (more than 91%), is very suitable and relatively suitable. In these areas, in the northern and eastern parts of Lenjanat, unsuitable soil texture, shallow soil, high slope and low drainage are the most critical limiting factors for barley cultivation.
A comparison of "spatial distribution of land suitability" with "spatial distribution of cropping pattern" shows that the crops in this study (wheat and barley) have been cultivated in a suitable area in terms of the ecological potential of lands.

The results of this evaluation can be used in the spatial distribution of the optimal cropping pattern to select a suitable cultivation site for these two crops and other existing and alternative crops.
Wheat and barley are the major crops usually used in planning optimal cropping patterns, regardless of the economic issues. Considering suitable spatial distribution for wheat and barley, they should be distributed in such a way with the slightest difference compared to the current cropping pattern. On the other hand, a large area of the Lenjanat region is suitable for cultivating wheat and barley. In addition, an agricultural unit may have different capacities for other crops, so it is necessary to pay attention to the ecological potential of other crops. Wheat and barley should be cultivated in lands which are unsuitable or semi-suitable for other crops.
Accordingly, it is necessary to provide spatial zoning of existing and alternative crops in the Lenjanat area with fewer water requirements and higher economic benefits to be introduced in the optimal cropping pattern.
In this study, only agronomic-ecological criteria and needs with available data were examined due to data limitations in assessing crop suitability. Therefore, completing land suitability maps by considering more evaluation criteria such as evapotranspiration and the amount of water available is recommended.
Also, to have a "spatial distribution of the optimal cropping pattern", paying attention to the ecological potential of the lands, also considering other criteria and priorities such as natural, socio-cultural, economic and political criteria is necessary. So, we can develop a cropping pattern that provides a basis for desirable space dynamics.

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