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Showing 10 results for hashemi

Hamid Alipour, Sayedenegar Hasheminasab Hasheminasab, Amir Hossein Hatefi, Azam Gholamnia, Yasser Shahnavaz,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)
Abstract

Wind erosion is important in areas with less than 150 mm of rainfall Measuring the extent and severity of wind erosion in many countries, including Iran, there is no station to measure wind erosion sediments and so the deposition estimation methods rely on empirical models so that in many cases there are measurement errors. With estimates wind and water erosion and deposition potential compared using IRIFR EA and MPSIAC models in semi-arid Nematabad Bijar watershed concluded that the IRIFR model quantitatively and qualitatively accuracy and, due to a 22.6% wind erosion and 77.4 percent water erosion effective in reducing the fertility of soil (Ahmadi et al, 2006). This study estimates deposition and wind erosion potential using IRIFR method in esfarayen Miandasht region.

In this study, the data collection and basic research in the area uses of maps such as topography, geology, geomorphology, land capability, vegetation, and include information and meteorological studies, field visits, and the prevailing wind direction in the form of desert and question naires were completed and work units to people in another way - specific preparation, IRIFR experimental model of wind erosion in each of the work units were defined the land to wind erosion susceptibility map was prepared using IRIFR and deposition potential temperature using the relationship between precipitation and sediment yield were obtained. After scoring each of the factors affecting wind erosion facies geomorphology (erosion) and the sum of given annual sediment production rates, the rate of erosion severity maps were produced in ArcGIS environment. Soil erosion severity and sedimentation of the area, were obtained nine factors affecting wind erosion scores are considered in five classes.

The results showed erosion class I (very little) with an area of ​​about 11287.21 acres more land erosion. This erosion class is includes geomorphological facies 1-1-2 (water erosion on the erosion piedmont) and 1-2-2 (water erosion on the apandajz piedmont). and class IV (erosion) with an area of ​​6682.45 acres, is the second largest in the area. This erosional class also includes geomorphological facies detachement region - farm lands – fine desert pavement and the stream. Among stream geomorphologic facies (5-3-2) and arable land (2.3.2) have the most the highest amounts of precipitation.

Wind erosion in the miandasht region,  include 8 erosional form and severity of erosion stream facies, etachement region, farm lands and fine desert pavement have high erosion rates. Topography is flat and low-slope land in the north eastern parts of the area where directly affected by the prevailing winds, led to the destructive power of wind improve. One of the best ways to combat wind erosion in the area around the farm and out carminative Miandasht construction area of agricultural land around the study area and the direction of the prevailing winds in parts of the east, the north east is. The study area of wind erosion control perspective is a set of constraints and capabilities. Fine tissue silt abundant salts in the soil and reduces adhesion of soil particle aggregate structure fragmentation and reduce the threshold velocity of wind erosion in the region and the area are prone to erosion. Existence drought resistant species such as Haloxylon prsicum Artimisia sp. in the region can be developed that will help to control wind erosion.


Sayedenegar Hasheminasab, Reza Jafari,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)
Abstract

Introduction

Trend of increasing natural resource degradation in many parts of the world, is a serious threat to humanity. Desertification is one of the manifestations of the damage that has already suffered as a scourge of many countries, including developing countries are. At present, remote sensing is one of technologies with timeliness data and accuracy suitable for monitoring land use changes in the areas of natural resources. Desertification monitoring and tracking changes, which seeks to desertification that the change could be for any reason and also collect and analyze data from activities, projects, plans and programs that may desertification range condition assessment and reporting to provide them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in land use on desertification monitoring using remote sensing techniques to the agricultural lands around zayandeh rood in the East region of Isfahan.

materials and methods

In this study, the image sensor of TM to date 1987, 1998, ETM+ to date 2002 and  OLI to date 2014 related to the Landsat 5,7 and 8 to obtain the land use map used and then was performed radiometric and geometric correction.Then was used the color combination, the main component analysis, vegetation index and supervised classification method for detection of complications and the maximum likelihood algorithm as the most appropriate method for supervised classification in classes 9 of land cover. After production the land use map correctness evaluating operations with calculation error matrix and then was performed detection operations for these maps. Finally, for desertification of monitoring, land use years 27 changes around zayandeh rood  using the comparison method  is paid changes to identify and was obtained the area of each use.

Results and discussion

For investigate the the process of desertification, land use changes in the period of 27 years. In order to select the appropriate bands in supplying the best color composite satellite images and operations classified in order to reconstruct the images, index optimization factor was applied. The results of accuracy assessment shows that For all the images above the 80% overall accuracy and Kappa statistics indicate that almost 80 percent. Generally good agreement between the classification and classes of users on the ground there. By comparing bit images specified land use changes in the period of 27 years, riverbank has the greatest changes during this period. So during these 27 years the river high Zayandehrood degradation, which could be due to the expansion of agricultural activities in rivers. This degradation is generally represents gradual drying of the river and go surrounding cultivated by farmers. This degradation process in the margins of the river and the gradual drying of the river towards the desertification situation in the region shows.

Conclusion

In year 27 time period, Zayandeh Rood neighboring rivers has changed dramatically, so 86.43% of neighboring rivers was destroyed due to the expansion of agricultural activities vicinity of the river and drying river. Another significant changes, loss of agricultural land is notable such that 64% of this land has been reduced compared to 1987. Of reasons for the loss of agricultural land will be noted the region drought and Zayandeh Rood river drying up and Low rainfall, land use change and the proximity of the region desert. Also, has become about hectares 324.99 Of salt marsh lands to agricultural land. Moreover, the developed urban areas to its development contributed agricultural land and rangeland. Bayer lands around Zayandeh Rood Increase and also in region of rangeland lands Low and has increased Bayer lands  and somewhat until agricultural land which inappropriate use of this land shows in order to the agricultural. That this is the desertification progress in the region. Generally desertification process in this period years 27 has been a growing trend.Therefore multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite data for enhancement, especially for desertification monitoring was large capability and classification after comparison method is helpful for determine the type and direction of changes occurred. Since the development of desertification, limited to a small area and is not recommended range is therefore more effective, in addition to work sheets, other sheets around the area also evaluate the process of desertification is to allow for planning and management in the field of combating desertification exist.


Behzad Raygani, Fargol Goodarzi, Ahmad Talebi, Mohammad Talaeian Araghi, Hadi Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)
Abstract

Assessment of the Probable Impacts of Land Use Changes on Water Quality in Shadeghan
Wetland Using Remot Senseing Data
 
In this research, the evaluation of possible effects of land use change on water quality in Shadegan wetland has been provided with the help of remote sensing data. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and compare user variations in 2000 and 2015 using Landsat satellite imagery (with ETM and OLI sensors) from the study area and processing them in the ERDAS software environment using the unstructured classification method during a period of 15 years old has been investigated. To determine the cause of the changes occurring in the wetland, the water quality of the wetland was evaluated through the help of modeling. Vegetation in the wetland has been rising rapidly, indicating water pollution, an increase in the nutritional status and the early disappearance of this international wetland. With the help of this article, it can be admitted that the development of agricultural lands around the shadegan wetland from 2000 to 2015had caused an increase in pollution in the region, according to available agricultural wastement containing  quantities of herbicides and pesticides which has led to an increase in the growth of algae in the wetland, which has led to an increase in temperature and eventually the death of wetlands and aquatic animals so after selecting images and assign them in 5 classes, the change wetland  maps were obtained during a 15 year various sources were used to determine the best regression model for determining water quality changes in the following, the images were placed in the models and their mean and standard deviation were obtained. The result of the research showed that the Landsat sensor shows the water quality well and can be used to determine the changes. The development of agricultural lands leads to an increase in the eutrophication phenomenon in the wetland and, in the end, reduces the quality of water indicators. In the end, causes quality loss of water.
Key words: Assessment, Land Use Changes, Water Quality, Shadeghan Wetland, Remot Senseing.
 


Masoomeh Hashemi, Ezatallah Ghanavati, Ali Ahmadabadi, Oveis Torabi, Abdollah Mozafari,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)
Abstract

Earthquakes as one of the most important natural disasters on earth, have always caused irreparable damage to human settlements in a short period of time. Severe earthquakes have led to the idea of developing an infrastructure plan to reduce the risks and damages caused by it. The urban water supply system is the most important critical infrastructure that is usually damaged by natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and floods; hence, the function of the pipelines of the water system determines the degree of resilience and design of the infrastructure against multiple natural and man-made hazards. Water network pipelines are the most vulnerable. In this regard, seismic modeling and spatial analysis of the effects of seismic urban water supply network in Tehran were investigated and seismic indices PGV, PGD.PGA of Tehran were calculated and the extent of the area's vulnerability was carefully evaluated. The ANP model was also used to weight the above indices. Questionnaires were prepared and completed by experts in the field of research in order to investigate the interactions between the criteria in terms of their effectiveness or susceptibility. The ANP conceptual model was developed and implemented in SUPER DECISION software. After drawing the hazard status, the calculation of the water supply network vulnerability using SAW method was considered and earthquake risk status on the water supply network was calculated. To calculate the earthquake risk based on R = H * V, the values of these two components (seismic power, vulnerability) are multiplied. This calculation was performed in GIS software on the layers of vulnerability and the final result of this calculation was shown in the amount of risk map. The calculated risk level for the entire water transmission network due to earthquakes has been shown. The results show that more than half of the transmission line network is located in the low risk zone and about 33 percent of transmission networks are in a relatively low risk zone. But high-risk and very high-risk areas account for about 20 percent of Tehran's total area, which is relatively large and will involve many neighborhoods
Mis Sedigheh Hashemi, Dr Ahmad Taghdisi, Dr Farhad Azizpur,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2022)
Abstract


Introduction
Rural areas are more vulnerable to earthquake hazards than urban areas but the vulnerability of rural areas has always been neglected and few studies are worrying about it. Given the importance of villages and played the crucial role in socio-economic development and national security, providing adequate housing for villagers and addressing the problems in this area, in particular, providing them with security and relieving their vulnerability are of particular importance. One of the policies of Iran to reduce the risk of damage; improvement and rehabilitation of rural housing by the Housing Foundation of the Islamic Revolution Which has become one of the most important strategies in Iran due to the extent of natural disasters and their financial and financial losses and their expectations beyond ensuring security against accidents are also a continuation of rural life. neyriz Township is subjected to major and minor faults that the existence of these faults and the probability of earthquake causes vulnerability of the villages of the region. The housing estate of the Islamic Revolution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from 2004 to 2013, has provided 5255 villagers of more than 20 households with facilities for the renovation and renovation of houses. The number of facilities was paid to 66 villages of more than 20 households in the city and supervision of the construction process was carried out. So what seems to be important is the activity that the Housing Foundation has had in its housing estate, its impact on the rural areas, and how much it has been able to achieve resistance and stability in rural housing; in addition to what degree, they have been able to influence their satisfaction. Therefore, the present study addresses the vulnerability of rural dwellings. In this regard, vulnerability is initially studied then the satisfaction of the villagers is examined finally, the share of each vulnerability level criterion is measured on the satisfaction of the villagers and appropriate solutions.

Data and Methodology
 The research methodology is based on its descriptive-analytical nature. Data gathering was conducted through surveying, library and field method. A small portion of the sample includes 230 households from 18 rural in the Neyriz Township. Reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach Alpha (alpha = 0.79). In the qualitative section for the implementation of grounded theory, an interview was conducted with 40 villagers.

Results and Discussion
By studying the vulnerability of rural nursing homes in the Township of Neyriz, the villages of the studied villages are in an unfavorable position in terms of economic and social dimensions. Objective satisfaction indicators show that 51.8% of the villagers' homes were constructed responsive to concrete. 80.4% of the walls of the houses are made with bricks. The roofs of the houses are covered with 75% block and block. Of the studied rural households, 94.6% have personal housing and only 5.4% of the tenants. In the area of providing services in residential units, all the studied villages have water, electricity, telephone and 2.05 villagers are satisfied with the crop of agricultural products, parking lots, agricultural machinery and heating and cooling equipment for their housing.

Conclusion
 Findings showed that the vulnerability of rural housing is not only physical and environmental in nature, but also in social, economic and institutional-organizational dimensions. Meanwhile, vulnerability in physical and environmental dimensions in the study area is lower than other dimensions. Therefore, the existence of unstable housing in rural areas has led to a decline in their quality of life. This situation is strongly influenced by internal and external factors and forces. The lack of financial support, the traditional housing structure, poor design, poor monitoring and enforcement, social constraints, lack of building facilities, weaknesses in government support and regulatory policies, and government institutions are among the main problems of rural dwellings.
According to interviews with villagers, the following solutions can be made to reduce rural housing problems:
 - The costs of facilities and infrastructure are not at the expense of villagers. Therefore, the creation of continuous financial resources for councils and departments can be open.
 - Reducing the problems and obstacles facing applicants for loan use (through increasing credit, decreasing profits and raising the age), providing welfare services and reducing the total poverty of the rural community, granting loans or with benefits and installments Low for women-headed households; increasing the number of borrowers and creating rural people's interest and motivation for living in the countryside.
 - Preserving indigenous architecture, using indigenous materials, avoiding blind imitation of urban housing, etc., are unfortunately much neglected, and new rural houses have become homogeneous and adapted to the natural and physical environment of the countryside.
- In anti-poverty programs, the problems of villagers have been underestimated, which has led to their vulnerability. Therefore, investing in villages, creating complementary agricultural businesses, increasing production and, consequently, increasing rural incomes, can accelerate the growth and development of this sector.Energy saving is considered to be a problem with rural housing problems in terms of access to fossil fuels and mechanical equipment for heating and cooling buildings.

 Key words: Vulnerability, pathology, Earthquake, Neyriz Township

 
Hamed Heidari, Darush Yarahmadi, Hamid Mirhashemi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)
Abstract

Revealing surface reflection forcings of land cover in Lorestan province using MODIS sensor products

Introduction
Human interventions in natural areas as a change in land use have led to a domino effect of anomalies and then environmental hazards. These extensive and cumulative changes in land cover and land use have manifested themselves in the form of anomalies such as the formation of severe runoff, soil erosion, the spread of desertification, and salinization of the soil. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the temperature inductions of the land cover structure of Lorestan province and to analyze the effect of land use changes on the temperature structure of the province. In this regard, the data of land cover classes of MCD12Q2 composite product and ground temperature of MOD11A2 product of MODIS sensor were used. Also, in order to detect the temperature inductions of each land cover during the hot and cold seasons, cross-analysis matrix (CTM) technique was used. The results showed that in general in Lorestan province 5 cover classes including: forest lands, pastures, agricultural lands, constructed lands and barren lands could be detected. The results of cross-matrix analysis showed that in hot and cold seasons, forest cover (IGBP code 5) with a temperature of 48 ° C and urban and residential land cover (IGBP code 13) with a temperature of 16 ° C as the hottest land use, respectively. They count. In addition, it was observed that the thermal inductions of land cover in the warm season are minimized and there is no significant difference between the temperature structure of land cover classes; But in the cold season, the thermal impulses of land cover are more pronounced. The results of analysis of variance test showed that in the cold period of the year, unlike the warm period of the year, different land cover classes; Significantly (Sig = 0.026) has created different thermal impressions in the province. Scheffe's post hoc analysis indicated that this was the difference between rangeland cover classes and billet up cover.   
                                                                                                                  
materials and Method                                                                                                                
 In this study, to reveal the relationship between land cover levels and different land use classes, cross-information matrix analysis was used in the ARC-GIS software platform. Since one of the main objectives of the study was to investigate and reveal the albedo inductions of land cover classes in Lorestan province, so the relationship between these two factors was investigated by cross-matrix analysis technique. In this regard, two sets of data were used. The first set of data was related to land cover classes of MODIS sensor composite product with a spatial resolution of 1 km and hierarchical data format (MCD      
   12(Q2 (MCD product) which was obtained from the database of this sensor

Conclusion
 Land cover classes or perhaps it can be said that land use is one of the most important shapers and determinants of climate near the earth. In this study, it was observed that in general, 5 major land cover classes in the province are separable, among which rangeland and forest lands account for 85% of the total land cover of the province. On the other hand, it was seen in this study that the average spatial albedo of the province in spring, autumn and winter is about 0.2, which is very close to the global value of this component, but in winter the average value of this index in the province reaches 0.3, which can be increased Shows attention. The five land cover classes in the province had their own unique albido induction in winter, which was separable and distinct from each other, but in spring, summer and autumn, no significant distinction of albido induction of these land cover was revealed.                                                                                                                                       

Keywords: Land cover changes, Land surface temperature, Cross-information analysis matrix, Lorestan province












 
Fatemeh Dargahian, Mehdi Pourhashemi, Samaneh Razavizadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)
Abstract

Evaluation of occurrence, tracing and origin of dust phenomenon in Zagros forest degradation monitoring sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province
Abstract
Decay and drought of oak has occurred in more than 40 countries, including Iran. Numerous factors have contributed to the drought and oak decay. Among the natural causes of climate change is common in all countries, but dust has played an important role as a contributing factor to the decline of the Zagros forests, which are adjacent to and the passage of dust currents. In this study, with the aim of investigating the occurrence of dust and its direction in Zagros deterioration monitoring sites in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, meteorological statistics and data of the nearest synoptic station were used. Dust event codes were extracted from 100 phenomenon codes (0-99) and the frequency of dust events with different horizontal field of view was investigated. In order to identify the direction of dust entry, the graph diagram was used and to draw the dust, WR-PLOT software was used. Data related to wind direction and speed were extracted and wind direction and speed corresponding to dust days were extracted to enter the dust drawing software and converted to a special format of this software. HYSPLIT simulation model was used to identify the source of incoming dust sources in the area of deterioration monitoring sites. The results showed that the occurrence of dust in decay monitoring sites has an increasing trend and the path of dust entering the decay sites from the west and southwest and northwest have been important, respectively. And being in the path of incoming atmospheric currents has been affected by dust mites inside and outside the country. Tracing the origin of dust particles at three altitudes of 1000, 500 and 1500 meters showed that the most important sources of dust entering the region are from Iraq and Saudi Arabia, which has been strengthened by passing through the centers of domestic dust in Khuzestan province. Considering that the occurrence of dust and its entry path can be one of the factors contributing to the decline of Zagros oak trees and the extent of its effects is different in the south-north and west-east slopes, help decision makers and planners of forest ecosystems. At the macro level, with the control programs of domestic centers and international cooperation with neighboring countries to make fruitful and fruitful efforts to preserve and rehabilitate forests.

Keywords: Oak decay, Internal and External dust, Golghobar, WR-PLOT software, HYSPLIT model

 
Alireza Khosravi, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam, Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared, Hamid Nazaripour,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2023)
Abstract


Comparison of Results of GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis and Remote Sensing Indicators in Kahir River Basin, Iran.

Alireza Khosravi1, Mehdi Azhdary Moghaddam2*, Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared3,
 Hamid Nazaripour4

1. M.Sc. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
2. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3. Associate professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
4.Assistant professor, Department of Physical Geography, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.


Abstract
Flood risk maps and Flood zoning techniques are useful tools to manage this hazard in the catchment and mitigation of flood impacts. In South Baluchestan and Kahir Basin, due to the existence of winter and summer precipitation regimes, the occurrence of flash floods is inevitable due to the establishment of rural communities and settlements in flood-prone areas, the flooding has caused many damages to the region's vulnerable population. In order to zone flood risk and prepare flood risk maps, climatic data, hydrological, land cover, and topography of the basin were prepared from reliable sources and according to scientific studies, 12 variables affecting flood risk in the form of five main components (Hydrology, vegetation, land cover, climate, and topography) were prepared. According to the regional conditions of the basin, using the opinions of experts based on scientific methods, the weight of each variable and component was determined by Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP). Using two methods of fuzzy overlay, Weighted Overlay, and the Geographical Information System facilities, a map of variables and components was prepared after reclassification and fuzzy membership function with appropriate operators. The results showed that the fuzzy overlay method concerning its dominant logic has a better distinction of flood-prone areas and can help determine flood hazard micro-zonation in the drainage basins like the Kahir basin. By comparing the results from the real data of the January 2020 flood obtained from satellite images. Due to poor infrastructure and high economic, the risk of flooding may be more harmful and widespread in the future.

Keywords: Flood, Fuzzy logic, Weighted overlay, Southern Baluchestan, GIS.
 
Dr Seyed Keramat Hashemi Ana,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (5-2023)
Abstract


Abstract
Introduction and issue: In today's century when the effects of climate change on different sectors are undeniable, investigating and analyzing the behavior during dry spells is always of special importance and basic priority. On the other hand, the occurrence of extreme events such as precipitation can accelerate the occurrence of climate change. In Iran, rainfall is one of the basic variables for evaluating the potential availability of water resources, but its temporal and spatial distribution is very uneven. The change of dry Spells depending on precipitation always have different fluctuations in different seasons of the year. It seems that this is due to the inherent behavior of precipitation, which generally shows itself as an unstable and unruly variable. This feature causes changes and differences in the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation in arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. This inconsistency will face fundamental challenges to regularize dry spells on a seasonal and monthly scale. With a detailed understanding of the behavioral mechanism of dry spells, it is possible to know more precisely the climatic condition of different regions in order to plan in sectors such as; Water resources, agriculture, health, transportation and etc we able to do basic and preventive measures compatible with climate change. It is hoped that this research and related studies will be a positive step towards a more accurate understanding of the climate and its behavior in different seasons of the year.
Data and method: In order to investigate the seasonal behavior of the duration of dry spells, we used daily precipitation data for 44 synoptic stations of Iran and a 30-year statistical period (1988-2018). To reveal the behavior of dry spells, the precipitation data after validation and temporal integration were classified on a seasonal scale.
After the statistical integration of the data, dry spells related to precepitation were extracted and long-term periods lasting more than 20 days were the basis of the study. In the next step, to determine the seasonal weight of courses was used, the step-by-step evaluation method of Swara's fuzzy-numerical logic (SWARA). Thus, in the first step, the longest and most frequent periods are sorted based on relative importance. In the second step, the initial weights of the courses are determined, and in the third and fourth steps, the final and normalized weights of the courses in different seasons are determined, and unrealistic results are removed from the final analysis for proper explanation.
Findings and Results: The effectiveness and weight of each of the criteria with the Swara method in the fuzzy environment showed that in the western and northern regions of the country, winter and spring seasons and criteria such as reversibility and percentage of probability of occurrence have the most initial weight in explaining the periods. In the final explanation, these two season,s had a high weight. These two seasons explain more than 65% of the weight of courses in these regions. In the southern regions and parts of the center (Isfahan, East Fars and West Kerman), winter and autumn explain more than 71% of the weight of periods. Among the criteria explaining the weight of the courses, the reversibility criterion and the probability of occurrence have taken more than 55% of the weight. The northern and humid regions of the country vary in criteria from periods such as; Reversibility, continuity and probability of occurrence are more apparent and this indicates that the border of dry areas in the future of Iran's climate will move towards northern areas. It can be acknowledged that the behavior of long-term dry periods is more a function of two criteria of reversibility and probability of their occurrence. The weighting of the criteria affecting dry periods showed that the return period and the continuation of periods in the cold seasons of the year in dry areas have a more irregular behavior than in wet areas and have more weight in explaining the periods. By determining the weight of seasons in explaining dry periods, we can have better planning and management in related sectors such as water and agriculture.

Key words: dry spells, weighing, precipitation, climate, Swara method, Iran.
 
Masoomeh Hashemi, Ezatallah Ghanavati, Ali Ahmadabadi, Oveis Torabi, Abdollah Mozafari,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)
Abstract

Introduction
Earthquakes as one of the most important natural disasters on earth, have always caused irreparable damage to human settlements in a short period of time. Severe earthquakes have led to the idea of developing an infrastructure plan to reduce the risks and damages caused by it. The urban water supply system is the most important critical infrastructure that is usually damaged by natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and floods; hence, the function of the pipelines of the water system determines the degree of resilience and design of the infrastructure against multiple natural and man-made hazards. Considering the inability to prevent earthquakes and the inability of experts to accurately predict the time it is necessary to know the status of earthquake-structure and seismicity in Tehran to determine the amount of earthquake risk in order to make the necessary planning for structural reinforcement. Theoretical and field studies of tectonic seismicity in the Tehran area show that this city is located on an earthquake-prone area around the active and important faults of Masha, north of Tehran, Rey and Kahrizak. The occurrence of 20 relatively severe earthquakes illustrates this claim. Regarding the location of faults in Tehran city, it is necessary to assess the vulnerability of Tehran water facilities.
Research Methodology
The present study is a practical-analytic one. Considering the severity of earthquake damages, it is necessary to conduct earthquake hazard zonation studies in different urban areas and to determine important indicators of damage assessment such as maximum ground acceleration, maximum ground speed, maximum ground displacement. Three indices were considered for mapping earthquake seismic zones and their integration into the GIS presented a seismic hazard map. In the analysis of earthquake risk, it is necessary to evaluate two indicators of risk and vulnerability. To prepare the general hazard power mapping the weights obtained from the ANP model were applied to the existing raster layers via the Raster Calculator command. In this way, the standardized layers are multiplied separately by their respective weights and finally overlapped. In order to evaluate the vulnerability, a series of evaluation indices are introduced and ANP techniques are used. The relative value of each index is then calculated using the multivariate approach using the SAW technique. In order to calculate the earthquake risk based on R = H * V relation, the values ​​of these two components were multiplied. This calculation was performed in GIS software on the risk and vulnerability raster layer and the final result of this calculation was displayed on the map.
Description and interpretation of results
In this study, we tried to estimate the relative risk and risk of seismic hazard on the water supply lines in Tehran, using available data and scientific methods, and map the risk level. These lines should be prepared first by the amount of earthquake hazard risk and then by the risk map, to estimate the earthquake risk on the water supply network. first the earthquake risk then the status of the hazard lines should be calculated. The vulnerability of the water supply lines was calculated using the ANP model by multiplying the total potential hazard risk then substrate transfer network vulnerability risk map obtained transmission network. The highest risk was in the west and north of Tehran. The maps showed the risk potential and the vulnerability of the lines. These areas had high seismic potential and the density of the lines was higher in these areas. Water transmission facilities are at risk and earthquake hazards may be affected by damage to the transmission lines, drinking water to a large population will be difficult, as well as performing necessary zoning to prevent future expansion of the facility in place. These analyzes are a prelude to applying corrective techniques to pipelines to reduce their vulnerability and prevent newly created pipelines from locating in vulnerable areas. Since the results of this study are risk maps along the route of the water supply lines, so in order to prepare a risk control program, we can identify the high risk pipeline map and identify the pipeline vulnerability. And, depending on its location, provided an appropriate prevention and control plan for the conditions surrounding the pipeline environment.


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