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Mohammad Haseli, Hamid Jalalian,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)

The best path to development is the primary focus on the potentials and threats of the environment and accordingly efficient use of the land. In this regard, it has a closely relation between agricultural and rural development and natural resources. The type of land use is a main factor in soil erosion and sediment production in the watersheds. In this research, it has been studied and evaluated the soil erosion in the Aleshtar plain catchment with aim of developing agricultural exploitation.

This study is based on PSIAC model. The PSIAC method has been designed based on the estimating of sediment potential with 9 important effective factors contains surface of the earth, soil type, weather conditions, runoff conditions,  topography,  land cover, Land use, current erosion condition, slope of river erosion and sediment transportation in the soil erosion. In the process of this research using geographical information system (GIS), the mentioned data analyzed, integrated, and finally layers of information were prepared. Followed by extraction of units, erosion zoning of the studied area has been implemented.

The total area of the studied area is 80305 hectares and is located in the northern parts of Lorestan province (southwest of Iran) and geomorphologic features are  almost mountainous and 39.65% of their area are mountains and hills. The maximum altitude is 3600 meters; the minimum is 1500 meters. and the average height of 2116 meters. Its climate type (based on De Marten method) is Mediterranean climatic pattern exists and  the average annual rainfall is 506 mm. The Aleshtar City is the only urban center in the area but there are 208 villages. The economy of the settlements is based on agriculture (farming, gardening and animal husbandry).

     Based on the findings of this research, 37.92% of the total land area of the basin is eroded (classes I, II, III). The land consists mainly of low slope and plain basin and is suitable for plantation (I). In this zone, 98 rural settlements (47.11%) are located. Relatively deep soils and flat are the features of these lands so the rate of erosion is low (II). 84 rural settlements (40.38%) are classified in this class. Shallow soils, these lands need to have conservation measures and can be managed under the operation of arable, rangeland, forest and resorts (III). 1 rural settlement (0.48%) is located in this class of erosion. 62.09% of the total basin land is located in the classes IV and V. A total of 25 rural settlements (12%) are located in this class. These lands under certain conditions can be planted; because erosion in the land is relatively high and the limitations in comparison with class III is more. Therefore they need more protection operations for exploitation. Also in these lands that are located in the high topography of the basin; erosion is extreme (Class V), which makes arable exploitation impossible.

    Generally the land use in Aleshtar basin is faced to erosion limitation, so the control of the soil erosion and soil conservation and water resources management are essential. However, the locations of the most rural settlements were based on low to moderate erosion zones which indicates that the ancient has had a traditional preparatory thinking.

    As a general recommendation, it can be said that in any location, including rural and urban settlements, along with the development of agricultural activities, attention to the erosion and zoning is essential.

Mr Masoud Jalali, Mr , Mr Abdullah Faraji, Mr Ali Mohammad Mansourzadeh, Mr Sayyed Mahmoud Hosseini Seddigh,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-2020)

Analysis and zoning of thermal physiological stresses in Iran
Human health is influenced by weather variables in all circumstances, including atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature around them. Based on climate hazard and climate changes, different parts of human life and economic and social strategies such as health, hydrological pollutants And agriculture had a profound effect, including the discussion of the effects of thermal stress on human health over the last few decades, and has become a major issue in the world's scientific circles. Heat and cold stresses, the exposure of humans to extreme heat and cold, are part of the extreme events, often encountered by people during daily activities or in the workplace, and affecting human physical activities. It is important that, if the body is not cooled through transpiration or cooling mechanism, severe deaths are inflicted on human health; therefore, the person has to reduce his activity in order to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress. Hence, many researchers consider the thermal stress component more important than other components in assessing human health.
In this study, using the physiological equivalent thermometer of PET thermal stress assessment and zoning of human thermal physiological stresses in Iran, with the length of the common statistical period from 1959 to 2011, and for the arsenal of thermal physiological stresses of Iran Forty stations have been used as representatives of Iranian cities. To calculate the physiological equivalent thermal temperature, all the effective meteorological elements in the human energy bill are measured at an appropriate height of climate biology, such as 1/5 meters above the Earth's surface. Data on climatic elements are provided by the Meteorological Organization of Iran. In the absence of data for some courses, linear regression method was used to reconstruct these missing data. After calculating the indices, the frequencies were also monitored and finally, using the GIS technique, the Kriging method of the study area was based on the frequency of occurrence of the indicators. Therefore, in order to achieve the results and objectives of the present study, software such as SPSS for data normalization as well as missing data was analyzed and analyzed using Ray Man's model based on meteorological elements to calculate the equivalent thermal physiological temperature of humans. Also, using the GIS software and Ordinary Kriging method, the best interpolation method was used to zon the human cysiological stresses.
Today, in the planning of human health and comfort, the study of the physiological thermal stress plays an important role. In this regard, weather conditions can be used in the long-term planning of climate and in the short term planning of atmospheric conditions. In the present study, using the thermophysical Thermal Equivalent Thermal Index (PET), the climate climatic Atlas of Iran was prepared on a monthly basis. Calculated values for 40 stations in the country with a total statistical period of 52 years (1959-2011) were prepared. The results of this study showed that the spatial distribution of the physiological equivalent thermal temperature index in the country follows the altitudes, roughness and latitude. Accordingly, the low values of the indicator, which relate to the stresses of the cold, are consistent with the high and mountainous regions as well as the high latitudes, and vice versa, the thermal stresses occur in low and low elevations, as well as low latitudes, which of course, severe heat stresses occurred in the summer. Because throughout this season, the entire country of Iran is dominated by high tidal altitudes at high and low levels of ground pressure (1000 hp) with its warm and dry air, causing extreme heat and The term effects of heat waves on humans, heat loss, thermal contraction of the muscles and skin dryness, infectious or skin diseases, inflammation, sunburn, dizziness, fatigue, and mortality due to an increase in allergies can be mentioned. Significant differences in the environmental conditions of the mountainous masses of Kerman, Yazd and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces with their surrounding areas or low and low northern areas, and especially the Moghan Plain and Sarakhs plain, located in the upper latitudes of the country The issue is that the role of elevation in spatial distribution of the country's climate is much more colorful than factors such as latitude and longitude. The results of the analysis of the monthly thermal physiological stress maps showed that in terms of the area without tension, the march of the month with 47/8% of the area (778424/2km2) is in the first place and has the most favorable environmental conditions, The moon with 43/5 percent of the area (709275/2km2) is in the second position and also in March with 22.6 (359128/9km2) in the third, August and the last month. The highest thermal stresses (29
Mr Sayyed Mahmoud Hosseini Seddigh, Dr Masoud Jalali, Dr Teimour Jafarie,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Study changes and spatial pattern seasonal of outgoing long wave radiation in IRAN
Changes in OLR can be considered as a critical indicator of climate change and hazard; studies have shown that since 1985, long-range radiation has increased the output of the Earth and is a cause of increased heat in the troposphere. This has led to an increase in drought and a slight decrease in the cloud in the upper terposphere, as well as an increase in Hadley's rotation toward higher latitudes. On the other hand, clouds play an important role in the long-wave changes of the Earth's output and are adequately evaluated at the global energy scale at all spatial and temporal scales.
Data and methods
In the present study, in order to calculate the variability and the pattern of seasonal spatial dependence of the long-range radiation output of Iran, OLR data from 1974 to 1976 were daily updated from the NCEP / NCAR databases of the National Oceanic and Oceanographic Organization of the United States of America. To calculate Iran's long-range output radiation, in the Iranian atmosphere (from 25 to 40 degrees north and 42.5 to 65 degrees east), using Grads and GIS software. First, the general characteristics of the earth's long wave were investigated. To obtain an overview of the spatial status of the seasonal changes of the long-wave and its variability over the country, the average maps and coefficients of the long-wave variations of the earth's output were plotted in the spring, summer, fall, and winter seasons. In this study, the slope of linear regression methods using mini tab software was used for trend analysis. Hotspot analysis uses Getis-Ord Gi statistics for all the data.
Explaining the results
The results of this study showed that the mean of long wave in Iran is 262.3 W/m2. The highest mean long-range radiation output in spring, autumn, and winter is related to latitudes below 30 degrees north, especially in the south and south-east of Iran, with the highest mean in autumn and winter with wavelengths. High output 282-274 W/m2 as well as spring with mean W/m2 295-291 below latitude 27.5° C, which is in Sistan and Baluchestan provinces, south and southeast of  Fars. Hormozgan has also been observed; the lowest OLR average in these seasons is observed above latitude 30 ° N in the northwestern provinces with the lowest mean in the season Yew and winter with mean long wavelength output 213-225 W/m2 and also observed in spring with mean 226-235 W/m2 at latitude 37.5 ° C and latitude 44 ° N in Maku and Chaldaran Is. In summer, the highest OLR averages of 316-307 W/m2 are observed in east of Iran with centralization of Zabol, Kavir plain and Tabas desert as well as west of Iran in Kermanshah, Khuzestan and Ilam provinces, with central length The latitude is 47.50 degrees north and latitude 32/32 east in Ilam province in the city of Musian, due to desertification, saltwater and sand, as well as the absence of high clouds, indicating an increase in the frequency of earthquakes and It is a drought that will lead to shortage of rainfall and increased rainfall in these areas; the lowest average long-range radiation output in summer with W/m2 235-226 extends as a narrow strip from southeast to Chabahar and extends to the middle Zagros highlands in Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province and northwest areas in Maku, Chaldaran, Khoi, Jolfa, Marand, Varzegan, Kalibar, Parsabad, Ahar and Grammy cities. It has also been observed in the northern coastal provinces of Iran including Mazandaran, Gilan, Astara, Talesh, Namin. According to the trend of long-wave radiation output of Iran increased by 0.16 W/m2 and decreased by 0.37 W / m2 with increasing latitude. Seasonal trends indicate that 100 percent of the country has a significant increase in winter and no significant fall in autumn. 21.24% in summer and 18.35% in spring have no significant decreasing trend, which in south-east includes Sistan and Baluchestan, Kerman, Fars and Hormozgan provinces and 78.76% in summer and 81.65% in summer. Spring has a significant non-significant upward trend. The spatial dependence of the hot spots on Iran's long-wave radiation at 90, 95 and 99% confidence levels is 45.49% in spring, 37.57 in autumn, and 44.55% in winter. The high wave radiation of summer is 42.2%, which is observed in north of Sistan and Baluchestan province with central Zabul and in east of Lot and Tabas desert and in west of Ilam province with central of Musian. But in spring, autumn and winter in the south and southeast of the country including Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan, Kerman, South Fars, Bushehr provinces and in central Iran including Lot Plains, Desert and Salt Lake and Tabas sandy desert. It is also observed in western Iran in Ilam province, so that these areas correspond to the tropical belt at latitude 30 degrees north. This is due to its location in the subtropical region, the low latitude of Iran, especially south and southeast to central Iran including Lut Plain, Desert and Tabas Desert due to its proximity to the equator, the angle of sunlight is higher and perpendicular. Spun. The spatial dependence of cold spots on long-wave radiation at 90, 95 and 99% confidence levels in spring is 33.44%, autumn is 41.41% and in winter is 44.55%. Cold spots of long-wave radiation are 25.5% in the summer, located at latitudes above 35 ° N in the subtropical belt and include northeast areas in North Khorasan Province in the cities of Bojnourd, Esfarain, Jajarm, Mane and Semlaghan, Safi Abad and northern coastal areas in Golestan, Mazandaran, Guilan, and northwestern provinces of Iran including Ardabil, East and West Azerbaijan, Qazvin and Zanjan North Tfaat Kvh¬Hay Zagros includes the provinces of Kurdistan, Hamedan, Markazi, Qom, Kermanshah North East part. Minimum OLR cold spot with average output longwave radiation of 213 W/m2 220 northwest of Khoy, Maku, Chaldaran, Jolfa and Marand can be an indicative role for determining convective activity and dynamic / frontal precipitation.
Keywords: Temporal and Spatial Variations-OLR-Spatial Index of Statistics Gi.
Mr Sayyed Mahmoud Hosseini Seddigh, Mr Masoud Jalali, Mr Hossein Asakereh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2022)

The expansion of the pole toward the tropical belt is thought to be due to climate change caused by human activities, in particular the increase in greenhouse gases and land use change. The variability of the tropical belt width to higher latitudes indicates the expansion of the subtropical arid region, which indicates an increase in the frequency of drought in each hemisphere. In order to change the width of the tropical belt of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle offerings, indices of  precipitation minus evaporation, wind vector orbital component, stream function, tropopause surface temperature, OLR, and SLP have been used. Findings showed that the expansion of tropical belt latitude with stream function to higher latitudes with 1° to 3° latitude and the effect of Hadley circulation subsidence has increased the amplitude of evaporation minus precipitation has shown that the fraction of precipitation minus evaporation 1° to 3° latitude geographically increased. The subtropical jet has increased the movement of the upper branches of troposphere from the Hadley circulation by 2° to 4° latitude, which can have a negative effect on transient humidification systems as well as on the amount of precipitation. The extension of the pole towards the tropical belt, which is a consequence of climate change and hazards, will lead to the displacement of the pole towards the tropical side of the river, thus providing dry tropical belts to the pole; Also, the long-wave radiation of the earth's output has increased by 1° to 2° latitude and has caused an increase in heat in the upper troposphere, which has increased the dryness and slightly reduced the clouds in the upper troposphere and also caused the tropical belt to expand to higher latitudes. Has been. In general, the research findings showed that most tropical belt indicators have been increasing since 1979.

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