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Nasim Hossien Hamzeh, Ebrahim Fattahi, Mjtaba Zoljodi, Parvin Ghaforian, Abbas Ranjbar,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

Dust particles consist of important aerosols and resulting in blowing strong winds on the surface of desert areas. These particles enter the atmosphere under the influence of different factors including: weather condition (wind, precipitation and temperature), land surface (topography, humidity level, roughness and vegetation), soil features (texture, density, composition and land use (agriculture).

Today powerful dust storm destroys people lives and causes severe damages to their life and also causes financial problems in most regions of the world especially in west and southwest of Asia. Dust storm is one of the most important natural phenomena and also a kind of severe natural disaster that influence Iran and its west and southwest part. The location of Iran on the desert belt is accompanied by frequent increasing of sand and dust storm. Integral prediction of dust storm phenomena can be useful in decreasing damages caused by these storms. So synoptic-dynamic analysis of dust storms and their simulation play an important role in achieving to this goal.

In this research, we investigate severe dust storm in August 2005 that affected a large area of our country. Select of dusty days were based on minimum visibility and maximum durability of that dust storm. At first, we show the minimum of daily visibility table. These data has been provided by Meteorological Organization in 5 western cities. The synoptic maps were related to these phenomena derived from NOAA website and synoptic and dynamic interpretation has been done. We have got the data with resolution of 2.5 degree from NOAA website.

Then 700 hpa relative vorticity maps were drawn. We investigate MODIS images instrument on Aqua satellite and evaluate the amount of mass concentration of dust particles. Then the Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model has been used to determine the backward trajectory of dust particles. We run HYSPLIT model by GDAS data with a resolution of 0.5 degrees. At last we investigate the output of the WRE-CHEM model. This model was run to simulate dust storms in 7-10 August and FNL data with a resolution 1 degree use for initial and boundary conditions. WRF-CHEM is used to simulate dust condition and transmission. As a part of WRF model, its main application is the study of atmosphere chemistry.

At 500 hpa a very strong ridge entered Iran from the southwest. It covered all areas of our country which prevents the transference of dust to high levels of atmosphere. In 700 hpa relative vorticity maps show one day before dust storm reach to Iran a Positive voriticity is located in Iraq and Syria. So dust comes up to higher levels of the atmosphere and in dusty days in our country. There is a negative voriticity located in our country and because of downside movement of the air, dust storm happen in Iran.

Dust loading and friction velocity of outputs of the model has been drawn in dusty days. The time series of dust concentration of output models for Tabriz are compared with the concentration data of Environmental Organization of visibility data. Result show that a low pressure system is located over the Oman sea that its blaze has been extended to the northwest of Iran. On the other hand a high pressure center is located in the Europe that extended to the east of Mediterranean. So strong pressure gradient were in Iraq and Syria and they caused the creation of strong winds in their deserts which caused dust emission.

Friction velocity related to the model outputs show that the velocity of wind is high in dusty days in Iraq and Syria. So conditions are suitable for dust raining. Satellite images showed that WRF/CHEM model is simulated very well in emission, source, diffusion and the extent of the areas covered with dust. Comparing MP10 concentration of the model output with and Environment Organization data of Tabriz city show that WRF/CHEM model forecast daily changes well. But model underestimate significantly in quantity of concentration. This error may be due to a model considering only dust quantity but other pollutants affected on visibility. In general it can be said that in this event, dust concentration has been underestimated by WRF/CHEM model especially in maximum amount of PM10 concentration.

Dr Parvin Zarei, Dr Ali Talebi, Dr Mahmoud Alaei Taleghani,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Landslides are considered as natural disasters that lead to many deaths and severe property damages worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effective factors in order to make urgent planning and to present management solutions for the sensitive regions. Massive movement of materials, such as a landslide, is one of the problematic hillslope processes in Javanrood located in the northwest of folded Zagros, for this phenomenon leads to demolition of forest lands, farms, and pastures of the region. Moreover, it is considered as a threat for road traffic. The present study aims slope stability analyses and landslide hazard zonation applying the process-based model (Sinmap).
This research was done by both field and experimental methods. Research steps are summarized as following.
Geomorphologic, hydrologic and soil mechanic characteristics of slopes in the considered zone were the required information in this study. To obtain this information, at first, it was necessary to recognize sample slopes to measure the above- mentioned variables. Therefore, first of all, landslides distribution map was prepared in the considered area then, on this basin, sample slopes were selected to measure essential variables. Sample hillslopes were recognized as 12 hillslopes, 5 stable (lack of land sliding) and 7 unstable hillslopes (having land sliding mass). They were 1- 12 numbers. 1-5 hillslopes are stable and 6-12 unstable. After selecting sample hillslopes, necessary parameters were assessed as following:
Mechanical features of soil: soil sampling from each hillslope was done the mechanical features of soil, so 50 kg soil was removed from each slope, from 75 cm to 1cm depth. In order to sampling soft and coarse soils, a core cuter devise and shovel were used, respectively. Sampled soils were transferred to Kermanshah soil mechanic laboratory, Kermanshah provincial transport office and necessary parameters, including dry soil specific weight(γ d), wet soil specific weight (γt), hydraulic conductivity , soil internal friction angle(φ) ,soil cohesion , and soil porosity were determined by using direct shear test.
Determining the geometric parameters of slopes: except for using topography map, altitude numerical model (Dem) with a pixel size of 20 by 20 m and satellite images were used to determine morphology parameters and to identify various hillslope types. Applying GIS software, manual and laser tape measure, clinometer, slope geometry characteristics such as mean slope (beta), slope width (W), slope length (L) area, were extracted.
Model implementation
The model used in this study was Talebi (2008) model which was, in fact, an extended model of process-oriented (physically based) model, being a combination of geometry model, hydrology model (permanent condition) and infinite slope stability theory. After obtaining necessary parameters to get slope factor of security (F S) including laboratory, topography and hydrology parameters, Fs values for each slope were measured by Matlab software
Unstable slopes of the region mainly have the stability coefficient less than 1 which is classified as very high vulnerable class. They have low inner friction angle, less than 29 degrees, based on geo-mechanic properties of soil. Moreover, their gradient angle is more than 35 percent. In term of shape, most of them have concave profile curvature and convergent plan which lead to slower drainage, the increase of relative saturation saving of the soil, and the decrease of stability. The results of the landslide hazard zonation mapping indicate that the majority of the study area located in protection class includes 26 percent of the study area. The lowest percentage of study area belonging to middle stability and quasi-stable classes which constitute 9.2 and 6.2 precent of the study area respectively.
According to landslide hazard zonation applying the process-based model (Sinmap), it can be included that percentage of stability is less than percentage of instability in Javarood region. So that the highest percentage of area is located in the protective class (26 %) and high threshold of instability (15.9 %) and a lower percentage of the region is located as stable and quasi-stable (20 %).This results indicates  that the susceptibility of the scope of the study area in terms of inherent instability. So that natural factors (concave longitudinal profile and low friction, high angle of slope and high saturation coefficient) in these areas will certainly cause the landslide phenomenon. Therefore, this hillslopes will unstable under the influence of human activities such as leveling hillslope for the construction of residential or their road cutting.

Mr Ali Hasanzadeh, Mr Hooshmand Ataei, Mr Nader Parvin, Mr Amir Gandomkar,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Agricultural crops have damaged a lot due to the aftermath of late spring frost, and because low temperatures have damaging effects on agricultural production, it is essential to anticipate and prevent potential damages. Often, atmospheric temperature variations are very urgent due to the high temperature of the systems and the plants cannot adapt themselves with severe oscillations and, have been damaged. The aim of this study was to analyze the climate of the spring frost in Kermanshah, identifying the sea level equations and the late spring freezing frost of the period from 1990 to 2015. This survey has been done to determine the period of the freezing phenomenon, determine the minimum daily temperature of 7 stations placed in Kermanshah,  Hamedan, and Ilam. After analyzing the data of spring frost freezing of Kermanshah province using the main component analysis technique and hierarchical clustering method, the most common 10 patterns of late spring coldness of the area were studied and determined. In 10 resulting cluster, 8 clusters were related to the high-pressure pattern of Siberia. From the total 91 days of spring frost freezing in Kermanshah province (79% (72 days)) is due to the high rainfall of Siberia, 12% (11 days)  is due to the Mediterranean climate and 9% (8 days) is due to the Van lake climate. These pressure patterns were named according to the location of their deposition, which caused the loss of the environment and the freezing frost of the spring.
Dr Amir Saffari, Dr Ramin Hatamifard, Dr Mansor Parvin,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

 Karst Geomorphology effects on the environmental hazard intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater resources (Case study: the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins)
Karst is the result of the dissolution (physical and chemical) in carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and evaporate rocks. Karst developing is affected by climatological and geological factors. In the other words Karst landscapes and karst aquifers are formed by the dissolution of carbonate rocks by water rich in carbon dioxide waters. Karst aquifers include valuable freshwater resources, but are sometimes difficult to exploit and are almost always vulnerable to contamination, due to their specific hydrogeologic properties, therefore, karst aquifers require increased protection and application of specific hydrogeologic methods for their investigation. The groundwater protection in karst aquifer has a special importance, because the transit time for unsaturated and saturated zone is so quickly that the attenuation of the pollutant. Karst groundwater vulnerability mapping should form the basis for protection zoning and land use planning. A conceptual framework was devised for vulnerability mapping based on this European approach.
Social and economic life of cities such as Nourabad, Alashtar, and numerous rural societies is connected to the Gareen anticline springs. In this paper we used PaPRIKa method for vulnerability assessment in the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins.
Material and Methods
 The Gareen anticline in the Zagros Mountain range is located in the active deforming Zagros fold-thrust belt and Sanandaj-Sirjan zon. Alashtar and Nourabad karst aquifers are located in the north of Lorestan province. There are several thrust faults with northwest–southeast strike such as Gareen-Gamasiab and Gareen-Kahman Faults. Nourabad unit is composed mainly by gray limestone rocks, embedded marl limestone, recrystallized limestone and pyroclastic rocks. One of the most important features of the structural geology of the Alashtar unit, is abundance of the sedimentary rocks and scarcity of igneous rocks in this area. In other words In the Study basins the main geological formations incloud: Bakhtiarian conglomerate, carbonates of Sormeh, Taleh Zang, Pabdeh and Kashkan Formations.
The groundwater vulnerability assessment methods (PaPRIKa) applied at the test sites were designed specifically for karst aquifers. They are based on various types of information concerning the physical characteristics of the unsaturated and saturated zones, the aquifer structure and its hydrological behavior.
The PaPRIKa method takes into consideration criteria for both structure and functioning of the aquifer. Based on EPIK and RISK resource methods, PaPRIKa method was developed as a resource and source vulnerability mapping method, allowing assessing vulnerability with four criteria: Protection, Rock type, Infiltration and Karstification. The P map (Protection) considers the protection provided to the aquifers by layers above the aquifers: the S (soil texture, structure and thickness), Ca (permeability formations), the Uz (thickness, lithology and fracture degree of unsaturated zone) and E (Epikarst aquifer). Moreover, including the catchments of water losses where the vulnerability is higher. R map (Rock type) considers the lithology and the degree of fracturing of the sutured zone. I map (Infiltration) distinguishes concentrated from diffuse infiltration. Ka map (Karstification development) assesses the drainage capacity and the organization of the karst conduits network.
To  calculate  the vulnerability  index,  the  four  mentioned  maps(P. R. I. Ka)  have been  combined  using  the  following  equation coefficients (eq.1):
PaPRIKa Index= 0.2 P + 0.2 R + 0.4 I + 0.2 Ka                                        (1) eq
Due to the fact that karst geomorphology has a great impact on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of water resources and the vulnerability assessment of these resources, fuzzy logic has been used to zonation of the Karst development in the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins.  In the fuzzy method used a gamma operator (eq.2):
µ Combination= ((Fuzzy Algebraic Sum) (Fuzzy Algebraic Product)) 1-γ                                                (2) eq                    
The vulnerability map for aquifers was prepared using the software Arc GIS10.4.
Discussion and Results
In the Gareen Antarctic region, due to the availability of suitable Karstification, includes: Lithology, Active Tectonics, Mediterranean climate (with average rainfall of between 454-448 mm and average temperature of 13 C˚) features are formed by various forms of karst such as closed pits (Doline, Swallow Hole, Aven, Polyeh (Peljee), several types of Karrens, dissolution Cavities, small and large Caves and Springs. The most important karst features in this area including Dolines (Solutional, Collapse, Subsidence and Dropout) which are known the Karst Nival. Based on the Karst development zoning map by using the fuzzy logic, 15% of the study area has been developed. Due to the vulnerability based on PaPRIKa method, the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins divided into 5 categories. Resuls show that the vulnerability of the study area is mainly classified as High or Very High, due to the highly developed Epikarst, which minimizes the protective function of the unsaturated zone. There are many karst landforms such as dolines and Swallow Holes that are highly vulnerable.
The final evaluation of the vulnerability ground waters in the Aleshtar and Nourabad basins using the PaPRIKa method shows that the study area is divided into five vulnerable (very high, high, moderate, low and very low). So that areas with a very low, low and moderate vulnerability are 27.3%, 22.3% and 20.6% of the basin area respectively. Also that areas with a high and very high vulnerability are 17% and 12.8% of the study area cover, respectively. Due to the lack of soil and plant cover, heavy snowfall and the formation of Karst-Nival (including Dolines) highlands of the Gareen Anticline have a very high vulnerability potential. Validation of the results of the karstic aquifers vulnerability to Electrical Conductivity (EC) data and monthly discharge of springs shows that the Zaz and Ahangaran springs are in a high vulnerability zone. In the aquifer of this springs, Rapid reductions in EC are detected after each recharge period. Also in contrast Rapid increases in EC with reductions in recharge. This situation shows the High developed of this aquifers, as a result, the potential for vulnerability in these aquifers is high.
But in the springs of Niaz and Abdolhosseini in the Nourabad basin, the EC chart has not changed much compared to recharge. Therefore, the aquifer of these springs is less undeveloped or low developed and also less vulnerable.
Key Words: Gareen Anticline, Geomorphology, Karst, Lorestan, Pa

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