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Showing 8 results for Air Pollution

Mohamad Saligheh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Tehran, in the south of Alborz Mountains, is faced with three types of weather risk, weather risk caused by geography, climatic risks caused by air resistance and weather risk due to global warming. The aim of this study is to examine the three types of risk in Tehran. The method of this study was to evaluate the changes of synoptic factors that affect global warming and urban development. In order to detect the height changes of 500 hPa two 5-year periods including 1948 to 1952 and 2010 to 2014, were studied.

     The results showed that changes in heights of 500 geopotential, there was an increased risk in the city of Tehran. The effect of climate change in recent decades,  increased the stability of  air in Tehran. Human factors in the formation of heat islands, increase LCL height and density of the air balance is transferred to a higher altitude. Changing urban wind field, atmospheric turbulence intensified, exacerbated thermodynamic gradient, fat and refugee cyclones, heat island effect of the city.

Thermal stability in the warm period will appear. The thermal stability of all levels of lower, middle and upper troposphere was intensified. Thermal stability couraged the  development of subtropical high pressure in the area. With the arrival of the atmospheric pressure during calm and humid days the stability and pollution were increased. Negative vorticity from early June  developed the intensive high pressure over the region. Compare the conditions of the two study periods  showed that  : the height of the high pressure was 100 meters higher than the second period. The number of days of intensified subtropical high increased during the second period.  The high pressure has moved to the northern areas during the second period. This change in the subtropical high pressure increased the dry periods motivating the loss of vegetation. Heat island effect was increased as well. More than 90% of the  temperature inversions occurred  at an altitude of less than 500 meters in both warm and cold periods of year. Wind direction at both stations has shown that the establishment of any pollutant source in the West of Tehran will increase the pollution.

Mostafa Karampour, Mohammad Saligheh, Meysam Toulabi Nejad, Zahra Zarei Choghabaki,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

In issues related to air pollution, the thickness of the boundary layer is known as the depth of the mixed layer because the pollution on the ground surface is mixed in this entire layer through turbulence processes. In most cases, the boundary of the area is clearly visible on big industrial cities. The depth of the mixed layer has an important effect in the concentration of air pollution which is dependent on the intensity and duration of solar radiation and wind speed. Usually after 2 to 3 hours from the time of maximum solar radiation, air temperature near the earth's surface reaches its maximum value. At this time convection of heat is formed in the air near the earth surface and transfers the heat from the surface to higher altitudes. These vertical movements will cause atmospheric turbulence and increase in instability. This is when the growth of the mixed layer reaches to its highest level. After sunset, night temperature inversion occurs near the surface. This temperature inversion is due to the rapid cooling of the Earth's surface. In such condition, the cold air layer is near the earth's surface and the warm air layer sits on top of it and air is in a stable condition.  As a result, the accumulation of contamination, if there are sources of pollutants, will increase in the earth's near-surface layer. If the conditions remain steady during the day, the mixed layer will not have much growth and as a result, contamination in the shallow layer near the surface of the Earth reduces solar radiation.

Each year, thousands of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter are emitted in the metropolitan area of Tehran and due to the geographical and climatic conditions of Tehran, temperature inversion phenomenon is not something unexpected. By formation of the inversion layer, these pollutants will remain near the earth's surface for a long time which in turn will be the cause of a lot of heart and respiratory problems. Therefore, identifying the characteristics of this layer on polluted days is of particular importance to the health of the residents of this city.

In this research, the study area is Tehran which is in the foothills of the southern Alborz and between longitudes 51 ° 2 'to 51 degrees 36' east and latitude 35 degrees 34 minutes and 35 degrees 50 minutes northern. The height of the northernmost point of this city is 1800 and up to 1200 meters in the center and 1050 meters in the south.

To conduct this research, inversion data including temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure and humidity and vertical navigation radiosonde data at the Mehrabad weather station from January to 29 December 2013, were taken from the Meteorological Organization of country. Then the statistics of daily vertical scroll of atmosphere above the Mehrabad synoptic station was received from the University of Wyoming. Also, the hourly data of air pollutants including gaseous pollutants CO, N2O, O3, SO2 and particulate matter (PM10) were prepared from the air quality control center (AQCC) for the stations Aghdasiyeh, Geophysics, Poonak, Rey and District 11.

After receiving information about the vertical scroll of the atmosphere in Mehrabad station, in order to have a closer examination of the vertical profiles of potential temperature changes in the lower atmosphere, using daily data from the radiosonde to obtain potential temperature changes in height were measured. Then, in order to identify the days with high pollution levels (the unhealthy condition for sensitive groups) and days with good conditions, so that all stations under study were the same, based on a standard index of air pollution Table 1 was developed. In the end, 4 days with critical inversion of potential temperature, including two polluted days (February 6th and August 16th) and two clean days (9 February and 5 June) were detected. Then according to the proposed method of Hefter, the approximate height of the boundary layer was calculated for these 4 days.

In this study, it was observed that the boundary layer height in contaminated cold season of the year reached 1,200 meters in the morning hours while in the afternoon in the cold samples, it grew to 1900 meters. In the warmer months based on the height of critical inversion layer in the selected days it reached more than 6,000 meters. In pure samples of warm and cold seasons, the boundary layer height had significant growth to the extent that in the cold sample of the year it reached to 2,100 meters in the morning and 2,600 meters in the afternoon. On June 5, which is intended to represent the clean and pure heating season, boundary layer height was of 5300 meters in the morning hours which shows a 4,000-meters increase in comparison to its polluted counterpart. The point to be noted is that since the active track of potential temperature can be considered as a measure of air stability, in the critical inversion, for the case of polluted samples of morning hours that were irradiated with inversion, active track of the potential temperature was very high in them. Thus on days with radiated inversion (polluted days) we can say that border of boundary layer was based on the inverted layer. Also the methods used in these types of inversions are more efficient for the determining height of the boundary layer.

Mr Seyed Abdolhossein Arami, Professor Majid Ownegh, Dr Ali Mohammadianbehbahani, Dr Mehri Akbari, Professor Alireza Zarasvandi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

The analysis of dust hazard studies in southwest region of Iran in 22 years (1996-2017)
Dust storms are natural hazards that mostly occur in arid and semi-arid regions and there are many harmful consequences. According to the topographic-climatic conditions in Iran and the significant increase in the number and severity of dust storms occurrence in recent decades, especially in the West and Southwest regions where the dust storms are the most important environmental crisis. Studying this phenomenon is necessary for better management its harmful effects.
Since most of the research are implemented as different case studies, and there is no comprehensive study that review a wide range of existing researches with overall results in the southwestern parts of Iran, in this study a comprehensive overview of available literature reviews are addressed including dust spatio-temporal variations, modeling, detection, and health issues.
This research is based on a library research and search of valid national and international scientific articles about the dust crisis and no data-processing. We attempted to analyze temporal and spatial variations in the south and southwest of the country using the available studies and the challenges of this phenomenon in the past and present to provide a new perspective to apply a comprehensive land management and managing environmental hazards in Iran with all the problems.
A review of the history of dust storm studies from information sources showed that most researchers (61.40%) used a synoptic method to study dust storms, and the most important indicators that were considered by the researchers in physical properties were frequency and density, 34.21% and 34.21% of the studies respectively.
Dust detection methods show that the use of thermal or reflective bands cannot detect dust phenomena with high precision, therefore, a model which applies both bands simultaneously should be developed. In other words, applying a combination of reflective and thermal
spectra of Military Origin Destination Information System (MODIS) could offer better
results in detection of dust storms in the study area. Studies indicate that most of the storms
originate outside of Iran. Moreover, exposure to airborne contaminants, especially when the
dust storms occur in the Middle East, can lead to an increase in the related disease outbreak
in the study area. For instance, there was a 70% increase in referring to medical centers for
lung related problems when a dust phenomenon occurred.
The Results showed that in cold seasons where low height and western waves is formed on the European and Mediterranean Sea, due to the heaviness, cold air in these days, can penetrate low latitudes and their trough is located over the Middle East area. Under warming condition, the front of rough is formed as ridge, then engendered turbulence and wind. In the warm seasons, thermal low pressure is rapt to ward in the high latitude, and severe dryness
of the area is also due to the fact that the dusty phenomenon is intensified in the area. Dust
storm occurrence in the summer due to bareness of the land, transparency of the atmosphere,
dryness of the air and the vast plains, which can reduce the formation of local instability in
the case of a sharp rise in air temperature. The dispersal of deserts and sand sea is mainly in
the northwest of Khuzestan province, especially in Fakkeh and Moussan which are located in the western borders of Iran with Iraq, which cover most of the Azadegan plain and west of the Karkheh and Mollasani and Maroon Rivers, and ultimately end in the Omidiyeh and Aghajari regions. Results show that the border between Syria and northwest Iraq, west and southwest of Iraq to east and northeast of Saudi Arabia are the main sources of dust in the studied region
. Synoptic conditions considering simultaneously with the occurrence of dust
storms showed the significant role of cyclonic systems in the occurrence and transfer of this
phenomenon. With the phenomenon occurrence during the warm period, the significant
strengthening in low pressure of Iraq along with the trough formation in Zagros causes the
formation and transfer of dust towards Southwest Iran. Simulation studies of dust particles
movement paths have shown that most of the paths are from the northern and central parts
of Iraq and Syria and the source of dust storms are deserts and dry regions of the northern
and central parts of Iraq and Syria. In addition, the study of the transmission paths of particles
in dust storms indicates the presence of a lower level jet, which causes horizontal
displacement of dust particles in a shallow layer and prevents its vertical propagation in the
higher layers of the atmosphere. In general, although the dust phenomenon is transnational
and uncontrollable, it can introduce limitations in terms of circulation patterns and statistical
properties at different time intervals to the different planners via its time and scope which
will necessitate appropriate programs for combating and adaptation.
Keywords: Dust, Air pollution, Spatio-temporal pattern, Southwest, Iran.

Koohzad Raispour, Yones Khosravi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Air pollution is one of the most important problems in many countries in the world, which, besides the environmental damage and human health, imposes many adverse social and economic impacts. Therefore, considering the vital importance of air and the rising course of increasing the contaminating agents in recent decades, it is necessary to study the elements and their pollutant gases in order to be aware of the existing situation and to adopt the necessary solutions. The phenomenon of atmospheric air pollution in Iran, as part of the world's atmosphere, is one of the goals of the industrial revolution, which has been increasing day by day as industrialization; population growth and urbanization have grown dramatically. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), such as when operating a stove or an internal combustion engine in an enclosed space.
Carbon monoxide is one of the most dangerous air pollutants. Due to its importance, many techniques and methods have been used to monitor the Earth's atmosphere in recent years. as well as, the use of satellite data has become widespread because of the availability and availability of features such as spatial, temporal and spatial resolution. In this study, the data from Aqua / AIRS Carbon Monoxide data can be used to study the rate and trend of carbon monoxide gas changes in the atmosphere of the entire world, including Iran.The relevant data in NetCDF format, with one-day and 13.5 x 13.5km spatial resolution of during the 16-year statistical period (2003-2018), was extracted from ttps:// using ArcGIS software And Grads are processed, represented, analyzed.
The results indicate that the amount of carbon monoxide was reduced during the monthly and annual time series. Of course, monthly and seasonal variations have been impressive. Monthly, the highest concentration of carbon monoxide in January, February and March, and the lowest in August, September and October. Among the seasons, the highest and lowest levels of carbon monoxide were observed in the seasons of winter and summer, respectively. In spatially, the highest amount of surface carbon monoxide with an average of 150 ppb above the city of Tehran and the coastal area of the Caspian Sea and its lowest level with an average of 115 ppb on the Zagros heights was observed.
The results clearly show a clear picture of the dispersion of carbon monoxide gas in the horizontal and vertical direction of Iran's atmosphere. Based on the results obtained from the monthly carbon monoxide data collected during the statistical period (2003-2018), conducted in a three dimensional and regional area extending to the geographical area of Iran, The average surface carbon monoxide of more than 150 ppb above the Tehran metropolitan area and northern coast of Iran is less than 115 ppb on Zagros altitudes. Among other results, there are significant differences between the monthly carbon monoxide average in the surface troposphere of Iran, so that in the twelve months, the highest amount of carbon monoxide was observed in cold months and the lowest was observed in the warm months of the year, respectively. Seasonally, the highest level of seasonal carbon monoxide has been observed in winter and its seasonal season has peaked in summer. The results of vertical profiles (vertical aspect) of carbon monoxide changes in Iran's atmosphere in line with latitude and longitude indicate the maximum carbon monoxide concentration at lower levels of barley so that the maximum amount of carbon monoxide in the Iranian atmosphere is concentrated in the lower levels and Rarely exceeds the level of 250 hPa. Also, the results indicate that the rate of carbon monoxide emissions in the atmosphere of Iran has decreased, so that in the last years of the statistical period, about 30% of the amount of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Iran has been reduced, compared to the early years of the statistical period.
Key words: Air Pollution, Carbon Monoxide, AIRS, Remote Sensing, Iran.
- Shiva Gharibi, Dr Kamran Shayesteh,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Application of Sentinel 5 satellite imagery in identifying air pollutants Hotspots in Iran
Shiva Gharibi1, Kamran Shayesteh2
1- PhD Student of Environmental Science, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran.
2-Assistant professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
Extended abstract
1- Introduction
Today, poor air quality is one of the most important environmental problems in many cities around the world. Air pollution can have a devastating effect on humans, plants, organisms, and human assets, and efforts are being made to anticipate and analyze the amount of distribution and transmission of air pollutants in order to minimize the adverse effects on air quality and climate. Among the most important air pollutants are (CO), (SO2), (NO2), (O3) and aerosols (AI). Numerous studies have been conducted on the monitoring of these pollutants based on information and statistics from pollution monitoring devices, but the use of satellite images in the field of monitoring and measuring pollutants has been limited. Due to the increasing growth of these pollutants, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify the average spatial concentration of the most important air pollutants as the actual sources of pollution on the scale of Iran from October 2018 to December 2019. Also, identifying the most polluted centers in Iran based on the average of 5 pollutants is another goal of this study. Therefore, the aim of this study is to demonstrate the ability of Sentinel satellite to monitor air pollutants, and the ability of GPW images to produce a population density map for the first time on an Iranian scale.
2- Methodology
 Using the Python programming language in the Google Earth Engine program environment, various products related to CO, SO2, NO2, O3 and AI pollutant images, obtained from Sentinel-5 satellite images during the study period and in the scale of Iran, were obtained for monitoring of air pollutants and determination of pollutants focuses. The output variable is defined as a set of images based on the time filter (2019) and the spatial filter (Iran borders). The output of the average concentration of pollutants for each month is calculated separately and annually in these filters. Then, the spatial map of the average concentration of pollutants in the Arc map software was analyzed and statistical information related to the average concentration of these pollutants was processed by SPSS statistical software. To determine the hotspots in terms of all pollutants, the raster location map of each pollutant was classified using the Jenks algorithm. In order to identify the share of provinces and counties, the amount of pollutants was also analyzed by spatial statistics in GIS environment and using the Zonal Statistics command based on the defined administrative boundaries. The G statistic was used for Cluster analysis, and in order to identify Hot Spots and Cold Spots, Getis-Ord Gi statistic (Gi) was used in GIS environment.To determine the population of each province, the latest census information of Iran as well as satellite images related to the fourth version of Gridded Population of World (GPW) product were used. Finally, The Moran index was used to determine the pattern of pollutants distribution and the spatial autocorrelation.
3- Results
 Spatial output from the processing of Sentinel-5 satellite images during the study period for identifying air pollution centers in Iran showed that the highest levels of nitrogen dioxide were recorded in the majority of cities in Tehran and Alborz provinces and then in the centers of other provinces. In the case of carbon monoxide, the highest rate is in Tehran and the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan, and coastal areas of Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces. The highest amount of ozone is in the northern parts of the provinces of West and East Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Northern Khorasan. Most of the dust was in the southern, eastern, southeastern and central provinces of Iran. The highest amount of sulfur dioxide pollutants is recorded in Tehran and then in the provinces of Khuzestan, Kerman, Hormozgan, Bushehr, Markazi, Qom, Isfahan and Khorasan Razavi. Provincially, the highest share of nitrogen dioxide is in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz, Qazvin and Qom. The highest provincial share of carbon monoxide is in Khuzestan, Gilan and Mazandaran provinces. The highest share of dust is in the southeastern provinces, including Sistan and Baluchestan, the highest share of sulfur dioxide is in Khuzestan province, and the highest share of ozone pollution is in the coastal provinces of Caspian Sea. Compliance of the average 5 pollutants with Google Earth images showed that the contaminated areas are located in the cities of Abadan, Imam Khomeini Port, Mahshahr Port and Ahvaz (Khuzestan Province), Tehran, Pakdasht (Tehran Province) and Assaluyeh Port (Bushehr Province). The results of comparing the average concentrations of pollutants in different seasons showed that there was no significant difference between CO, NO2 and O3 pollutants in different seasons, but suspended particles and aerosols in winter and autumn seasons have a significant difference with the amount of this pollutant in spring and autumn. Also, SO2 pollutant in autumn had lower concentrations than other seasons. The results of clustering analysis to determine the status of significant spatial clusters showed that the data are in the confidence range and have spatial auto-correlation and cluster distribution pattern.
4- Discussion & Conclusions
 According to Sentinel-5 satellite images, most of the pollution centers in Iran are related to petrochemical industries and refineries, which are located in the cities of Abadan, Imam Khomeini port, Mahshahr port and Ahvaz (Khuzestan province), Assaluyeh port (Bushehr province) and common pollutants. By these centers are NOX, SO2, CO, suspended particles and aerosols. Also, other centers (Tehran, Pakdasht in Tehran province) are located in the most populous urban areas of, which have been identified as hotspots in high production of NO2 and CO, due to high population and urban traffic.  Due to the higher population density of Tehran and Pakdasht than other cities in Iran, air pollution can be more important in these cities. Therefore, the use of satellite imagery to monitor Iran's air pollutants and the location of hotspots can be very cost-effective and time-consuming.
Keywords: Air Pollution Monitoring, Sentinel, Satellite Imagery, Polluted Hotspot, Moran’s Index.
Mr. Rasol Bagherabadi, Dr. Mazaher Moeinaddini,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2022)

Clean air is a necessity for human well-being and health. Air pollution is a major threat to humans and other organisms and is considered as one of the environmental challenges. Today, with the increase in air pollution, the need to know more about the causes of its occurrence has been raised. The various consequences of air pollution have made air quality monitoring and control inevitable in all societies at the forefront of environmental issues. In recent years, air pollutants have caused serious risks to human health and the environment. One of these pollutants Tropospheric ozone is the cause of health and environmental problems, especially respiratory problems and lung dysfunction and asthma attacks. Other effects of tropospheric ozone can be reduced lung capacity, cough, chest pain, sore throat, condition Nausea, damage to plants (growth disorders and the effect on germination) and reduced tire life, hence, it is necessary to know and study the tropospheric ozone in large and industrial cities. Tropospheric ozone is a pollutant because it plays an effective role in converting primary pollutants into secondary pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the trend of changes in tropospheric ozone concentration with meteorological parameters, ozone precursors (nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides). In this study, data from Kermanshah synoptic station and air quality station of Kermanshah General Department of Environmental Protection (Ziba Park station) in a long-term period of 10 years (2007-2016) have been used. Also, in this study using sensor images The OMI satellite Aura was surveyed in February and July 2016. Tropospheric ozone is known as a pollutant in Kermanshah. Therefore, no systematic studies have been conducted on the recognition of tropospheric ozone and the relationship between tropospheric ozone and meteorological parameters in Kermanshah over a long period of time. Tropospheric ozone and its relationship with changes in nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide and synoptic parameters in Kermanshah were studied and the correlation between tropospheric ozone concentration and meteorological parameters was studied by Pearson test and the relationship between them was studied by linear regression. Based on the results. The maximum concentration of ozone occurs in the afternoon between 14:00 and 17:00 and the maximum amounts of nitrogen oxides occur at night and in the early morning of the year. Also, the study of seasonal changes in ozone concentration showed that in warm seasons due to the conditions of tropospheric ozone formation, including the intensity of sunlight, temperature and time of radiation and the presence of pollutants including nitrogen oxides, the concentration of tropospheric ozone was much higher. Ozone concentrations are highest in June, July, August, and spring and summer. The results also showed that there is a direct relationship between solar radiation and ozone concentration. Simultaneously with increasing solar radiation, it increases the air temperature, which increases the photochemical activity and thus increases the ozone concentration. This can be seen in the warm months of the year (June, July and August). Wind speed is also directly related to the concentration of tropospheric ozone. As the wind speed increases, the reactants mix faster and the tropospheric ozone concentration increases. However, precipitation is inversely related to the concentration of tropospheric ozone, which decreases with the occurrence of precipitation in the months associated with the onset of precipitation, and in the dry months of the year, the concentration is increasing. Therefore, meteorological factors and parameters play an important role in tropospheric ozone changes. Which can be seen by linear regression and Pearson test. The results of the study of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides showed that the highest concentration of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides during the day is the opposite of the concentration of tropospheric ozone and the lowest concentration of ozone occurs in summer due to increased solar radiation, increased oxidation of di Nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides, and as a result increase the concentration of tropospheric ozone, in autumn and winter, this amount has an increasing trend. Therefore, the trend of changes in tropospheric ozone concentration is the opposite of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which can be seen in the daily, monthly and seasonal sections, which linear regression and Pearson test show this important and OMI sensor images confirm this fact. In conclusion of this study, all parameters related to the concentration of pollutants along with meteorological parameters have been effective factors in the concentration of tropospheric ozone.
Keywords: air pollution, meteorological parameters, ozone tropospheric, NO2, NOX
Tahmineh Chehre Ara,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Investigating the role of  atmospheric circulation patterns in the severe air pollution in Esfahan

The atmosphere is a dynamic system in which a large number of physical and chemical processes occur simultaneously. Studying the dynamics and transmission of pollutants in the atmosphere using atmospheric patterns is one of the important topics in this field. Atmospheric patterns simulate the occurrence of different processes within the atmosphere and their interactions. Using an atmospheric model also requires comparing the results of the model with field and laboratory experiments. This helps in understanding the occurrence of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere as well as evaluating the implementation of a suitable model. Laboratory measurements provide valuable information while at the same time visualizing and describing atmospheric properties and atmospheric composition at specific time and space intervals. An atmospheric model provides a complete picture of the evolution of spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric pollutants at different altitudes. Understanding atmospheric dynamics can be understanded by combining measurements and integrated modeling with using synoptic systems in periods with pollutated air. Therefore, in this study, it has been attempted to analyze the atmospheric factors that cause severe pollution in Esfahan and the relationship and mechanism of the atmosphere at the time of occurrence of this phenomenon.

Data and methods
In this study, three datasets including pollution data recorded at air pollution stations, digital atmospheric data and high atmospheric stations were used. The air pollution data are from three stations of Laleh Square, Azadi and Bozorgmehr which were obtained from Esfahan General Environmental Protection Office. The pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and suspended particulate matter (PM10), which have been prepared and processed daily for a 12-year statistical period (1995-2005). To study atmospheric conditions were used re-analyzed data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP / NCAR) include sea level pressure, geopotential height, vertical velocity (Omega), wind orbital components (U), and meridian wind ( V) was used for different levels of atmosphere. 
The above atmospheric data were obtained from the University of Wyoming site for the study days, including air temperature, dew point temperature, wind direction and intensity, and atmospheric stability and instability conditions (based on skew-t curves). In this study, a Lagrangian model with the capability of tracking particle backward in different levels of atmosphere called HYSPLIT was used to investigate the days associated with severe pollution.

Results and discussion
The results show that the highly pollutated days of the city of Esfahan can be explained by the four synoptic patterns. The occurrence of days with extremely severe pollution in Esfahan, rather than being rooted in local factors, is due to the interaction of local conditions with atmospheric circulation at the regional scale. In other words, the city of Esfahan will only experience extremely polluted days when the atmospheric circulation of the atmosphere provides conditions for increased concentrations of pollutants.
The main causes of the occurrence of days associated with maximum contamination can be attributed to Subtropical high latitude and its progression to higher latitudes. This circulation system contributes to the occurrence of highly polluted days on most days, either directly or in combination with other atmospheric systems.
The role of local factors such as the formation of inversion layer and the increase of atmospheric thickness due to the dominance of high pressure systems in the region can also be considered to exacerbate the conditions.
The use of suspended particle backward models and the study of atmospheric thermodynamic relationships have provided a deeper and more accurate understanding of the mechanisms dominating the occurrence of pollutants in Esfahan.
The results of this method showed that the occurrence of highly polluted days in the city of Esfahan can not be attributed to urban pollutants such as industrial factories of automobiles and so the influx of particulate matter from different areas has caused higher intensity pollution.

The results showed that four factors and patterns prevailed in the middle of the atmosphere at the time of the most severe days pollution in Esfahan. The results of the PSI values in each pattern showed respectively from pattern of one to four, is 221, 238.6, 203 and 281.
The synoptic conditions can be attributed to the presence of tropical high pressure, which is accompanied by a layer of temperature inversion in the lower levels of the atmosphere and the middle troposphere.
Strength of negative vorticity above 700 hPa and continued surface convergence to this altitude have made the nature of the summer atmosphere clearly observed in the pollution event in the city, which has been enhanced by strong anomalies.
On the other hand, the output of the HYSPLIT model showed that the occurrence of highly polluted days in the city of Esfahan could not be detected in urban pollutants such as automobile industrial plants and. But, the influx of particulate matter from different areas has made the pollution more intense, and the influx of dust particles has exacerbated this hazard.

Keywords: Air Pollution, PSI Index, Atmospheric Regional Circulation Patterns, HYSPLIT Model, Esfahan

Mr Seyed Kamyar Mortazavi-Asl, Dr. Navidsaeidirezvani Saeidirezvani, Dr. Mahmud Rezaei,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Evaluation of the effect of particulate matter and vegetation on the formation of heat and cold islands in Tehran
Seyed Kamyar Mortazavi Asl: PhD Student in Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, UAE
Dr. Navid Saeedi Rezvani: Assistant Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
Dr. Mahmud Rezaei:  Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Global warming and the heat islands of cities are one of the biggest challenges in the world today. Cold islands is a word that stands in front of heat islands and refers to areas of the city that have lower temperatures than the surrounding areas. In this study, in order to investigate the factors affecting the formation of cool and heat islands of the city, it was first obtained by using Landsat image processing and using the single-channel surface temperature algorithm. Then to investigate the parameters affecting the land surface temperature changes; Criteria for changes in particulate matter and changes in vegetation were considered. The NDVI index was used for vegetation and the algorithm proposed by Saraswat et al. was used for the amount of particulate matter. According to the results, the highest-ranking neighborhood for heat islands were in Bustan, Shahid Bagheri township and the airport, respectively, and the lowest amount of cool islands were in Baharan, Niavaran and Darband, respectively. Pearson coefficient obtained from the relationship between surface temperature and vegetation was -21.29%, which indicates the inverse relationship between temperature and vegetation, as well as the amount of vegetation index in hot and cold regions. Regarding the relationship between land surface temperature and air pollution, the correlation between these two parameters was equal to 19.31% and comparing the pollution index in areas with cold and warm islands showed that there is a significant relationship between reducing air pollutants and cold islands but the opposite is not true.

Keywords: Cool Islands, Tehran, LST, Air Pollution


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