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Showing 2 results for Circulation Patterns

Amir Hossien Halabian, Fereshteh Hossienalipour Jazi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

We can identify the flood not only considering circulation pattern in occurring day but also by studying circulation pattern a few days before fresh event. This subject has mutual approach. In one hand, it indicates  that circulation patterns which were before flood event have important role in determining the conditions and moisture content of studied area and playing the fundamental role in few coefficient of region because it determines the previous moisture. On the other hand, it indicates that we should tracking the rain-genesis synoptic systems from source to end place of their activity for studying floods and their meteorology factors which have created them. By this way, we can acquire more comprehensive recognition about the relationship between circulation pattern and floods. In the other words, the identification of synoptic patterns that have created the flood reveals not only the mechanism of their emergence but also is useful for prognosis and encountering with them. The extensive researches have been accomplished about Inundation in the world and Iran, but Iran haven’t much antiquity about synoptic researches. For foreign researches, we can name researchers such as Hireschboeck (1987), Kutiel et al(1996), Komusce and et al (1998), Krichak  and et al (2000), Rohli and et al (2001), Kahana (2002), Teruyuki Kato(2004), Ziv and et al (2005), Carlalima and et al (2009). The numerous researchers have studied the Inundation climatology in internal of country such as Bagheri (1373), Ghayour (1373), Kaviani and Hojatizadeh (1380), Moradi (1380), moradi (1383), Mofidy (1383), Masoodian (1384), Masoodian (1384), Hejazizadeh et al(1386), Parandeh Khozani and Lashkari (1389). In this research, we considered the heavy precipitation of Azar 1391 in southwestern of Iran that resulted in flood phenomenon in the cause and effect manner so that can do necessary prevention actions before occurring the flood for preventing the probable damages and optimal use of precipitations by forecasting the patterns that have created the flood.

In this synoptic study, we need to two database: one group is variables and atmospheric data consisting of geopotential height of 500 hpa level (in meter geopotential), zonal wind and meridional wind (in m/s) and special humidity (in gr/kg) during this times 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 Greenwich in 0-80° northern and 0-120° eastern with local resolution of 2.5*2.5 Arc that have been borrowed from database of (NCEP/NCAR) dependent to National Atmosphere and Oceanography Institute of USA, and other group is daily precipitation data of region rain gauge stations during 4-8th Azar of 1391 (24th November – 28th November 2012). In continuation. By applying the environment- circulation approach, we took action to drawing circulation pattern maps of 500 hpa level, thickness of atmosphere patterns of 500-1000 hpa and moisture flux convergence function from 4-8th Azar of 1391 (that for calendar, conform with 48 hours before beginning the showery precipitation until ending the storm activity) by using data which obtained from database of NCEP/NCAR and the synoptic conditions of above flood have been studied and interpreted in the region.

Flood is one of the most destructive natural hazards that have imposed and impose many damages to people during the history. Hence, the final aim of this research is to explain the key interactions between atmosphere and surface environment and in other words exploration of the relationship between circulation patterns leading to the flood generating precipitation in the southwestern of Iran for forecasting the time and intensity of showers occurrence that lead to flood. For this purpose, by applying environmental-circulation approach, the circulation patterns identified and studied which resulted in flood generating precipitation. The result of this research indicated that torrential precipitations in the region have formed the deep trough in days 4-8 of Azar on the east of Mediterranean and the studied region placed in the east half of this trough that is the location of atmosphere instability. At same time, thickness patterns, indicate the flux of cold air from northern Europe to lower latitudes and spreading the warm air of north of Africa to latitude 50° northern. As a result we expected the frontal discontinuity in the encountering place of these two air mass. Analysis of the moisture flux convergence patterns also indicated that torrential precipitations were the result of moisture flux from Mediterranean and Persian Gulf; and Red Sea and Arab Sea taken into account as reinforced sources.

Tahmineh Chehre Ara,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Investigating the role of  atmospheric circulation patterns in the severe air pollution in Esfahan

The atmosphere is a dynamic system in which a large number of physical and chemical processes occur simultaneously. Studying the dynamics and transmission of pollutants in the atmosphere using atmospheric patterns is one of the important topics in this field. Atmospheric patterns simulate the occurrence of different processes within the atmosphere and their interactions. Using an atmospheric model also requires comparing the results of the model with field and laboratory experiments. This helps in understanding the occurrence of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere as well as evaluating the implementation of a suitable model. Laboratory measurements provide valuable information while at the same time visualizing and describing atmospheric properties and atmospheric composition at specific time and space intervals. An atmospheric model provides a complete picture of the evolution of spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric pollutants at different altitudes. Understanding atmospheric dynamics can be understanded by combining measurements and integrated modeling with using synoptic systems in periods with pollutated air. Therefore, in this study, it has been attempted to analyze the atmospheric factors that cause severe pollution in Esfahan and the relationship and mechanism of the atmosphere at the time of occurrence of this phenomenon.

Data and methods
In this study, three datasets including pollution data recorded at air pollution stations, digital atmospheric data and high atmospheric stations were used. The air pollution data are from three stations of Laleh Square, Azadi and Bozorgmehr which were obtained from Esfahan General Environmental Protection Office. The pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and suspended particulate matter (PM10), which have been prepared and processed daily for a 12-year statistical period (1995-2005). To study atmospheric conditions were used re-analyzed data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP / NCAR) include sea level pressure, geopotential height, vertical velocity (Omega), wind orbital components (U), and meridian wind ( V) was used for different levels of atmosphere. 
The above atmospheric data were obtained from the University of Wyoming site for the study days, including air temperature, dew point temperature, wind direction and intensity, and atmospheric stability and instability conditions (based on skew-t curves). In this study, a Lagrangian model with the capability of tracking particle backward in different levels of atmosphere called HYSPLIT was used to investigate the days associated with severe pollution.

Results and discussion
The results show that the highly pollutated days of the city of Esfahan can be explained by the four synoptic patterns. The occurrence of days with extremely severe pollution in Esfahan, rather than being rooted in local factors, is due to the interaction of local conditions with atmospheric circulation at the regional scale. In other words, the city of Esfahan will only experience extremely polluted days when the atmospheric circulation of the atmosphere provides conditions for increased concentrations of pollutants.
The main causes of the occurrence of days associated with maximum contamination can be attributed to Subtropical high latitude and its progression to higher latitudes. This circulation system contributes to the occurrence of highly polluted days on most days, either directly or in combination with other atmospheric systems.
The role of local factors such as the formation of inversion layer and the increase of atmospheric thickness due to the dominance of high pressure systems in the region can also be considered to exacerbate the conditions.
The use of suspended particle backward models and the study of atmospheric thermodynamic relationships have provided a deeper and more accurate understanding of the mechanisms dominating the occurrence of pollutants in Esfahan.
The results of this method showed that the occurrence of highly polluted days in the city of Esfahan can not be attributed to urban pollutants such as industrial factories of automobiles and so the influx of particulate matter from different areas has caused higher intensity pollution.

The results showed that four factors and patterns prevailed in the middle of the atmosphere at the time of the most severe days pollution in Esfahan. The results of the PSI values in each pattern showed respectively from pattern of one to four, is 221, 238.6, 203 and 281.
The synoptic conditions can be attributed to the presence of tropical high pressure, which is accompanied by a layer of temperature inversion in the lower levels of the atmosphere and the middle troposphere.
Strength of negative vorticity above 700 hPa and continued surface convergence to this altitude have made the nature of the summer atmosphere clearly observed in the pollution event in the city, which has been enhanced by strong anomalies.
On the other hand, the output of the HYSPLIT model showed that the occurrence of highly polluted days in the city of Esfahan could not be detected in urban pollutants such as automobile industrial plants and. But, the influx of particulate matter from different areas has made the pollution more intense, and the influx of dust particles has exacerbated this hazard.

Keywords: Air Pollution, PSI Index, Atmospheric Regional Circulation Patterns, HYSPLIT Model, Esfahan


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