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Amir Saffari,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

Today, urban and regional issues related to sustainable development is a key challenge for policy-makers, planners and specialists in various disciplines. Geomorphologic studies can be useful and effective in analyzing and deriving acceptable means to assess the growth and development of the city, and to set criteria to determine the directions of urban development.    Landslides range of motions not only affect the human structures such as roads, rail lines and residential areas, but also lead to casualties. Tehran metropolis mountainous basins, including Kan, Vesk, Farahzad, Darake, Velenjak, Darband, Golabdare, Darabad, Sorkheh-Hesar, and Sohanak due to the lithology, geologic structure, weathered sediments, steep slope, rainfall and poor urban development are considered as one of the places where landslides are a range of geomorphologic processes can be studied.    At this research, using Fuzzy and AHP methods and by the use 8 factor variables such as lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, annual rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, distance from fault and drainage system. the map of landslide zonation hazard in mountainous areas of the city is prepared to determine risky strips. After the standardization of the criteria for the occurrence of landslides and using frequency ratio method and fuzzy model and functions, Landslide hazard zonation maps was prepared for evaluating from the fuzzy sum, fuzzy product and fuzzy gamma operator 0.8 and 0.9. Then the final map of landslide zonation, obtained from the above-mentioned method matched with the map of urban regions in mountainous areas. In this way the constructed region have been distinguished from very high and very low hazard zonation.    Lithological studies showed that most of the basin areas covered by Karaj Formation. About 45/7 percent of units with sliding movement in areas with "rock crystal tuff and tuff lytic green, with the layers of limestone" (unit Et2) of the intermediate tuff formation occurred. Cross of faults distance map with landslide density map showed that about 33/1 percent of landslides occurred within 200 m of the fault lines and 78/4 percent of landslides occurred within 500 m of drainage network. Most sliding movements (60/2 percent) in the range of 1900 to 2500 meters altitude and about 35/3 percent of this type of range of motion in height of 1500 to 1900 meters occurred. This area is about 81/6 percent of sliding movements in slopes between 15 and 40 degrees (26/8 to 83/9 percent) and about 17/6 percent on slopes less than 15 degrees (26.8 percent) occurred. In the aspect, sliding movements of the basin, mainly in the south-western slopes (about 23/2 percent), the South (about 17/5 percent), West (about 16/6 percent) and Southeast (about 77/1 percent), northwest (about 33/1 percent) occurred. About 88/9 percent of sliding movements in areas with average annual rainfall of 244 to 280 mm occurred. According to the zoning map, 12 percent of mountainous basins area (approximately 10,057 acres) is in the zone of very high risk, 33 percent (approximately 27,723 acres) is in high risk areas, 20.5 percent (approximately 17,143 acres) in the moderate risk zone, 30/ 7 percent (approximately 25,672 acres) in area and 3.8 percent of the total area of the basin, low risk (approximately 3172 acres) located in low risk areas. The results showed that approximately 5.2 hectares (about 0/05 percent) of the urban in zones with a huge landslide, about 51/5 acre (approximately 1 percent) in zones with high landslide risk and about 821 acres (equivalent to 25/16 percent) in the medium risk landslide zones are located and developed.     The final results indicate that some mountainous regions of Tehran Metropolis are apt to landslide with middle to high risk. (Apart from strengthening the vulnerable area) avoiding these areas is an important solution to decrease damages caused by landslide.

Mohammad Haseli, Hamid Jalalian,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)

The best path to development is the primary focus on the potentials and threats of the environment and accordingly efficient use of the land. In this regard, it has a closely relation between agricultural and rural development and natural resources. The type of land use is a main factor in soil erosion and sediment production in the watersheds. In this research, it has been studied and evaluated the soil erosion in the Aleshtar plain catchment with aim of developing agricultural exploitation.

This study is based on PSIAC model. The PSIAC method has been designed based on the estimating of sediment potential with 9 important effective factors contains surface of the earth, soil type, weather conditions, runoff conditions,  topography,  land cover, Land use, current erosion condition, slope of river erosion and sediment transportation in the soil erosion. In the process of this research using geographical information system (GIS), the mentioned data analyzed, integrated, and finally layers of information were prepared. Followed by extraction of units, erosion zoning of the studied area has been implemented.

The total area of the studied area is 80305 hectares and is located in the northern parts of Lorestan province (southwest of Iran) and geomorphologic features are  almost mountainous and 39.65% of their area are mountains and hills. The maximum altitude is 3600 meters; the minimum is 1500 meters. and the average height of 2116 meters. Its climate type (based on De Marten method) is Mediterranean climatic pattern exists and  the average annual rainfall is 506 mm. The Aleshtar City is the only urban center in the area but there are 208 villages. The economy of the settlements is based on agriculture (farming, gardening and animal husbandry).

     Based on the findings of this research, 37.92% of the total land area of the basin is eroded (classes I, II, III). The land consists mainly of low slope and plain basin and is suitable for plantation (I). In this zone, 98 rural settlements (47.11%) are located. Relatively deep soils and flat are the features of these lands so the rate of erosion is low (II). 84 rural settlements (40.38%) are classified in this class. Shallow soils, these lands need to have conservation measures and can be managed under the operation of arable, rangeland, forest and resorts (III). 1 rural settlement (0.48%) is located in this class of erosion. 62.09% of the total basin land is located in the classes IV and V. A total of 25 rural settlements (12%) are located in this class. These lands under certain conditions can be planted; because erosion in the land is relatively high and the limitations in comparison with class III is more. Therefore they need more protection operations for exploitation. Also in these lands that are located in the high topography of the basin; erosion is extreme (Class V), which makes arable exploitation impossible.

    Generally the land use in Aleshtar basin is faced to erosion limitation, so the control of the soil erosion and soil conservation and water resources management are essential. However, the locations of the most rural settlements were based on low to moderate erosion zones which indicates that the ancient has had a traditional preparatory thinking.

    As a general recommendation, it can be said that in any location, including rural and urban settlements, along with the development of agricultural activities, attention to the erosion and zoning is essential.

Mesysam Jamali, Ebrahim Moghimi, Zeynolabedin Jafarpour, Parviz Kardovani,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)

The process of urbanization and development in high-risk areas such as river banks has increased the vulnerability of urban communities to environmental hazards. The banks of Khoshk River in Shiraz is one of these areas. These hazards are two parts : hazards resulted from river and waterways erosion (destruction, transportation and sedimentation) and the hazards resulted from floodings over the surrounding urban areas.

In order to prepare the literature review for this study, the various books, theses and articles were applied. Also, in order to determine the spatial position of this section, the Satellite Images and Google Earth pictures were used. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was also applied for the field observations such as collecting spatial data, extracting the kind of formations, Geological structures and faults. ArcGIS and Global Mapper 16.2 were also used for data processing and mapping.

 The geomorphological hazards in Khoshk River bank were evaluated in two parts:

  1. The evaluation and analysis of the role of river and flooding processes in creating the environmental hazards for Shiraz.
  2. The evaluation and analysis of the role of humans as the intensive factors of riverine and floods hazards in city.

 The evaluation of longitudinal profile in the river indicates that when the stream is entered to plain, the water moves with more speed because of faults and high steepness over the  Drake alluvial fan. One indication of this process is the presence of coarse sands and angled gravels. In this part, the erosion of riverbank is much higher than the erosion of river bed. In this section, the longitudinal profile of the river has a regular trend of concave and convex sections due to the erosion in convex parts and sedimentation in concave parts. In addition, there is a balance between deposition and digging process. The erosion is very intensive in regions where arc meander is close to  the flooding plain of the bank and causing the destruction of all facilities.

 The longitudinal profile in the river indicates that the height and slope of river has been reduced from North West to Maharloo River. The average slope of the river is 2.40%.

         In order to determine the role of flooding in creating risks for Shiraz, the floodwater discharge data were collected from Regional Water Organization. Furthermore, in order to understand the role of maximum discharge values, various experimental relations were used in the basin. The un- ordered development of urban areas especially in the north west, destruction of natural areas intensified the amount of  runoff and reduction of vegetation cover.

 The pick values of maximum discharges in Khoshk river  with the return periods of 50 and 100 years waere estimated 115m3/s to 131.4m3/s respectively which may result in overflowing of water on the streets. The human factors include the construction of bridges on the river, fencing river with stones and construction of beach, construction of bypasses for public transportation and reducing the traffic in the riverbed and trespassing to the river bed in Shiraz caused the overflowing of water from the river. The last floods in Shiraz occurred in 1987 and 2002 that caused major losses to the houses and commercial places close to Khoshk River. In order to analyze parts of river that are close to the town and have more important influences on the hazards and disasters, the satellite images of khoshk river basin in the town were taken and the river was classified in three sections with regard to risks level, river morphology and river classification based on its hazards for close areas as high risk (Maali abad Bridge limits to Fazilat Bridge and Sardkhaneh Bridge to Maharloo River), low risk(Tange sorkh to Maali abad Bridge) and medium risk (Fazilat Bridge to Sardkhaneh Bridge).

Taher Parizadi, Lila Bigdeli,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

In the present era, most cities have been faced with numerous problems. But the environmental dimension has been more challenging. Many urban professionals constantly seek to present effective solutions in order to prevent damage to the environment. Thus, theories, models and many views in this subject have taken, including livability approach derived by the school of sustainable development. So today, as one of the views livability approach is rooted in the theory of sustainable development has been focused on, and the above approach can cause problems in multiple cities. In this research, Region 17 of Tehran as the most problem area, was selected; and the overall goal of this study is assessing the livability of the Region 17’s neighborhoods, and the objective aims are including the assessing of livability dimensions, i.e. the environmental, the historical pattern, the urban management policies, the social, services, activities and facilities, the urban economy at the local level and identifying the livability homogeneous clusters and assessment the impact of livability’s variables, dimensions and indicators in that area. According to the study of the history and theoretical foundations of livability, the most important dimensions, indicators and items related to livability were extracted and the all selected dimensions and indicators, rooted in history and theoretical basis of their livability. In the present study include the following six dimensions of environmental, historical pattern, urban management policies, social, services, activities and facilities, urban economy with 20 indicators and 94 items were considered and the pattern of research in terms of goal, is cognitive; in terms of nature and method, is comparative – assessment; and about location of territory is Tehran’s Region 17, in respect of timing, is temporal and related to the 2015. Combined data collection method is combined0 (documents, survey) and it is the type of quantitative-qualitative data (questionnaire). The data used in the research is preliminary data that were obtained by questionnaire. The statistical society are the residents and citizens of Tehran’s Region 17 who are questioning. The necessary actions to operationalize the research was conducted in several stages: 1) Adjustment of questionnaire (using five Likert scale ranging from very low to very high range, verifying the validity by experts, verifying the performance reliability of the questionnaire by using the Cronbach's alpha in software of SPSS as a result 0.8), 2) Determining the sample size and sampling (400 samples determined by Cochran formula, using multi-stage sampling), 3) Entering data into SPSS software and doing the statistical tests (parametric statistical tests such as one sample T-test, ANOVA, Friedman) analyzing the data by SPSS and statistical tests of one sample T-test, ANOVA, Friedman, represents the undesirable od livability and its dimensions, the difference between neighborhood in terms of livability and more economic effectiveness on the livability of Region’s 17 and its neighborhoods, 4) The showing of spatial diagrams of research findings and preparing the livability’s maps by using ArcGis software and interpolation method. Ultimately, according to the findings and viewpoints of researchers and field observations, it can be concluded that the causes of problems in this area should be within the region and neighborhoods, it's time to overcome the situation that has been searched. In other words, the root of the problems in the above range is due to its geographical bed’s situation and other substrate characteristics. The meaning of geographical bed’s situation, climatic and tectonic characteristics of the area and the order of the micro-feature is the problems with the nature of the social, economic, administrative, infrastructure etc, so that were formed following the influx of population. Until two important problems raised in this region is not considered to be flows: 1) Geographic bed features, 2) the capacity of Region 17 for accommodation of population and services to them.

Fatemeh Razzaghi Borkhani, Ahmad Rezvanfar, Syed Hamid Movahed Mohammadi, Syed Yousof Hejazi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2017)

Agricultural development depends on increasing production and productivity and reducing risks threatening the agricultural sector and in the shadow of extension risk management that can be prevented of wasting and damage to agricultural crops and the provision of necessary domestic agricultural production, also providing export and currency-made to advance the country's development goals. Pay attention to the strategic location of Mazandaran in citrus products, natural hazards that threaten citrus production each year in the economic development, production and exports and providing sustainable livelihoods to farmers affected negatively. Agriculture and in particular the subdivision gardening, due to dependence on weather conditions, the brunt of climate change is undergoing, horticulture stable on long-term behavior growers to ensure the stability and productivity of the land in the future is created and the expectations and concerns of the community intended to provide a food healthy and security to protect the environment and natural hazards reduction is concerned.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate Mechanisms of Reducing Natural Disasters and Risk Management to Sustainable of Citrus Gardens in  Mazandaran Province. The Population consists of all citrus farmers in the villages of 12 counties of Mazandaran province, a sample of 290 farmers was selected by using proportional random sampling method among 122361 citrus Orchard men. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. The Validity of questionnaire was determined through sustainable agriculture experts of Mazandaran County and some faculty members at the University of Tehran, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Management and Development. The reliability was found to be acceptable. Diagnostic validity by using an average variance extracted (AVE) and reliability by using Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability (CR) were confirmed. To explain the mechanisms Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to modeling the structural equations using LISREL software, version 8.80.
According to the results of the ranking factors related to the mechanism in dimensions, "supportive - credit", "environmental - spatial", "socio-participation", "knowledge-awareness", "infrastructure-institutional "," educational –informational" and "economic factors" respectively were mostly mechanisms and strategies based on factor coefficient. Among the credit-supportive, "insurance" has had the most important role in the structure of credit-supportive factor, thus, according to the regional agricultural insurance and damages in the event that the actual performance of the target area is less than the guaranteed performance is a good solution. One of the major goals of sustainable agricultural systems is decreasing vulnerability and improving sustainable livelihoods in rural people. Therefore adoption of GAP technologies has emphasized to increase elimination of pest with minimum impact on the environment, human health and access to sustainable agricultural development, (achieve to environmental, economic and social sustainability) as well as attention to the sustainability of on-farm activities to certain safety and quality of food and non-food agricultural crops. According to the study, understanding and awareness of farmers to improve skills and farming and horticulture management techniques to reducing natural disasters and risk management and  expand the participation of farmers in risk management, to develop processing and packaging industries, convenient and refrigeration practices for storage and preservation of agricultural and horticultural crops, in addition to  communication channels network  through demonstration farms, farmer field schools, workshops, field days, meeting, SMS, and information and communication channels carried by ICT as necessary solutions recommended. This Provides Information and knowledge share among orchardist and strengthening local associations and with each other.  This process helps them to increase their awareness about mechanisms of reducing natural disasters and risk management to sustainable of citrus gardens and find positive attitude toward it. This output complete sustainability goals of agriculture through improving social sustainability.  In order to access growers to timely sales service products, the establishment of a new extension system based on an available market with up to date and secure information as Marketing Information Services (MIS) could be a suitable strategy for orchardists in order to access sustainable development.

, , ,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere. Its behavior is directly influenced by its contact with earth surface. On earth it usually responds to changes in surface radiative forcing in an hour or less. In this layer physical quantities such as flow velocity, temperature, moisture, etc., display rapid fluctuations (turbulence) and vertical mixing is strong. Above the ABL is the "free atmosphere" where the wind is approximately geostrophic  while within the ABL the wind is affected by surface drag and turns across the isobars. The land use/cover changes affecting the surface radiative forces lead to ABL spatio-temporal variation. The main object of this study is to analysis the association among ABL height and built-up spatial growth in Kermanshah city.  
Data and methods
Multi-temporal satellite images from Landsat imagery data for 1990 to 2015 series of sensors TM, and OLI (Landsat 5 and 8) were taken from USGS database. Data of the Atmospheric Boundary layer height (ABL height) for the city of Kermanshah also were taken during 1990- 2015 from ECMWF – Eran-Intrim website at 0.0125 ° spatial resolution. Firstly, we analysis the temporal trends of ABL height of Kermanshah in summer and winter using linear regression in 0.95 confidence level (P_value = 0.05). The built up area of Kermanshah has been extracted from TM and OLI images using supervised classification method and maximum likelihood classification(MLC) algorithm in GIS image analysis. The Pearson correlation analysis has been used to reveal the relationship between annual ABL height variation and built-up growth of Kermanshah.
The results of long term trend of Built up growth of Kermanshah that extracted using MLC algorithm as can be seen in figure 1 indicated that the built up area in Kermanshah has been growth by 1.02 square kilometer annually.According the figure 2, The results of annual trend of ABL height in summer and winter also reveals that in summer there is no significant trends in ABL height while in winter the significant increasing long term trend has been observed in ABL height.  

Abbas Saidi, Bijan Rahmani, Rasol Ghaffari Rad,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

  Spatial Analysis of Structural-Functional Changes of Rural Settlements as a result of Construction and Utilization of Reservoir Dam and Irrigation Network (Case Study: Alavian Dam and Irrigation Network in East Azarbaijan Province)
Rasol Ghaffari rad: Ph.D. Canditate in Geography and Rural Development. Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran. Iran.
Abbas Saidi*: Professor of Geography at Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran. Iran
   Bijan Rahmani: Associate Professor at Shahid Beheshti University. Tehran .Iran.
Spatial planning as an alternative approach to sustainable development in geographical knowledge is based on a proper and appropriate understanding of space as a systematic phenomenon that has a fundamental role in guiding society towards the principles of sustainable development such that social and economic development and Improving the quality of life of each region depends on its spatial planning system.
The construction of dams is considered to be an interventionist measure in the environmental system, which may lead to positive or negative impacts. While these impacts can be recognized directly in all elements and phenomena that are related to the geographical space, they play an important role in the process of spatial development and "production of space". This article questions to what extent the construction of the Alavian dam affects the integrated spatial reorganization of rural settlements.
To investigate this, the Alavian reservoir dam in East Azarbaijan province (Iran) has been selected as a case study. The construction of the dam and the Alavian drainage network in the Maragheh and Bonab areas began in 1990 and ended in 1995 aiming to provide drinking, agricultural and industrial water as well as flood control. We hypothesized that the implementation of this project has caused a wide change in the structural and functional status of the spatial system as well as the changes in the environmental, socio-cultural and economy of the human settlements located at the margin of the reservoir. We studied such structural/functional changes in the spatial system of the Alavian dam and its irrigation network. It is presumed that "the role of the construction and Utilization of the dam and irrigation networks" has a great impact on "developments of the spatial system of rural settlements", mostly in social, economic and environmental.
In summary, we offer the following hypotheses:
  • In terms of segmentation, the top-down approach and structural approach, implementation and exploitation of the dam and Alavian irrigation network have not changed the spatial system of rural settlements within the scope of the project.
  • Spatial performance due to the construction of the dam and the Alavian irrigation network is different in structural and functional changes of the spatial system of rural settlements according to their dispersal and spatial distribution.
In this study, a descriptive-analytical method was used based on a comparative strategy. Within the framework of structural-functional scanning theory, four main criteria with 40 related indicators were selected to study the effects of reservoir dam construction and the irrigation network on all human settlements located in the geographical scope of the design. These criteria are considered to be the most important structural-functional components that are based on sustainable development.
All data (quantitative and qualitative) required for this research were collected using two methods of library studies and field survey and then analyzed. Data collection tools, including village and household questionnaires, interviews, focus group meetings, observation and field surveys, were collected through all data collection tools. The general questionnaire for all villages (27 villages) was completed in full format. The household size of the samples was calculated using a Cochran method with a confidence level of 95 percent for all 370 households. The household questionnaire was randomly filled out. The questionnaire of villages and households was completed according to the impact of the construction of the Alavian reservoir Dam separately and with a proportional distribution in the upstream and downstream villages.
To analyze the data, normality, correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Kendall coefficient were performed using SPSS software.
This study presented an innovative way to evaluate the effects of construction of the dam and irrigation network on the variation of the spatial system of rural settlements in an integrated manner based on spatial paradigm. The findings of this research are the result of collaborative fieldwork to describe the relationship between dam construction and irrigation network and changes in the spatial system of villages. Spatial planning as a new, comprehensive and systematic approach to geographic knowledge can well support the theory of sustainable development. This approach is based on the harmonious and balanced development of the environmental-ecological, socio-cultural, economic and physical conditions of the spatial system.
To sum up, it can be said that observation of the spatial organization of the areas affected by the implementation of the dam and the Alavian irrigation network, as a result of uncompetitive development policies, is indicative of the imbalance and inequality in access to opportunities (such as access to agricultural water, increased agricultural production, increased income, etc.). Accordingly, due to lack of a Integrated and systematic approach based on the principles of spatial planning in the study and implementation of the Alavian Reservoir Dam, is not possible the conditions for positive change in rural settlements. It actually causes disarray, disunity and imbalance of the spatial system of the regions. In other words, is one of the most important reasons for failure of development projects in third world countries, ignoring the dimensions and structural-functional aspects of spatial systems. The project of construction of Alavian reservoir dam and its irrigation network can be a good example of such projects.
Keywords: Spatial Planning, Unbalanced Development, Systematic Approach, Alavian Dam, Spatial Organization

Dr Esmaiel Najafi, Dr Sayyad Irani Heris, Mr Farshad Jafari,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

Investigating and analyzing the effects of environmental hazards on the dimensions of sustainable development with a good governance approach (Case study: Mazandaran province)
Esmaiel Najafi (Faculty Member of the Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Geomorphology, Damghan University)
Sayyad Irani Heris ) *Corresponding Author (  (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Young and Elite Researchers Club, Tehran, Iran)
Farshad Jafari (Master of Geography and Urban Planning, Kharazmi University)
Since the early 1990s, the idea of ​​sustainable urban development has been a fundamental and very important issue for decision makers and thinkers. Because it encompasses the historical concept of development and at the same time has become very important in determining the current international, national and regional policies (Pugh, 2004). In recent years, governance has become a hot topic in public sector management, and this is due to the important role that governance plays in determining public health. Therefore, according to environmental resources, good governance means the way in which decision makers promote sustainable development, which includes the protection of the living environment (Shuakrizadeh and Ashrafi, 2011). Governance is the institutional capacity of public organizations to provide goods demanded by the public and to help the citizens of the country or their representatives efficiently, transparently, fairly, and with accountability to limited resources. This definition of governance represents an international organization and development institution such as the World Bank that seeks to support reforms through good governance programs aimed at strengthening the strategic capacity of donor governments while intending to engage civil society. Strengthen sovereignty. (Krueger,2007).
Environmental hazards and ecological crises are the result of the interaction of environmental, economic, cultural, health and even political variables. The scope of these variables is local-spherical, so that no place in the earth is far from its consequences, with the difference that the scope and depth of the crisis is severe and weak (Kaviani rad, 2010). Investigating the effects of environmental hazards in relation to sustainable development with a good governance approach is very important and very important in terms of nature, so the present study with descriptive-analytical approach and based on library and field studies to study the effects of environmental hazards on sustainable indicators of Mazandaran province It has dealt with the characteristics of decent humility. Brief descriptions of the concepts of sustainable development and development, environmental hazards and proper governance are also given in the text of the article.
The most important natural and human hazards in Mazandaran province are earthquakes,  mass movements, floods, fires, droughts, frosts, pollution of water resources, soil erosion, pollution of agricultural products, urbanization and urban development, waste, etc. It brings a lot, attention to earth sciences and the environment can, in addition to preventing risks, accelerate the process of sustainable development.
The research method is descriptive-analytical and based on library and field studies. In order to gather information within the framework of theoretical foundations of research, by referring to library resources (Persian and Latin books, publications, dissertations and reputable foreign sites), the required materials have been collected. Statistics and information related to the development indicators of Mazandaran province have been extracted from the statistics of the Statistics Center of Iran and then examined with SPSS software, Table No. (3). The Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size. The statistical population in this study is Mazandaran province and the population of the province in the general census of population and housing in 2016, 3,283,582 people, which by placing the total population of the region in the above formula with a probability level of 95% to calculate the sample size by estimating distributions. There were two sentences (Cochran). A total of 384 questionnaires were distributed among residents and officials in the study province, a simple random method.
Based on the appropriate governance indicators in relation to environmental hazards and sustainable development of Mazandaran province, it was evaluated as lower than average (2.78 with theoretical average 3). Based on the results of factor analysis after Warmax matrix period, the participation index shows the role of urban management in increasing people's participation in improving urban environment and reducing social anomalies in Mazandaran province and reducing environmental degradation (with a coefficient of 0.772). , In the index of accountability, accountability of urban managers to the demands and complaints of people about environmental degradation and employment status (with a coefficient of 0.645), in the index of effectiveness and efficiency, the effect of managers' programs on reducing pollution (air, water, etc.) and Increasing the quality of social and infrastructural indicators of sustainable development (0.772) and the variability of the effectiveness of the implemented projects On the part of environmental managers in the cities of Mazandaran province (with a coefficient of 0.720), in the transparency index, what is your level of knowledge about the approval of plans and programs to deal with the effects of environmental hazards on the development indicators of the province (with a coefficient of 0.660) ) And how much do you know about the budgets spent on environmental protection and development and development programs and job creation in the province (with a coefficient of 0.639), in the indicator of responsibility, willingness to accept responsibility in economic, social and environmental fields? What is the level of the neighborhood itself (with a coefficient of 0.592), in the index of the central law, the amount of legal treatment of officials with factors Local and regional pollutants are environmental degrading factors (with a coefficient of 0.8595), in the Justice and Equality Index, the government's attention to dealing with environmental degrading factors in the city and shortening the hand of land grabbers in Mazandaran province (with a coefficient of 0.739) They had a higher operating load.
In relation to the impact of human and natural hazards on sustainable development indicators, which clearly include environmental, economic and social indicators, justice and equality indicators and participation in Mazandaran province are better than other indicators. It shows that the indicators of transparency, accountability and rule of law are less than average in the eyes of the people and are not in a good position in this regard.

Keywords: Environmental Hazards, Decent Governance, Sustainable Development, Mazandaran Province

Professor Bohloul Alijani,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Geography and the Paradigm of Sustainable Development
Extended Abstract
Geography and sustainable development
The relation between society and environment has gone through different phases. During the years before the World War II, the environmental determinism controlled this relation. However, after the 1950’s the anthropocentrism replaced the environmental determinism and humans began to overuse the nature in such a way that nature lost its sustainability and many hazards and crises occurred. These destructions were so intense and widespread that some researchers compared with the episodes of geologic time and named the era beginning from 1970’s the Anthropocene epoch. During this period, the planetary boundaries were crossed in some areas such climate change, nitrogen cycle and biodiversity. Climate change has created most of other hazards.
To overcome these problems in 1978 the Brandtland report   announced the sustainable development as not to spend resources more than the nature’s production capacity and not to pollute the nature more than it can assimilate. In other words, the nature should remain in its sustainable state so that the future generations can live with no limitations. The principles of the sustainable development were defined in the earth summit of Rio in 1992 such as social equity, economic viability, and environmental sustainability. These principles were broken down in 17 goals. The Rio conference asked all countries to achieve the sustainable development goals by 2030. 
Methodologically the sustainable development requires integrated multidisciplinary approach to investigate the complex system of human- environment in different temporal and spatial scales to achieve the social equity, economic viability, and environmental sustainability. For this reason, many disciplines such as natural resources, environmental sciences, ecology and geography have contributed to the field. Different data from natural resources, human needs and drivers and environmental changes are required to process in very complicated models. In addition to different variables, the hazards are very important component of the sustainable development research, which also requires multi-aspect complicated approach and models. Spatial dependency is another aspect of sustainable development as it differs from place to place in many characteristics. In brief, from the spatial perspective the sustainable development is an integrated multi-approach research about the human-environment system to establish the sustainability on the earth. All of the related fields should study the sustainable development in collaboration with each other. However, the geography due to its long history of studying the relation between human and environment and its spatial dependency is the best single scientific field which can afford studying the sustainable development. Since the earliest times geography has developed quantitative methods, spatial techniques such as geostatistics, and environmental ethics to conserve the nature and human prosperity. The multi approach and systematic works are the main characteristics of Geography. On the other hand, Geography’s vision of defining the location for human’s activities while saving the nature’s sustainability covers the sustainable development completely. Therefore, geography is the overarching field for the sustainable development and it is the main intention of geographers to research and implement the sustainable development to reduce the environmental hazards and develop the sustainable environment for all the human beings at present and in the future. Geography studies the sustainable development through three steps including spatial analysis, spatial planning, and spatial management. In addition, geographers should learn different skills such remote sensing, multivariate statistics and above all develop a common language between different branches of geography.
Keywords: geography, sustainable development, environmental ethics, human nature relationship, Anthropocene, planetary boundaries, sustainability.
Prof Bohloul Alijani,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (5-2023)

During the recent decades the geography discipline has lost its priority and position to some degree in Iran. Most of the graduates could not enter into the work in the universities and other private organizations. The human-environment system, the main area of geographical specialty has experienced many crises and hazards among which the global warming and climate change being the most destructive.  This means that the ongoing curriculum is not working well and needs to experience a fundamental change. To implement this operation some points should be cleared out. The hazardous condition of the world and especially Iran, the education history and state of geography in Iran, and the relation between geography and sustainable development of the world. The discipline of geography has changed its approach according to the circumstances of each period several times. For example, at the beginning of the twenty-century due to the dominance of the environmental determinism, the dominant approach of geography was the relation between man and environment. But since the 1970’s the earth has encountered with different hazards and crises to the extent that it is named as the period of Anthropocene. Accordingly, the dominant approach of geography during this Anthropocene era is to identify and solve the hazards and crises and lead the man- environment system towards the sustainability as once was requested by the secretary general of United Nation.  In this regard the geography should adopt the sustainable development concepts and goals. For this reason, the geography of Iran should make a switch from its very specialized approach to a relatively wholistic view and pay more attention to the human- environment paradigm. To implement this order, the following assumptions should be considered.

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