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Hassan Afrakhteh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Settlement's Systems are evolving as any other systemic phenomenon. Multitudinous and different factors are involved in settlements evolution and shaping. One of the effective factors on settlement system evolution is society public power intervention and planning based on approaches which had been approved as predominant paradigm on its time.    

Creation and reinforcement of growth poles was considered as national economic growth instrument in developing country, till 1970. It was supposed that growth pole effect will cause surrounding area's prosperity. The theory of Perroux growth pole was one of these theories in regional planning.

During recent years, some rural settlements of country have experienced physical-spatial changes and have transformed to Towns. These processes have been rising based on theoretical approaches related to spatial development or according to political consideration and election requirements. This trend imposed inconsistency landscape to settlements, and has been the source of crises and economic, social, management and environmental disasters.

     The main question in this research is "what has been the environmental subsequent of Maklevan evolution based on rural planning and also political consideration, and alteration it into town from 2013? Study area of research is Maklevan in Fuman county, Guilan province, Iran. Required data are collected from documents, Satellite images, and field study and questionnaire fulfillment. Collected data has analyzed based on variable frequencies distribution and locational-spatial approaches. Documents show that Maklevan development trend was done without passing any gradual organic process and only inspired from growth pole theory. Assignment the role of service center (services including health, education, agricultural, post, bank, administrative, business services, and Saturdays week local market), creation of main big avenue and concentration of investment (although limited) with the purpose of hinterland development and population centralization, are some of these evidences. That outcome of current development trend in Maklevan is creation a situation which has reinforces incidence and prevalence of environmental hazards including:

  • Destruction and loss of agricultural soil, the soil of Maklevan was very rich for rice cultivation, because it is provided from alluvial of Masuleh Rudkhan River. Deficiency of arable soil is considerable, therefore arable soil elimination could result to food insecurity, unemployment, extension of unofficial jobs in the region and urban fringes. Research depicted that the area of paddy lands were reduced from 1.27 square kilometers to 0.8 square kilometers during 5 years (2010-2015), which means that 46 percent of rich paddy lands has been reduced. Agricultural lands and forest has been destructed by establishment of unnecessary roads and villas. Due to above mentioned changes the area of Maklenan (constructed area) was increased from 6.12 square kilometers to 12.11square kilometers during last five years (2010-2015).
  • Destruction of forest and flood extension risk, regarding to climate situation of area, topography and kind of soil, the probability of flood risk and landfall has been increased. The evidence of land destruction, housing and bridge by the flood obviously can be seen in the point of bridge between Maklevan and Kondesar.
  • As the experience of Masuleh shows, concentration of population in a location such as Maklevan will intensify the pollution of water resources especially Masuleh Rudhan River, because of the drainage of all wastewater are into this River.
  • Undermining the foundations of traditional production and its subsidiary production, elimination of handicraft production and vernacular architecture resulted into the attenuation of area tourism foundation. Extension of Tourism activities was one of the main goals of Maklevan development.
  • Due to Physical disturbance, functionally Maklevan has become a space that is urban space nor rural. Livelihood system shows the coexistence of agricultural, animal husbandry, service and business activities. Modern buildings are seen besides the cottages.

     As a conclusion it can be said that growth pole theory is not suitable approach for settlements development in the country, or at least in the studied area. Since land use control and management should be in accordance with existing local reality. Land use planning process should be responsible of three fundamental questions: where are we? Where are we going? How can we arrive there? Rational decision making, different situation flexible approaches, emphasis on conservation of sustainability, harmony with nature, can prevent from adverse consequences of interference in nature. Therefore, abrupt town creation without gradual processes and using indigenous knowledge and people participation doesn't lead to creation of sustainable cities, but its outcome will irreparable harm to people and natural resources.

Hassan Afrakhteh,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

The City-region of Tehran is encountered with various environmental problems, including traffic, air pollution, lack of drinking water and green space, physical texture conflict, flood and earthquake. Capital accumulation has considerable role in shaping spaces which can create and intensify environmental disaster in special socio-economic situation. The second cycle is the conversion of capital to fixed and long-term assets with the aim of further benefits, which in fact produces two types of artificially environment during this process namely the built environment for production, and the built environment for consumption.

The third cycle is aiming to connect science to production and increase production capacity by investment in science and technology. When production of surplus value reduced in the first cycle, surplus value of second cycle increases through speculation and real estate transaction (real estate capital). Therefore, the owners of the lands and buildings are encouraged in production, trade and supply of these type assets.

In the courtiers that are legally and administratively encounter with tax receipt problems,  urban lands ownership is deposited to market system without any control, hosing transaction continues without any limitation, situation is moving forward to personal vested interests, asset value rises rather than production value, the price of land and construction increase severely. In the above mentioned condition, beneficiaries attempt convert the natural resources including park, mountain, river privacy and road privacy to marketable commodity and legally or quasi legally seize them. Therefore, unreasonable construction and population density increases and city-region will encounter with environmental disasters.  

The main objective of this research is to understand the underlying factors of capital accumulation through construction and its impacts on createion and intensification of environmental disasters in the Tehran city-region.

  Five different regions of Tehran were selected for data collection. "Q-methodology" was used for gathering and analyzing data. The society of communication or people whom the study sought to identify their mentality towards the research topic, were 25 experts selected through purposive sampling. To set the concourse of communication, a combination of primary (experts commented in an interview) and secondary (sources of credit) sources have been used and   34 statements have been developed. After sorting the data for analysis, SPSS software data matrix is ​​formed. Factor analysis, as main method of analyzing Q data matrix has been used based on Q logical methodology.

The results of Q analysis depicted four viewpoints with variance of 95.911 percent on the underlying cause of capital accumulation through construction and its contribution on increasing risk of natural hazards in Tehran city-region.

The first viewpoint has devoted 52.800 percent of total variances and can be titled as" Function of real estate transaction and Non-productive economic domination".

The second viewpoint which has received 18.914 percent of total variances is accordance with "commodification of land and housing". The third viewpoint is" management and monitoring of the city-region space" with 15.163 percent of total variances.  The fourth viewpoints under the title of" monitoring and control of natural resources" has assigned 9.034 percent of total variances.

As result of these processes, land and housing business have weakened society's productive capacity by extensive land use change in the urban peripheral area's due to its huge and quick profit. The above process accompany with selling excess density policy created a powerful political and economic stratum which harmed city sustainable development. The mountainous area of north, north east and west of Tehran, have annexed to metropolis as a result of above mentioned regulation and  may gardens have converted to construction by different gropes and institutions.

Q method analysis depicted that the Tehran City-Region has converted from use value to exchange value. It means that values of the city including work, security, education, leisure and welfare have been lost in favor of exchange value. In other words, the city has been converted to a commodity for exchange and selling in pursuit of profit, rising cost of urban land, building and housing. Consequently, the city-region construction site is extended to the river beds, steep slops and surrounding natural environment. This in turn is leading to rapid land use change and violation of environmental and spatial rules and regulations and intensification of environmental hazards.

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