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Manuchehr Farajzadeh, Yosef Ghavidel Rahimi, Mehdi Ardeshirikalhor,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Ultra violet radiation has some useful effects and some harmful effects on human health an d create many diseases. Nowadays not only declined but the usefulness of the therapeutic effects of the Sun in the treatment of diseases such as rickets, psoriasis and eczema have been proved. But prolonged exposure to radiation of the Sun is not always beneficial and may cause acute and chronic effects on the health of the skin, eyes and immune system. Ultraviolet radiation of the Sun is one of the most destructive waves for life on Earth. So Ultraviolet radiation index and predict its rate (1 to +11) as well as the analysis of this indicator will help people to protect themselves against the Sun

    Ozone station , global ozone measurement stations and only stratosphere in Isfahan, Iran, which is in the South and in the Northern geographical position latitude 32' 31 and 70 ' 51 is located over the East. The altitude of this station from sea is 1550 m. Also atmospheric parameters in this station which are measured daily include temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction and in the upper levels of the atmosphere at 12 GMT with the help of Joe's high temp radio instrument.

    The first step to do this research was gathering of climatic data and the statistical and quantitative analysis in order to study on the subject. Ultraviolet radiation data on the same basis of assessment, ozone station during the period January 2001-December 2010 has been collected. The second batch of data information gathered from meteorological station of Isfahan climatic elements from 2001 to 2010. This data is based on monthly averages for analysis of solar UV radiations from meteorological solidarity with the country.

Adjust the time series at the first step in the study and analysis of the data was done in order to equal intervals in these regular categories and methods of statistical analysis was carried out on them and the overall process of UV changes in the form of daily, monthly, quarterly and annually. Also part of the analysis that was carried out on the data, check how the sequence or they had over time; this way specify whether data periodically changes or trends have been or not. Once the data is based on the time of occurrence, sort and arrange the time series on them.

Annually analysis of UV index showed the general variation is a common feature of studied years but in the spring season have high variation in compared with other season. The main reason of this variation may be related to sunlight angle that can be showed atmosphere effect on received radiation. Descriptive statistic result indicated that the highest mean of UV index is 6.52 and minimum were 4.8 that have very high variations and may be it has different harmful effects. Also seasonal analysis showed highest UV index created in hot summer related to highest temperature in this season. The computational modeling of UV index against years in different season indicates there do not exist a linear relation between two factors. The correlation analysis of UV index and some climatic factors showed there are a significant relation between temperature  with 0.8570 coefficient that  can be said in relation to increase of temperature, UV rate increased and vice versa and with cloud cover correlation coefficient is  -0.393 that have significant negative relation.

    Results showed that the peak time period are output in the first half and the second half of the year, landing in the specified time series. As well as through a linear fit to all charts, increase or decrease of the radiation, changes the trend in recent years, showed that based on the ultraviolet radiation changes the average increase in the spring and summer and fall and winter shows a decline. Also according to the ultraviolet radiation in daily statistics review ozone assessment station in the studied period (2001-2011) maximum amounts of ultraviolet radiation index, (11.5) observed in the middle of the summer and the minimum amounts of radiation index (0.5) observed in mid-winter.

Zahra Taghizade, Ahmad Mazidi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2019)


Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the environmental phenomenon which has made difficult environmental conditions for citizen. This study aims to evaluate the spatial and locational variability of Esfahan urban heat island according to the role of land use. Thus an area about 190.2 square kilometers (km2) in Esfahan, as the microclimate, was studied. In order to analyze the relationship between land use and land cover changes on Esfahan urban heat island, the images of Landsat 7 (TM and ETM +) and Landsat 8 (OLI / TIRS) on 20 July 1989, 17 August 2005, 18 August 2014 have been used. The results show that the urban areas has experienced 31% changes in positive direction; while the agricultural sector and green space havehad a reduction of 25% in their area. The analysis of the intensity of heat island show that heated cores are related topoor and barren lands with about 37/33 and 36/5. Although the most area of thermal classwere related to warm thermal class in 1989 and 2005, the average thermal classes were about 63/8%in 2014. Moreover, the locational variation distribution of Esfahan heat island shows that the locationof the heat island has gradually changed. For example in 2014 it included small parts in the south of the city, military zones and barren lands in the south, some parts in the north west and north east areas and small areas in the east of Esfahan. This means that urban development isn’t the main factor of the surface temperature increase and urban heat development, but rather the type of land use has influenced the decreasing or increasing of air temperature.


Tahmineh Chehre Ara,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Investigating the role of  atmospheric circulation patterns in the severe air pollution in Esfahan

The atmosphere is a dynamic system in which a large number of physical and chemical processes occur simultaneously. Studying the dynamics and transmission of pollutants in the atmosphere using atmospheric patterns is one of the important topics in this field. Atmospheric patterns simulate the occurrence of different processes within the atmosphere and their interactions. Using an atmospheric model also requires comparing the results of the model with field and laboratory experiments. This helps in understanding the occurrence of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere as well as evaluating the implementation of a suitable model. Laboratory measurements provide valuable information while at the same time visualizing and describing atmospheric properties and atmospheric composition at specific time and space intervals. An atmospheric model provides a complete picture of the evolution of spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric pollutants at different altitudes. Understanding atmospheric dynamics can be understanded by combining measurements and integrated modeling with using synoptic systems in periods with pollutated air. Therefore, in this study, it has been attempted to analyze the atmospheric factors that cause severe pollution in Esfahan and the relationship and mechanism of the atmosphere at the time of occurrence of this phenomenon.

Data and methods
In this study, three datasets including pollution data recorded at air pollution stations, digital atmospheric data and high atmospheric stations were used. The air pollution data are from three stations of Laleh Square, Azadi and Bozorgmehr which were obtained from Esfahan General Environmental Protection Office. The pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone and suspended particulate matter (PM10), which have been prepared and processed daily for a 12-year statistical period (1995-2005). To study atmospheric conditions were used re-analyzed data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP / NCAR) include sea level pressure, geopotential height, vertical velocity (Omega), wind orbital components (U), and meridian wind ( V) was used for different levels of atmosphere. 
The above atmospheric data were obtained from the University of Wyoming site for the study days, including air temperature, dew point temperature, wind direction and intensity, and atmospheric stability and instability conditions (based on skew-t curves). In this study, a Lagrangian model with the capability of tracking particle backward in different levels of atmosphere called HYSPLIT was used to investigate the days associated with severe pollution.

Results and discussion
The results show that the highly pollutated days of the city of Esfahan can be explained by the four synoptic patterns. The occurrence of days with extremely severe pollution in Esfahan, rather than being rooted in local factors, is due to the interaction of local conditions with atmospheric circulation at the regional scale. In other words, the city of Esfahan will only experience extremely polluted days when the atmospheric circulation of the atmosphere provides conditions for increased concentrations of pollutants.
The main causes of the occurrence of days associated with maximum contamination can be attributed to Subtropical high latitude and its progression to higher latitudes. This circulation system contributes to the occurrence of highly polluted days on most days, either directly or in combination with other atmospheric systems.
The role of local factors such as the formation of inversion layer and the increase of atmospheric thickness due to the dominance of high pressure systems in the region can also be considered to exacerbate the conditions.
The use of suspended particle backward models and the study of atmospheric thermodynamic relationships have provided a deeper and more accurate understanding of the mechanisms dominating the occurrence of pollutants in Esfahan.
The results of this method showed that the occurrence of highly polluted days in the city of Esfahan can not be attributed to urban pollutants such as industrial factories of automobiles and so the influx of particulate matter from different areas has caused higher intensity pollution.

The results showed that four factors and patterns prevailed in the middle of the atmosphere at the time of the most severe days pollution in Esfahan. The results of the PSI values in each pattern showed respectively from pattern of one to four, is 221, 238.6, 203 and 281.
The synoptic conditions can be attributed to the presence of tropical high pressure, which is accompanied by a layer of temperature inversion in the lower levels of the atmosphere and the middle troposphere.
Strength of negative vorticity above 700 hPa and continued surface convergence to this altitude have made the nature of the summer atmosphere clearly observed in the pollution event in the city, which has been enhanced by strong anomalies.
On the other hand, the output of the HYSPLIT model showed that the occurrence of highly polluted days in the city of Esfahan could not be detected in urban pollutants such as automobile industrial plants and. But, the influx of particulate matter from different areas has made the pollution more intense, and the influx of dust particles has exacerbated this hazard.

Keywords: Air Pollution, PSI Index, Atmospheric Regional Circulation Patterns, HYSPLIT Model, Esfahan


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