Search published articles

Showing 3 results for Friedman Test

Zeynab Basiry, Noredin Rostami, Dr. Amin Saleh Pour Jam,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

The main purpose of the research is the identification and prioritization of criteria and indicators affecting on lack of sustainable participation of rural communities in combating desertification plans in Dehloran, Ilam province. To determine the number of sample villagers, 189 family were selected using the Cochran formula. In this research, after determining the effective indices and also indicators in the lack of sustainable participation, the questionnaire was designed and its validity was determined by the relevant experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was also tested and validated by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed using AHP and Friedman nonparametric test. The findings of the research show that the results of prioritizing the indicators that affect the lack of stakeholder participation in the AHP based combating desertification plans from the experts' point of view, design-implementation, and educational-promotional criteria are the maximum and minimum priorities, respectively. The results of criteria ranking using the Friedman test in terms of rural residents also indicated that the economic criterion is placed in the first priority and design-implementation, social criterion and educational-promotional are in the next priorities, respectively. Likewise, the results of effective indicators ranking in the lack of sustainable participation of rural communities in combating desertification plans based on the Friedman test in term of the experts’ viewpoints indicate that “ignoring people's income as a direct incentive to implement combating desertification projects” are the most significant economic indicator. Similarly, in the compartment of executive design indicator, from the experts’ viewpoint “the lack of a comprehensive participatory management program to combating desertification” and from the viewpoint of residents of the village “the lack of attention to popular opinion in the design and development of projects are prioritized as the most important indicators. In prioritizing social indicators from the viewpoint of the experts “dependence of the villagers on the state power, distrust of the results of combating desertification plans as well as low literacy level” and in terms of villagers’ opinions, “distrust of the results of combating desertification plans, the dependence of rural residents on the state power, migration of youth” are introduced and prioritized as the most substantial indicators. In the educational-promotional criterion, in terms of both views “lack of training the residents of the area regarding combating desertification projects and the related purposes, as well as lack of utilizing the local promotional group”, are determined as the main important indicators.

Mr. Reza Barjas, Dr. Noredin Rostami, Dr. Amin Salehpourjam,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Prioritization analysis of effective factors in non-participation of local societies in desertification projects (Case Study: Ain Khosh region, Ilam province)
Participation in social affairs is a commitment and acceptance of individual and social responsibility that all human beings will have to accept. This commitment and responsibilities may take the form of definite and unlimited activities. By increasing the population and the complexity of the goals and efforts of the human community to advance economic, cultural, social and political goals, we inevitably need partnership and cooperation. Participation means using personal resources to participate in a collective action. The first step is to increase popular participation in desertification initiatives, identify and remove barriers to effective non-participation in project implementation. The main objective of this research is to prioritize the factors affecting the lack of public participation in desertification plans using the FUZZY-AHP method and the Friedman nonparametric test.
Materials and methods
The statistical population of the study consisted of households in Ein-e-Khosh village of Dehloran Ilam and experts of Ilam University and natural resources organization of Ilam province and Dehloran County with more than ten years’ experience in combating desertification issues. In this research, the indexes and sub-indicators related to library studies, questionaire from experts of the university, experts from the Natural Resources Department of Ilam province and Dehloran city, as well as referring to the region and interviews with the residents of the region were identified. Then, the questionnaire designed by the FAHP method evaluated by inconsistency rate and its validity and reliability by Likert scale, and finally tried to prioritizing them based on the following steps. First, the prioritization of the indicators was performed from the expert's point of view using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). Then, the prioritization of the indicators from the perspective of experts by application of Friedman test and finally, the priority of indices and sub-indicators by the local point of view with Friedman's test.
Results and discussion
The findings of the research showed that the ranking of indices using Friedman's nonparametric test is based on the average rating from the viewpoint of residents of the region, respectively, economic index, design-executive, educational-promotional, and social. Also, this prioritization from the perspective of experts using the FUZZY-AHP test is design-executive, economic, educational, promotional and social priority, respectively. Also, the results showed that in the total of 15 identified subcategories influencing the lack of public participation in combating desertification projects, from the perspective of experts, the sub-design of the design-executive entitled "Short-term, mid-term and long-term non-planning for participation" with the average rating of 11.68 was the most important and the sub-index, "Migration of youth in the countryside" with the average rating of 3.59, is the most insignificant sub-indicator. However, from the perspective of residents in the region, the underlying economic indexes "disregarding people's income as a direct incentive to implement combating desertification projects" with an average of 11.24, the most significant and sub-indicator of the design-executive "lack of full allocation of funds during the implementation of combating desertification projects" with average rating of 5.63 is the most significant sub-indicator, which indicates that economic indicators and design-executive, along with the sub-indexes, are the most important reasons for non-participation of people in combating desertification projects in the study area.
Due to the fact that the indicators and sub-indicators are identified based on the opinions of experts and locals in the study area, this has led to familiarizing the respondents with the research. In this research, the FAHP and Friedman test were used. According to the topic of the research in the field of public participation, the best tool for measuring the comprehensive statistical view of experts including experts and locals with regard to the study area is considered. In the reliability of the FAHP questionnaire, the responsiveness questionnaire has high reliability with regard to the multi-stage and multi-stage couples comparing method and the incompatibility rate test (mean 0.043 inconsistency rate). Cronbach's alpha test was used for Likert scale questionnaires. Results (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83) showed that the questionnaire had acceptable reliability. So, results is in consistence with other researchers' findings, including Saleh Pourjem et al. (2017).
According to the results obtained from prioritization, it has been shown that in the subject of participation, in spite of the difference between the views of experts and the people of the region, in some cases, the main priorities in the discussion of non-participation are almost similar; these results are consistent with the studies of previous researchers such as Saleh Pourjem et al. (2017).
It is suggested that the removal of obstacles to public participation in combating desertification projects be put on the agenda of trusteeship organizations and public participation in all stages of design, implementation and future protection in the combating desertification projects will be considered.
Keywords: People’s Participation, MCDM, FUZZY-AHP, Friedman Test

Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Investigation of desertification trend needs an understanding phenomena creating changes singly or action and reaction together in the manner that these changes end up in land degradation and desertification. Since Lampery reported the south advancement of the Sahara Desert at an average rate of 5-6 km/year in the period 1958-1975 in the UNESCO/UNEP conference in 1975, “desert encroachment” or “desert advancing” or “desert marching” in Africa had drawn the attention of a great number of institutions, individual scientists and governments and “desertification” has become one of the major subjects of dryland environmental research in the world in the past decades (Wu et al., 2008). Land degradation occurs everywhere but is defined as desertification when it occurs in the drylands, resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities (UNCCD, 2012). Investigation of desertification potential in Alluvial fans located in the south east of the Rude short watershed area who consist of fans originated from different susceptible geological formations to erosion using nonparametric methods and attributes affecting desertification is very crucial. The aim of this research is presenting indices to determine the role of pedological criterion affecting rangeland desertification and prioritization of desertification potential in research area using nonparametric methods of Friedman and Kendalls' W rank tests.
Rude-shoor watershed area is about 17000 square kilometers. 42 percent of the area is plain and the other is highland. This area has been located in the geographic extent of 48º 30׳ to 51º (East) and 35º 21׳ to 36º 30׳ (North) and between two different geological systems and structures of south Alborz and central Iran.
To investigate pedological criterion affecting land degradation and desertification in alluvial fans, first, a part of the Rud-e-shoor watershed area was selected. After distinguishing target area, maps of slop classes, land use and geology were created, then a map of units was created by overlaying and crossing them. To create map of slope classes, first, digital elevation model (DEM) was created using ArcGIS 10.3 software, then slop map was created. It was shown as the classified map using slope classes of 0-1 (class 1), 1-2 (class 2), 2-4 (class 3), 4-8 (class 4), 8-15 (class 5), and >15 (class 6). Land use map of “Watershed Atlas” (SCWMRI, 2008) was also used after monitoring and investigating the target area using Google Earth, Landsat 8, and field studies. After creating three maps of rock unit, slope classes and land use, map of work units was created using ArcGIS by overlaying and crossing them. After creating units, grids of 1000*1000 square meters in the target area were created using an extension of ET GeoWizards in ArcGIS software to create more units.
In this research three indices of erodibility, salinity and permeability of soil were considered, finally according to the seven level scales, each of them was shown as the classified map. In this research, Linguistic variables of criteria are very low, low, rather low, medium, rather high, high and very high.  Because of the presence of linguistic attributes such as resistance coefficient to erosion, nonparametric tests is a useful method to determine desertification potential. First, Research area from the viewpoint of resistance coefficient to erosion was classified into seven classes of very low (0-2), low (2-4), rather low (4-6), medium (6-8), rather high (8-10), high (10-12) and very high (>12) on the basis of the soil texture samples and coefficient of erodibility derived from Morgan table (1986) and also the limits of resistance coefficient to erosion derived from the Feiznia method (1995). Then, Research area zonation from the viewpoint of the salinity index to be done. After sampling, the electrical conductivity of saturated mud of 159 samples was measured by EC-meter by and finally classification of salinity with considering seven classes of salinity (very low (0≤ ECe <2), low (2≤ ECe <4), rather low (4≤ ECe <6), medium (6≤ ECe <8), rather high (8≤ ECe <10), high (10≤ ECe <12) and very high (12≤ ECe)) to be done according to the USSL method (1954). Finally, Research area zonation from the viewpoint of the permeability coefficient to be done. To classify the area from viewpoint of permeability coefficient, sampling of 174 samples by brazen rings to be done and permeability coefficients of them were measured according to Darcy׳s law by meters per day  (, and finally classification of permeability based on seven classes of permeability coefficient of very low (<0.069 cm.min -1), low (0/069-0/900 cm.min -1), rather low (0/900-1/388 cm.min -1), medium (1/388-6/944 cm.min -1), rather high (6/944-10/000 cm.min -1), high (10/000-12/500 cm.min -1) and very high (>12/500 cm.min -1) to be done according to the Bouwer classification (1978).
 In this research, nonparametric methods of Friedman and Kendalls' W rank tests were used to prioritize the options, in the manner that after defining crisp numbers in seven level scales, the rank means were calculated.
The rank means obtained from Friedman and Kendalls' W rank tests alter from 7/00 to 17/33. Obtained results from the nonparametric methods showed that 74/18 % (4245/77 ha) and 25/82 % (1477/67 ha) of the area were classified into two classes of medium and very heigh desertification potential, respectively. The results also showed that the youngest and oldest gravel fans of the area have desertification potential of very high (798/75 ha) and low (152/23 ha), respectively. Results also showed that alluvial fans originated from different susceptible geological formations to erosion, such as malls, have very high desertification potential.
Desertification can also be determined using multiple criteria decision making techniques such as the fuzzy simple additive weighting or fuzzy logic models.

Page 1 from 1     

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental hazarts

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb