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Ahmad Pourahmad, Asadollah Divsalar, Parvaneh Mahdavi, Zahra Gholamrezai,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

  Iran is a wide and great land that is located on Alps earthquake belt of Himalaya. Great part of the urban and village residency of the country have been exposed to the intensive earthquake and destructive. Sarab city with several other cities, including Tehran, Karaj, Abyek, Qazvin, Roudbar, Khalkhal ,Tabriz, Marand and khoy are located on Earthquake belt that Earthquake risk is too high.   In Eastern-Azerbaijan and Sarab, potential earthquake risk is very high, since there are a lot of active faults and historical evidences show the horrific and destructive earthquakes.   Sarab city located in the Sarab plain which have abundant faults in various directions. Earthquake as a natural phenomenon doesn’t have good results but what can make it a catastrophe, is the lack of prevention from its effects and no preparation for coping with its aftermaths.   The unsuitable establishment of structural elements and urban land-uses and atypical web of urban open spaces, the old ages of and low quality of the structures in the decayed area of the factors like this have main role in the increasing the amount of damage entered to the cities against to the earthquake.   It is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of the cities against the earthquake and to consider it as one of the main goals of the urban planning.   Main objective of this paper is planning for reduction of damages arising out of earthquake in Sarab city. The study area is the Sarab city with four urban regions and 15 districts. The present research is an applied study.   For this purpose, considering the goal of the study, nine factors including the type of structural materials, the quality of the buildings, the number of the floors, the population density, pedestrian width , the availability of open space and distance from river were identified and evaluated, so that for each of the indicators or factors, one layer of map with shp format was produced and then in an analytical hierarchy process and weighting to the variables, layers overlaying operation using available analytical functions was implemented in Arc Gis software. Finally the vulnerability map of the Sarab city was prepared. According to the results of AHP model, it is concluded that Sarab in terms of vulnerability has no appropriate status against earthquake risk so that the whole Sarab city is vulnerable to earthquake, but some of its neighborhoods due to low quality of buildings and vulnerability of streets network and inaccessibility to open areas and excessive compression are more vulnerable. Deteriorated urban area is one of the most vulnerable parts of the Sarab city during the occurrence of the earthquake. Therefore, to reduce the health and wealth damages which can cause by the earthquake in the city.  

Abolfazl Ghanbari, Ehsan Pashanejhad Silab,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

     Environment, development and sustainability are the three significant issues of worldwide concern. Environmental vulnerability and assessment of natural and anthropogenic activities impacts represent a comprehensive evaluation approach. The main purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive and novel framework in order to environmental vulnerability assessment using by spatial data and techniques. The method of this research is analytical-descriptive. The basic premise is that the finding of this study can be applied in the local planning system and policy making process of environmental conservation particularly to cope with rapid environmental change. The environmental vulnerability is defined and governed by four factors: hydro-meteorology signatures, environmental attributes, human activities and natural hazard. Based on data availability and vulnerability status of different areas, there is no general rule for selecting how many variables are required to assess the environmental vulnerability. In this study, 18 variables were taken into account and organized into four aforementioned groups.  The process of environmental vulnerability index is proposed to integrate AHP approach, remote sensing indices and GIS techniques. The environmental vulnerability showed distinct spatial distribution in the study area. Furthermore, the distribution of heavy and very heavy vulnerability patterns mainly occur in low and medium lands where the human activities have been developing rapidly and is the nearest region to Urmia lake in the west region.

Abbas Saidi, Bijan Rahmani, Rasol Ghaffari Rad,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

Spatial planning as an alternative approach to sustainable development in geographical knowledge is based on a proper and appropriate understanding of space as a systematic phenomenon that has a fundamental role in guiding society towards the principles of sustainable development such that social and economic development and Improving the quality of life of each region depends on its spatial planning system.
The construction of dams is considered to be an interventionist measure in the environmental system, which may lead to positive or negative impacts. While these impacts can be recognized directly in all elements and phenomena that are related to the geographical space, they play an important role in the process of spatial development and "production of space". This article questions to what extent the construction of the Alavian dam affects the integrated spatial reorganization of rural settlements.
To investigate this, the Alavian reservoir dam in East Azarbaijan province (Iran) has been selected as a case study. The construction of the dam and the Alavian drainage network in the Maragheh and Bonab areas began in 1990 and ended in 1995 aiming to provide drinking, agricultural and industrial water as well as flood control. We hypothesized that the implementation of this project has caused a wide change in the structural and functional status of the spatial system as well as the changes in the environmental, socio-cultural and economy of the human settlements located at the margin of the reservoir. We studied such structural/functional changes in the spatial system of the Alavian dam and its irrigation network. It is presumed that "the role of the construction and Utilization of the dam and irrigation networks" has a great impact on "developments of the spatial system of rural settlements", mostly in social, economic and environmental.
In summary, we offer the following hypotheses:
  • In terms of segmentation, the top-down approach and structural approach, implementation and exploitation of the dam and Alavian irrigation network have not changed the spatial system of rural settlements within the scope of the project.
  • Spatial performance due to the construction of the dam and the Alavian irrigation network is different in structural and functional changes of the spatial system of rural settlements according to their dispersal and spatial distribution.
In this study, a descriptive-analytical method was used based on a comparative strategy. Within the framework of structural-functional scanning theory, four main criteria with 40 related indicators were selected to study the effects of reservoir dam construction and the irrigation network on all human settlements located in the geographical scope of the design. These criteria are considered to be the most important structural-functional components that are based on sustainable development.
All data (quantitative and qualitative) required for this research were collected using two methods of library studies and field survey and then analyzed. Data collection tools, including village and household questionnaires, interviews, focus group meetings, observation and field surveys, were collected through all data collection tools. The general questionnaire for all villages (27 villages) was completed in full format. The household size of the samples was calculated using a Cochran method with a confidence level of 95 percent for all 370 households. The household questionnaire was randomly filled out. The questionnaire of villages and households was completed according to the impact of the construction of the Alavian reservoir Dam separately and with a proportional distribution in the upstream and downstream villages.
To analyze the data, normality, correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Kendall coefficient were performed using SPSS software.
This study presented an innovative way to evaluate the effects of construction of the dam and irrigation network on the variation of the spatial system of rural settlements in an integrated manner based on spatial paradigm. The findings of this research are the result of collaborative fieldwork to describe the relationship between dam construction and irrigation network and changes in the spatial system of villages. Spatial planning as a new, comprehensive and systematic approach to geographic knowledge can well support the theory of sustainable development. This approach is based on the harmonious and balanced development of the environmental-ecological, socio-cultural, economic and physical conditions of the spatial system.
To sum up, it can be said that observation of the spatial organization of the areas affected by the implementation of the dam and the Alavian irrigation network, as a result of uncompetitive development policies, is indicative of the imbalance and inequality in access to opportunities (such as access to agricultural water, increased agricultural production, increased income, etc.). Accordingly, due to lack of a Integrated and systematic approach based on the principles of spatial planning in the study and implementation of the Alavian Reservoir Dam, is not possible the conditions for positive change in rural settlements. It actually causes disarray, disunity and imbalance of the spatial system of the regions. In other words, is one of the most important reasons for failure of development projects in third world countries, ignoring the dimensions and structural-functional aspects of spatial systems. The project of construction of Alavian reservoir dam and its irrigation network can be a good example of such projects.

Iraj Ghasemi, Sheida Ebrahimi Salimi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

The development of the tourism industry, in addition to paying attention to the infrastructure of this industry, requires comprehensive planning of persuasive factors, as well as reducing the environmental and natural risks of tourism destinations. According to research, tourists are affected by four types of risks, including health, cultural, political and economic, but among the natural hazards that endanger the health of tourists is of particular importance.
 Among the tourist destinations, ecotourism has a significant success, which causes many hazards in these areas. Maranjab desert for the relative temperament of temperature, tourist attractions, diversity of animal species and vegetation, and the existence of typical and prominent forms of desert is one of the most visited areas of desert ecotourism. Therefore, many problems and dangers are threatening. In this research, an attempt has been made to identify and analyze the main natural and environmental hazards of the Maranjab desert with a descriptive-analytical method based on library and field studies.
The general approach of mixed-method with the priority of quantitative method is based on qualitative studies. For this purpose, after identifying the risks, a questionnaire for prioritization was collected through interviews with experts and then evaluated and analyzed through the FMEA technique. The method of FMEA is one of the tools for continuous improvement of product and service quality. The purpose of the FMEA is to identify the risks and risks of the product and process that may be latent or obvious. Once identified, the next step is to make decisions that can be addressed. This method is used in medicine, manufacturing and services industries. In recent years, the use of this model for risk assessment in the humanities and tourism has also become popular. This method is based on three key components of probability of occurrence, severity of occurrence and probability of discovery.
 After returning the questionnaires and evaluating the quality of response, a random sample of 100 questionnaires was selected and analyzed based on the method of analysis of failure factors and its effects. According to the purpose of the study, half of the audience had an individual trip and half of them traveled to the area with the group. Audiences were asked to assign a score between 1 and 10 for each component of the method. Accordingly, each factor will have a score in each case, which is obtained from the average score of the audience and has been between 1 and 10. After identifying and evaluating the risk perceived by the audience, in an interview with professors and

Eng. Ebrahim Asgari, Eng. Mahboobeh Noori, Dr Mohammadreza Rezaei, Dr Raoof Mostafazadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

 Determining Strategies for Improving Environmental Resilience in Gharehshiran Watershed in Ardabil using SOAR Analysis Technique
Ebrahim Asgari - PhD Student of Watershed Science & Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
Mahboobeh Noori - PhD Student of Geography & Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
MohammadReza Rezaei - Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
Raoof Mostafazadeh - Associate Professor Department of Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. Email: (Corresponding author)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: New approaches of crisis management have changed from the concepts of vulnerability to resilience and emphasize on strengthening the system's ability to deal with the risks of natural disasters. Therfore, the aim of this study was identifying the watershed capabilities of Qarahshiran and crisis management planning with emphasis on environmental resilience.
Methodology: The SOAR analytical technique and expert opinions of 52 experts were used to formulate the strategy, determine the strengths, opportunities, ideals and measurable results. The results of SOAR technique and crisis management prevention and preparedness strategies were compared with the environmental resilience of the field.
Results: Based on the results, reducing direct and indirect flood damage with 51.9% and low amount of soil erosion and water loss with 42.3%, were the most important results of the SOAR model. Out of 15 components of environmental resilience, the performance of 5 components was accepted as significant (α<0.05 confidence level). The evaluation of environmental resilience using one-sample t-test showed that the environmental dimension of resilience (2.67) with a significant level (α=0.003) has a significant that indicates high vulnerability and low resilience.
Conclusion: Considering site selection of watershed management structures, creating more opportunities and using the private sector potentials, and local NGOs will be useful in crisis management. Analysis of watershed resilience components in achieving integrated watershed management, proper knowledge of watershed function, possibility of self-regulation and recovery of balance and acceptance of adaptation to natural hazards, co-design of watershed residents, preparedness and coping with crisis can be more effective over the study area.
Key words: SOAR Model, Strategic Planning, Prevention and Preparedness, Resilience, Gharehshiran Watershed


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