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Showing 17 results for Resilience

Homa Dorostkar Gol Khili, Yadollah Yousefi, Mehdi Ramezanzadeh Lasboyee, Hematollah Roradeh ,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

Natural disasters is one of the main challenges for developing countries, which not only cause death and emotional pain and suffering of survivors, but greatly affecting development. Reduction programs and prevention of disasters, including policies that countries to increase community capacity in disaster, are followed to improve the effects of these disasters. One of the risks that affect Iran, is flooding. Iran has a very high risk of flooding, which in most years, about 70% of annual credit plan is paied to reduce the effects of natural disasters. Floods in recent years has left a lot of damage in many parts of Iran. Because the flood event and can not be prevented, but we can assess the resiliency and vulnerability of risks to reduce the effects of flooding greatly. Planning in disaster management process can reduce the risks of accidents and improve the resilience. Thus, how and by what means we can increase the capacity of society to accept a certain level of risk is very important. In recent years, many researches, focused over concept of resilience and disaster risk reduction policy. This research study area is the Nekarud basin in Mazandaran province. Population growth and unethical uses of Nekarud and natural resources, humans and their facilities, infrastructure and natural resources of the basin are vulnerable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resiliency and identify strengths and weaknesses in the flood affected villages Nekarud margin is based on random sampling of villages (8 villages) have been affected by floods in recent years, were selected. The research method is descriptive and analytical study of its nature. The aforementioned villages to assess the resilience, the four dimensions of economic, social, and institutional infrastructure based on the location of the axis (DROP) provided by Cutter and his colleagues in 2008, was used. According to the surveys and the results obtained, it can be stated that the model DROP, because of the location-based (geographic), and the integrity of the elections aspects and indicators to measure and assess the resilience of settlements is a good model. The dimensions considered to measure resilience include: economic, social, institutional and infrastructure. After determining the dimensions required components and indicators research, scientific references were identified by the study, questionnaires were prepared. Secondly, the need of the rural sample in the form of a questionnaire, collected and analyzed after coding in SPSS. The findings of the study showed that the settlements are in a different situation in terms of resilience in different dimensions. The economic resilience for the total sample is 8.96. The amount of this variable for Zarandin-e Olya, Zarandin-e Sofla, Abelo and Kuhsarkadeh rural settlements is higher than the average whole.

Mohamad Salmani, Nasrin Kazemi Sani Ataallah, Badri S. Ali , Sharif Motavaf,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

Human communities are affected by hazards, disasters and catastrophic events throughout history, including natural disasters (such as: earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tornadoes) man-made disasters (such as: nuclear accidents, explosions, socio or political crisis, economic disturbances). Therefore, catastrophic events can have human or natural causes. These conditions show that human communities not only ever been stable, but they are continuously unstable and are exposed to disarranging events. Godschalk knows resiliency an important goal for two reasons. “First, because the vulnerability of technological and social systems cannot be predicted completely, resilience –the ability to accommodate change gracefully and without catastrophic failure- is critical in times of disaster. If we knew exactly when, where, and how disasters would occur in the future, we could engineer our systems to resist them. Since hazard planners must cope with uncertainty, it is necessary to design communities that can cope effectively with contingencies. Second, people and property should fare better in resilient communities struck by disasters than in less flexible and adaptive places faced with uncommon stress. In resilient communities, fewer building should collapse. Fewer power outages should occur. Fewer households and business should be put at risk. Fewer deaths and injuries should occur. Fewer communications and coordination breakdowns should take placeStructural analysis is first of all a tool of structuring the ideas. It gives the possibility to describe a system with the help of a matrix connecting all its components. By studying these relations, the method gives the possibility to reveal the variables essential to the evolution of the system. It is possible to use it alone (as a helps for reflection and/or decision making), or as part of a more complex forecasting activity. This method has 3 phases. Phase 1: considering the variables: The first stage consists in considering all the variables characterizing the studied system (external as well as internal variables); it is good at this point to be the most comprehensive possible and not to exclude, a priori, any possible path of research. Phase 2: description of the relations between the variables: In a systemic vision, a variable doesn’t exist other than as part of the relational web with the other variables. Also, structural analysis allows to connect the variables in a two-entries table (direct relations). Phase 3: identification of the key variables: This last phase consists in identifying the key variables; first, by a direct classification (easy to realize), then by an indirect classification. Direct classification:  The total of the connections in a row indicates the importance of the influence of a variable on the whole system (level of direct motricity). The total in a column indicates the degree of dependence of a variable (level of direct dependence). Indirect classification: One detects the hidden variables thanks to a program of matrix multiplication applied to an indirect classification. The structural analysis method seeks to highlight key variables, hidden or not, in order to ask the right questions and encourage participants to think about counter-intuitive aspects or behavior within the system. The direct influences of each variable on the set of other variables are illustrated in matrix form. Each element of the matrix represents an influence (0 = no direct relationship of influence on the two variables considered; 1 = a direct relationship of influence). We also took into account the level of influence between two variables. The following convention was used: 1 = low relationship; 2 = average; 3 = strong; P = potential relationship.. P levels were also given 0-3 ratings. By reading the matrix, we can classify the variables by their -level of direct influence: importance of influence of a variable on the whole system, obtained through the total of links created per line; - level of direct dependence: degree of dependence of a variable, obtained by the total of links created per column. The direct and indirect influences of the variable represent the system the most realistically. Highlighted are the determining factors (main determinants) of the situation under investigation. The input variables and result or output variables help participants understand the organization and structuring of the system under the microscopeBased on the results of direct influence matrix, social, economic and institutional variables are effectiveness in comparison to others. They have a great impact on system but physical variable effectiveness is much less than its impact. Among of mentioned variables, institutional variable had a significant numerical difference. Indirect cross-impact matrix showed significant differences in the institutional and social variables compared to other variables in the effectiveness and affected. The results indicate the high impact of these two variables on the system. In other words, institutional and social variables were influential factors in their community resilience. According to the results of direct influence matrix, strategic and key factors are including participation, assistance and interactions from social variables, readiness from intuitional variable and in indirect influence matrix; these factors are including participation, social identity, assistance and interactions from social variables and readiness from intuitional variable. Distribution of factors in axis influences of direct and indirect suggests that this system is unstable.

Jalal Karami , Aminah Mohamadi, Mohammad Sharifikia,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

Resilience are concepts that are finding increasing currency in several fields of research as well as in various policy and practitioner communities engaged in global environmental change science, climate change, sustainability science, disaster risk-reduction and famine interventions (Vogel,, 2007). Where the risk is a probability of damage, injury, liability, loss, or any other negative occurrence that is caused by external or internal vulnerabilities, and that may be avoided through preemptive action (Benson,, 2004). Among natural disasters, earthquakes, due to the unpredictable nature of these events, are one of the most destructive. Iran is one of the most earthquake-prone countries in the world that its cities most affected by this phenomenon. Among the cities of Iran, Tehran, as the country's first metropolis, due to dense population, poor physical development, structural density, and lack of standards, is potentially facing a serious threat. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial flexibility of Tehran over the region 12 after the earthquake incidence.

The present study is dealt with the data preparing and analysis using geospatial methods. The several geospatial data such as Peak Ground Acceleration (AGA) map, urban structure, infrastructure and population collected from Tehran Disaster Management Center were provided and analysis based some GIS known algorithms. In other to urban spatial resilience zonation the AHP (analytical Hierarchy Process) was implemented to generation risk map. Finally OWA (Ordered Weighted Average) method was implemented in order to Production spatial flexibility map of earthquake incidence over the District 12 of Tehran. AHP model uses of priorities straight experts, but OWA provides of control the level of compensation and risk-taking in a decision. Using the conceptual of fuzzy quantifier with OWA makes the qualitative data analysis enter to decision.

    According to flexibility of the final map with fuzzy operator (All) equivalent to the operator MIN, the worst result Was obtained and resulting the highest risk and lowest flexibility respectively (Districts Nos. 2,12,7,8 and 11).By taking all the criteria of a criterion without compensation by other criteria as "non-risk" is obtained .

Map obtained with fuzzy operator (Half) has the high potential to provide suitable options,  because in addition to integration criteria the importance of each parameter based on the weight given to the criteria are considered. In this map Districts Nos.2.6 and 8 (Baharestan, Emamzadeyahya and Sanglajedarkhangah) respectively were most Risk to earthquakes and therefore less flexibility to the earthquake. The map obtained with the fuzzy operator "Atleast one" is equivalent to MAX operator districts Nos. 2,12,7 and 8 (Baharestan ,DarvazehGhar of Shush,Abshardardar and Sanglajedarkhangah)  respectively were most Risk to earthquakes and therefore less flexibility to the earthquake.

The fuzzy conceptual map quantifier showed that districts Nos. 2 and 12 (Baharestan and DarvazehGhar of Shush) were most vulnerable and therefore less flexibility to the earthquake as final results.

Vakil Heidari-Sareban, Ali Majnouni-Toutakhaneh,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Nowadays, the severity of the drought hazard has reached a point that has affected all the rural and urban areas surrounding it. Increasing the resilience of villages via livelihood solutions, is one of the best strategies for reducing the vulnerability of villages against natural hazards such as drought. The eastern side of the Lake Urmia consists of the six cities of Osku, Azarshahr, Bonab, Shabestar, Ajabshir and Malekan. Totally, there are 199 villages in this region, which are affected by the drought of the Lake, directly and indirectly and according to the statistics, the quantitative and qualitative reduction in agricultural and livestock productions and soil quality, the incidence of respiratory diseases and … have risen sharply compared to the past and a number of villages have been evacuated. Also because of the lack of a coherent strategy, which should be taken by the planners and authorities, the important measures to revitalize the Lake has not been taken yet and the dimensions of the threat are increasing day by day.

Current study investigate the factors affecting the resilience of rural settlements of the eastern side of the Lake Urmia against Drought. This is an applied and analytic-explanatory research. The data is collected by questionnaire from the villagers living in rural areas of the six cities, which are the statistical population of the research and the total number of the villages estimated 199 with 232295 persons.

The standardized Perception Index (SPI) is used to estimate the varying degrees of the villages in the eastern side of the Lake Urmia. In the next step, the possession index for each of the villages was calculated and the studied villages were classified based on it. On this basis and by considering the four status of drought and the three levels of possession, after sorting the villages on the basis of these two indexes, 43 villages were chosen from different regions of the eastern side of the Lake as the first level of analysis, using systematic random selection. Also, to classify the villages in the regard of possessing of the development facilities, the composite indicators called Morris pattern and 47 existing items are used, which are calculated in 9 different indexes. Finally, the obtained information were analyzed using SPSS and GIS software.

Regarding to the research findings at the eastern side of the Lake and on the basis of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), about 78% of this area has been experiencing drought. Also, the status of the overall indicators of household's livelihood capital on the basis of the Normal Scale from 0 to 10 is 3.34, which shows the unfavorable status of this index. The results of the study in the field of the level of civil and institutional development showed that on the basis of the Normal scale from 0 to 10, civil development is 4.86 and institutional development is 3.69. Lastly, the research findings for the three levels of the sustainable development of the livelihood shows that the livelihood diversification is 3.61, in depth agriculture 3.24 and migration strategy is 3.02. The analysis of the results of the sustainable livelihood shows that the decrease of drought of the villages increases the diversity of the livelihood of the villagers. According to the results obtained, the mean of the resilience index of the investigated households on the basis of 0 to 10 equals to 4.86, which is close to the average level. The classified distribution of the resilience level and the focus of the more than of 56% of the households with average level of resilience confirms this situation. 30.26% of the households has low resilience and 15.64% has high resilience in the face of existing conditions. Upon this basis, the highest amount of the resilience equals to 5.38, which exists in the villages with severe drought conditions and by decrease of the drought, the resilience of household’s decreases. Finally it can be said that the villages with a long history of vulnerability from drought and also having more intense droughts, has a higher resilience level in dealing with the situation.

According to the results, the highest amount of vulnerability exists in the villages with low experience in dealing with the long-term conditions of drought, which their economic and social structures are not prepared to deal with the conditions. While the average amount of the livelihood capitals and the resilience of the studied statistical population do not show an appropriate conditions, but totally, the results and relationships of the studied variables conforms the role of possessing all dimensions of livelihood capital on taking appropriate approach to dealing with the conditions of drought in the Lake Urmia. In the field of taking the approaches of diversifying the livelihood resources of the villagers, there are several scientific and examined solutions, such as considering the education and awareness as a definite reality, also the knowledge and skills of the villagers in the fields of modifying the crop patterns, water saving strategies, the use of efficient products and making use of the other high-income jobs must be increased.

In the field of educational solutions, besides providing modern knowledge and international successful experiences, it must be possible to make use of the indigenous knowledge and experiences of the villagers.

Marzieh Taabe, Abolfazl Ranjbarfordoei, Sayed Hojat Mousavi, Mohammad Khosroshahi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (1-2018)

The correct management in natural ecosystems is not possible without knowledge of the health in its sectors. Vegetation is the most significant sector in ecosystem that has important role in its health. Resilience is one of the defining features of health vegetation The term resilience was first introduced in the study of ecological systems and demonstrates the ability of the ecosystem to maintain its performance in the face of environmental disorders. A resilience-based system is not only equipped with a disorder adjustment mechanism but also has the potential to benefit from changes in a way that lead to creating an opportunity for development, innovation, and updating. Therefore, when a change occurs, the resilience provides the needed conditions for restarting and reorganization. If this goes beyond disturbing forces, the system will have the power to return to the maximum vegetation density with the least erosion effects, otherwise the system will be vulnerable to the change that was created and could already be controlled.
This research was done in part of North east of South Khorasan province (arid climate) with the aim of quantifying vegetative resilience on behalf of ecosystem health in response to drought occurrences and long-term precipitation changes, as environmental disturbances. Therefore first, using daily precipitation data from 15 meteorological stations around the study area, their annual precipitation was extracted and was standardized by Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) over the course of thirty years (1986 - 2015). Then, the SPI index data in 15 stations were interpolated by ArcGIS software based on Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method and dry, wet and normal years was estimated in the study region for each year. On the other hand, from archive of satellite images of Landsat 5 and Landsat 7, an image was created for each year in study period, between 15 June and 15 July, with permanent coverage at the best of growth. Following the necessary corrections for satellite images, the average Transformed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TNDVI) was obtained of each image by ENVI software. Finally, effected of precipitation changes on mean TNDVI was assessed and vegetation resilience was stabilized whit selected of sever time period samples based on four effective parameters (Amplitude, Malleability, Damping and Hysteresis).

Comparison of annual precipitation variations in the thirty-year time series (1986 -2015) indicated two approximate wet and dry periods in study area. The wet period is related to the first fourteen years of the time series (1986-1999) and the dry period is related to the last sixteen years (2000-2015). In this term, severe precipitation incidents with different intensities were occurred in the study area including one case of very intense precipitation (1986), one case of intense precipitation (1991) and two cases of moderate precipitation (1996 and 1992). Also, four drought incidents were occurred including one case of intense drought (2001) and three cases of moderate drought (1987, 2006 and 2008). All precipitations (wet years) are related to the first half and most droughts are related to the second half of the studied period. In this study for fixing of vegetation resilience in study area and for calculating of its parameters, In addition to the thirty-year time series selected sever time sections. in the whole study series (1986 - 2015), maximum of mean TNDVI (49.37 %) was in 1986 (reference), the lowest mean TNDVI (43.58%) was in 2010, The year effect of the decrease precipitation and drought, and mean TNDVI in 2015 was 44.28 %. Amount of parameters amplitude, malleability and damping are respectively 5.79, 0.7 and 5.09, and hysteresis was zero (%). The result of this case showed that the vegetation has moved towards the reference state (Resilience) but has not reached to amount of reference vegetation. The most specific cases for vegetation resilience happened from 1986 to 1996 (wet period) and 2003- 2009 time sector (dry period). In the first time section amount of amplitude and malleability were 0.64 %, damping was zero and hysteresis was 0.25%. The result of this case showed that not only the vegetation was returned to the reference state but also was increased to the reference (Cross reference).So despite the reduced rainfall and occurrence of sever occurrences of drought in dry period, hysteresis parameter (0.05 %) observed in 2003- 2009 time sector too that confirmed clearly vegetation health in study area whit dry climate. 

Awareness of the health status of the vegetation and its response to long-term precipitation changes and environmental disorders, such as drought occurrence, ensure the success of the managerial plans for renewable natural resources. The present study is the second study on quantifying the vegetation resilience and the first study under dry climatic conditions in Asia (an average annual precipitation of 160 mm) conducted in Iran by calculating four factors related to resilience, and is the first study that has presented the factor hysteresis in the calculations. Despite continuous of difficult condition, the native vegetation of the study area has been able to return the reference state not only by resolving the disorder relatively, but also it has experienced hysteresis stage. A set of quantitative calculations showed despite reduced annual precipitation and drought events, vegetation has been able to maintain its resilience, which indicates the health of the vegetation in the studied ecosystem. With the presence of such amazing protective and consistent mechanisms in the vegetation of arid regions, it is possible to maintain and restore these regions by proper managerial plans.


Aliakbar Anabestani, Mahdi Javanshiri, Hamideh Mahmoudi, Mohammad-Reza Darban Astaneh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Spatial Analysis of Villagers’ Resilience Against Environmental Hazards
(A Case Study of Central District of Faruj County)
Statement of the problem
The concept of resilience is the outcome of changes in risk managing in current decade. Today, the views and theories of disaster management and sustainable development seek to create societies resilient against natural disasters. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, droughts, floods, etc. are inevitable phenomenon which always pose a serious threat to development, especially in rural areas. This reflects the need to pay more attention to resilience in local level (rural areas). Resilience is the ability of a social or ecological system to absorb and deal with disorder or disturbance, so that the basic functional structure, can maintain the capacity of reorganization and adapting to changes and tensions. Carpenter defines resilience as the capacity of an environmental and social system to absorb a disruption, reorganize and thereby maintain essential functions. Thus, in order to reduce damage caused by natural disasters, the capacity of rural areas to deal with these events should be increased. Increased level of resilience against natural hazards is possible through accurately identifying the factors affecting resilience. Therefore, the aim of this study is the spatial analysis of factors affecting the promotion of rural environmental resilience in the face of natural hazards in rural areas of Faruj County.
In fact, the present study seeks to answer the following questions: what are the factors which may increase the level of resilience in the sample communities exposed to natural hazards, and how resilient are the sample villages of the study?
Research Methodology
This study is an applied research conducted in a descriptive-analytical method based on questionnaires. Data were collected through library research and field works which required completing questionnaires and conducting interviews with villagers living in the Central District of Faruj County.
Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed based on experts' views and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach alpha for different dimensions. The population consisted of 4591 households from the villages suitable for temporary accommodation. Based on the Cochran formula, 252 were obtained from these samples. They were selected by stratified random sampling.
Using statistical analysis methods in SPSS software, we analyzed the data to measure resilience in sample villages of the study area. We also used Excel and GIS in various parts of the study. To determine the best option, we used the VIKOR models, Gray relational analysis and Additive Ratio Assessment (ARAS).
Results and discussion
The results showed that infrastructure dimension with a mean of 2.92 and the economic dimension with a mean of 2.58 respectively had the highest and least impact on increased resilience which suggest that these villages compared to sample villages have relatively good infrastructure facilities. However, due
to the lack of proper institutional framework and poor performance of crisis management institutions, villagers are less satisfied with these organizations. Accordingly, based on t-test, the actual mean of the total respondents’ views was less than 3 and at the moderate level, and the economic index with the t statistics of -10.38 had the most negative impact on the resilience of the villagers.
It should be noted that according to the results of the resilience correlation with the individual characteristics of the respondents, it became clear that the gender and marital status has a direct and weak relationship with each dimension of resilience, which means men and the married people compared to the women and the singles believe their villages are more resilient. Besides, there is a weak and reverse relationship between the education of the individuals and their resilience, meaning that people with lower education compared to educated people, believe their villages are more resilient. There was no relationship between age and the dimensions of resilience.
In order to assess the impact of each index of the study on the level of resilience in the villages of the study, the confirmatory factor analysis test was used which revealed that among the indices of the study, "the villagers’ satisfaction with the performance of the Rural Council and administers (Dehyars)", "the role of institutions in educating people about various incidents" and "the use of new and durable materials to prevent the damaging effects of the incidents" had the greatest effect on the resilience of the samples villages.
Eventually, to determine the best village in terms of resilience for establishing a temporary settlement site in crisis management, we use three techniques: additive ratio assessment (ARSA),- VIKOR and Gray relational analysis. We prioritized the villages based on the mean rank method. -Considering the indices of resilience in the rural areas of the study, the villages of Mefrangah, Ostad and Pirali have the highest ranks, and the villages of Rizeh and Roshavanlou have the lowest ranks.
Key words: resilience, environmental hazards, organizational-institutional dimension, additive ratio assessment (ARSA), Faruj Central District
Abdol Hamid Nazari, Mostafa Taleshi, Mohammad Mirzaali,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Analysis and Measurement of Environmental Resilience of Villages in Gorganrud Watershed against Flood (Golestan province, Iran)
Environmental hazards are inevitable phenomena that always place serious risks on the development of human societies, especially rural development. In the recent years, however, significant changes have been made in crisis management approaches, and the prevailing view has shifted from the "reduction of vulnerability" approach to "resilience improvement". Resilience is a new concept often used in the face of unknowns and uncertainties. Therefore, along with this change of attitude, it is important to examine and analyze natural hazards in terms of resilience. According to global statistics, floods, as one of the most devastating natural disasters, have caused the greatest losses and casualties to human settlements, which is true both in our country and in Golestan province. Investigations show that only in the statistical period of 1991-2014, 106 rainfall cases have led to the occurrence of floods in this province. These floods have damaged natural resources, the environment and the prevalence of environmental pollution; In addition, other natural and human factors have contributed to the heightened risk of flood damage. But if it was planned for the restoration of villages, then the damage could be reduced. Therefore, this research was conducted with the general purpose of determining the relationships between environmental factors and factors of rural communities of Gorganrud watershed on their resilience and numerical values. Finally, the residual spatial analysis of rural limited settlements was studied. Accordingly, the research questions are as follows: a) What is the relationship between environmental factors and factors in the villages of Gorganrud watershed in Golestan province with the resilience of the communities living in them in the face of flood? b) What are the resiliency values ​​of these communities in the environmental dimension and which zones? This is an applied research with descriptive-analytical method. A library of researcher-made questionnaires was used for collecting data using library resources. The statistical population consisted of 106 villages with 22,942 households. First, 31 villages were selected by cluster sampling. Then, using Cochran formula, 318 families were selected as sample size and selected by simple random sampling method. Also, for assessing the validity of the questionnaire, using Delphi collective wisdom methods, it was determined by using historical studies and opinions of experts in rural areas. The reliability of the questionnaires was also determined by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the pre-test method. The value for the household questionnaire was ra1=0.841 and ra2=0.862, respectively. All steps for statistical analyzes have been performed by Excel and SPSS software. Additionally, the development of mapping, risk-taking, risk and resilience was also done with the help of ArcGIS software and the weight of each criterion was determined by the Super Decision tool; Then, using the weighted and linear overlapping methods, each of the sub-criteria of the main indexes was multiplied in its weights. The study area is divided into two distinct sections in terms of geological and geomorphological structure. The southern and eastern parts of it are the ripples of the eastern Alborz mountains, which are taller in the southern part and extend along the east-west direction. Also, the northern part of the studied basin is the Gorgan plain, in which the main branch of Gorganrud flows from east to west and all branches of the south and east are drained. Following the general slope of the main branch and its long-standing walls in the mid-east, it is usually not flooded; but as far as the west is concerned, its slope is very low and one of the flood plains is considered as the basin. The results of the research show that there is a significant relationship between the environmental factors of the studied basin villages and the resilience of the communities inhabited by them in the face of floods. Also, the average environmental resilience of the whole region was lower than the average (2.76 average), rural households in the sub-basins of TilAbad and ChehelChai with an average of 3.24 and 3 had relatively good environmental resilience, But most of the rural households in the sub-basins of Ghurechai and Lower of Gorganrud, Mohammad Abad-Zaringol, Madarsoo and Sarisoo, with an average of 2.89 to 1.85, had a poor environmental resilience. In addition, According to the flood risk resilience map, it can be said that of the total 31 sample villages studied, about 29 percent of sample villages have "medium upward" resilience in facing flood risks; conversely, most of these villages (71%) also have relatively low degree of resilience. Also, comparing the findings of this study with the results of most other researches, such as the studies of Olshansky and Kartes (1998) regarding the necessity of considering the environmental factors of settlements, observing the necessary environmental standards and the necessity of using proper land use management tools to reduce risk hazards and improve resilience, Center of Emergency Management Australia (2001) on the need to consider the state of the infrastructure, including the level of communications and accesses, biological conditions, including the status of pollution, as well as geographical characteristics, such as distances and proximity, climate, topography, as well as the general results of studies by Rafiean et al. (2012) in special selection of the most suitable model of resilience based on the combination of carter and socioeconomic model due to the simultaneous attention of this model to its geographical features and its comprehensiveness, as well as attention to the local communities' participation, Rezaei (2010), Shokri Firoozjah (2017) and Anabestani et al. (2017) Regarding the low value of the calculated population, the resiliency number of the society is consistent and consistent with the lack of attention to infrastructure issues, locations, etc., which is below the baseline (3). As a result, all of the aforementioned components of the resilience of inhabitants of sample societies have been affected by its environmental dimension, which is often due to insufficient attention and insufficient handling of them, which reduces resilience of rural residents to flood risks.
Keywords: Environmental hazards, Flood, Vulnerability, Resilience, Spatial analysis, Golestan Gorganrud basin.
Ali Eshghei, Hossein Nazmfar, Ata Gafari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Spatial analysis physical resiliency City Earthquake Model Condorcet
Case study: ten districts of the region one of Tehran
Earthquake as one of the most devastating and destructive natural hazards; especially in developing countries, it has been a long time ago With the collapse of buildings and urban infrastructure, Imports a lot of damage to property and assets in urban areas and around them. In response to this, international organizations' strategies to mitigate disasters have made their societies resilient to natural disasters. And considers it within the framework of the Higgo for the years 2005-2015. In fact, the goal of this approach is to reduce the vulnerability of cities and to strengthen citizens' abilities to deal with the dangers of threats such as natural disasters. Considering that the area of ​​a Tehran city due to its proximity to faults such as Mashaa fault, North Tehran fault Also, the effects of faults in and around the region such as Niavaran fault, Mahmoodieh fault and Darabad fault (Banamieh) are located in a region with a high seismic hazard. Assessment of resilience of the region to earthquake risk and resilience of the region In order to reduce the risks of earthquakes in this area is very important. Accordingly, the present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the resilience situation of the 10th district of Tehran municipality district against earthquake.
The method of this research is descriptive-analytical with a purposeful purpose. The research area of ​​the 10th Region is a municipality of Tehran. The raw data used by the Tehran Municipality Information Technology Organization has been obtained. To determine the relative importance of each component used in research According to experts from the Urban Planning Area, the Network Analysis Process (ANP) has been used in the form of Super Decisions software. Then, to rank 10 areas of a Tehran municipality district against earthquake, Multi-criteria decision making models (MCDMs) including TOPSIS, VIKOR, HAW and SAW models have been used. Considering that different methods have been used to rank the areas Different results have been achieved, to overcome the contradictions between the various ratings of the regions in each of the models,
and a single result has been used to rank the areas of the congregation's integrated model.
Finally, in order to speak, the results of the model used in the ArcGIS environment were mapped.
In this research, for the spatial analysis of the resilience of the 10 district areas of a Tehran municipality from the results four models (TOPSIS, VIKOR, HAW and SAW) were used. Based on the results of the TOPSIS technique, areas 8, 3 and 2 of resilience are large, areas 7 and 4 of the moderate resilience, Areas 5, 1, 6 and 10 have low resilience and area 9 has very little resilience against the earthquake. Based on the results of the VIKOR model, areas 3 and 4 of the resilience, regions 2, 7, 5, 9, 8, 6 and 10 of the moderate resilience Medium and area one have low resilience against earthquake. Based on the results of the HAW model, area 3 of the high resilience, regions 2, 7, 8 and 4 of the moderate resilience and areas 10, 1, 6 and 9 are of low resilience. In this model, no area has been found to be very resilient. Based on the results of the SAW model, regions 3, 2, 8, and 7 are in the range of many resiliences, regions 5 and 4 in the moderate resilience range, Area 9 is in the low resilience range and areas 10, 6 and 1 are in the low resilience range against earthquakes.

In this study, we evaluated the resilience situation in the districts of Tehran municipality district in an earthquake Multi-criteria decision-making methods including TOPSIS, VIKOR, HAW and SAW were used, Then a CONDORCET integrated model was used to achieve a single result of these analyzes. The results of the Canadian model, which is the result of a combination of the final results of the models (Tapis, VIKOR, HAW and SAW), show that Areas 2, 4, 5, and 3 are of high resilience, areas 7, 8 and 1 of the moderate resilience, 10 and 6 of the resilience, and area 9 of the resilience is very low against earthquakes. Which should be prioritized in future plans. Although it is possible to assess the vulnerability of urban areas by using different models and mapping them in the region's resilience to the earthquake crisis, a significant part of post-crisis casualties fell but this will not be achieved until the authorities are seriously determined.
Keywords: Resilience, Earthquake, Multi-criteria Decision Making Methods, Tehran Municipality Area

B Sharifinia Zahra,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Evaluation and Evaluation of Resilience to Drought Hazards in Rural Areas Case Study: rural district Ghare Taghgan Neka
Extensive abstract
Concerns over the social, economic, and ecological impacts of climate change on human habitat have increased over the last few decades (McGranahan et al, 2007). According to the UN report, water shortages will occur in the near future in 18 countries, and by 2025 more than two-thirds of the world's population is projected to be in serious water shortages (Pozzi et al, 2013, 191 112; World Bank, 2008, 124). On the other hand, the number of disasters has increased over the past 20 years, reaching 400 from 200 accidents (Pittman et al, 2011, 83,94; Molen et al, 2011, 765-773). In this regard, droughts, the most dangerous natural disasters, affect a wide range of climates and ecosystems, and the geographical areas affected by them have increased rapidly in the last four decades (Kamara et al., 2018, 2318). Drought is a major threat to households and community’s dependent on agriculture for livelihoods (Anthopoulou et al, 2017). Because livelihoods in agricultural-dependent societies are more dependent on climate change (Pittman et al., 2017. (
It is central to the city of Neka; it requires a holistic perspective. The type of applied research and methodology used is descriptive-analytical. Librarian and field method (observation, questionnaire) were used to collect the required data. In order to assess the resilience of rural areas to drought in two economic dimensions (ability to return to employment and income generation and compensation of costs and losses) and in social dimension (awareness, knowledge, skills and preparedness and participation and Collaboration) Designed and developed a Likert-type questionnaire (¬1 very low, 5 = very high). The statistical population of this study is based on census of 6947 households in 24 villages with error of 0.07, ¬191 questionnaire as sample size and based on the relationship of sharing ratio of the number of samples in each village is specified and in villages less than 7 samples, the number has been upgraded to 7. Finally, 233 samples were used as the sample size based on questionnaire completion and analysis and were randomly distributed and distributed among households. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, the experts were first provided with validity and the validity of the research instrument was measured and the final indices and statements were extracted. The questionnaire developed at this stage was pre-tested in the study area and after confirmation of trust or reliability (Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84) the questionnaire was finalized for field research. Descriptive (inferential) and inferential statistical methods (single sample t, Friedman, cluster analysis) and VASP, ARAS and VIKOR models were used to analyze the data. Therefore, in order to evaluate and measure resilience in rural areas, firstly, annual moisture status was investigated based on SPI, SDI and GRI indices. Therefore, the moisture status of the study area during the 13-year statistical period (2006-2007) using the data of 9 Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) rain gauge data, the data of the discharge rate of 6 rivers Surface Flow Index (SDI) and the values Water level level of 9 piezometric wells of GRI index was calculated in DrinC software environment.
 Iran's position on the dry belt and the persistence of droughts over the past two decades have led to the emergence of drought-related crises, especially for villagers who are heavily dependent on water for production, due to climate change. Droughts in the study area were also not exempt from this rule and resulted in adverse effects beyond the normal state and the risk of drought among rural farmers, which could be due to their low level of resilience to this risk. Be it. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the economic and social effects of this phenomenon on the status of rural resilience against drought hazards. The results showed that among the sample villages, in the economic dimension, the highest average belonged to Tavaza Abad village of Bostan Khel with average of 3.11 and the lowest average belonged to Plazhartesh village with average of 1.63. In the social aspect, the highest average belongs to the village of Dukhaelo with a mean of 3.54 and the lowest average belongs to the village of Plazhartesh with an average of 1.55. Also, the average real perception of the respondents is less than three and is moderately low, indicating that rural resilience to drought is low.
Keywords: Rural Areas, Resilience, Drought, Gharaghgan Village
Abbas Ali Vali, Mahvash Mehrabi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Explanation of the subject: The annual drought phenomenon, by affecting economic, social and environmental issues, leads to the vulnerability of urban and rural households and the instability of their livelihoods. Yazd is one of the provinces with drought. Consecutive droughts in the province necessitate integrated management and community adaptation in times of drought.
Method: Taking into account the length of the statistical period of 20 years and to obtain the results with a high level of confidence, the main data of the census documents that have been compiled for the development of cities and villages have been used. By analyzing the main components of several factors, it was selected as the main components. By calculating the standard precipitation index in the arid region, the driest year was determined and by calculating the weighted average of their correlation index with the main components of socio-economic and ecological environment based on appropriate statistical inference. At the end of the year, the effect of drought on different dimensions was presented by step-by-step linear regression, analysis and communication between them to adapt and resilience of individuals in society.
 According to the general results, one of the most important economic and dry economic losses is the annual income of the villagers, which can be due to the decrease in the area under cultivation and production of the main agricultural products. In the social sector, people with knowledge and awareness should increase their adaptive capacity to the occurrence of drought, in order to reduce the vulnerability of social issues to the phenomenon of drought. The results show that unemployment insurance has increased following the drought. The main reason for this is the unemployment of farmers affected by drought, so changing jobs along with temporary migration or the production of handicrafts, etc. can increase the relative income of households at the time of occurrence and prevent unemployment in these conditions. Increasing unemployment will cause other social harms such as poverty, declining health, increasing disease, and reducing judicial and social security. According to the results, one of the components that has established a high standard of rainfall during the drought year is the theft of livestock, which shows a decrease in the social security of the community. People in the study community increase their adaptability to the annual drought by increasing breeding work, such as rangeland improvement, rainfall collection, biological improvement, afforestation, and irrigation reform.
Iraj Ghasemi, Mohammad Ghasemi Siani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Spatial analysis of natural resilience in border areas
Case study: Zahak county
problem statement
Occurrence of natural disasters such as drought, floods and earthquakes in geographical areas, especially in rural areas, often have devastating effects. Hence, resilience has become doubly important, especially in special areas that are of special importance and sensitivity. On the other hand, border areas have a special place in policy-making and planning is important in this areas. One of these areas is Zahak county in Sistan and Balochestan province, which due to the instability and reduction of the inflow of river water resources, as well as climatic conditions and drought in combination with other factors, the traditional employment opportunities of the often rural population face serious challenges and therefore the county5b is deprived. Increasingly, the sustainability of livelihoods is facing problems. The question is, how do the spatial zones and the villages located in these zones react to the change of internal and external natural factors? Which areas and villages are more resilient?
Method of research
This article deals with the spatial analysis of environmental resilience in Zahak county and its purpose is to investigate the differences in resilience in different areas of the county. The general approach to the study is integrated and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Data were collected using documentary and field methods with observation tools and questionnaires and findings of a specialized panel. The statistical population of this research is the villages of more than 20 households in Zahak city that have had governor of a rural district or village council.
Description and interpretation of results
The villages of Zahak county are threatened by the threat of these resources due to their dependence on natural resources. The results show that none of the defined geographical areas in the rural area is sustainable and three rural areas are semi-sustainable and one rural is unstable. Assessment of sustainability in micro zones also shows that naturally unstable villages are often sparsely populated, which means that activity has not developed either. After qualitative and quantitative evaluation of various natural and environmental indicators in the county and their impact on the resilience of places and settlements in the county, settlements and places in terms of resilience were classified into three levels of high, medium and low resilience. In total, 46.7% of settlements and places are at high level of resilience, 37% at medium level and 16.3% at low level of resilience. After matching the settlements and places with the geographical area of ​​the village, three of the four geographical areas are in transition and one is unstable. This study shows that the resilience of individual villages cannot perform well when it is located in areas surrounded by villages with low resilience and the whole area becomes unstable. Thus, in special areas such as Zahak county, crisis management should focus on providing natural resources and preventing vulnerability to natural crises, and it is expected that with natural stability, housing and activity will be sustainable.
Key word
Resilience, special areas, Zahak county, border areas, geographic zoning
Seyed Ali Badri, Siamak Tahmasbi, Bahram Hajari,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Investigation of Temperature and Precipitation Changes in the Seymarreh Basin by Using CMIP5 Series Climate Models
Panel reports on climate change suggest that climate change around the world is most likely due to human factors. Temperature and precipitation are two important parameters in the climate of a region whose variations and fluctuations affect different areas such as agriculture, energy, tourism and so on. Seymareh basin is one of the most significant sub-basins of Karkheh. The purpose of this study is to predict the impact of climate change on precipitation and temperature of the Seymareh Basin in 2021-2040 period. These effects were analyzed at selected stations with uncertainties related to atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) of CMIP5 models under two scenarios of RCP45 and RCP85 through LARS-WG statistical model. Then the uncertainties of the models and scenarios were investigated by comparing the monthly outputs of the models by the coefficients of determination coefficient (R2) in the forthcoming period (2021-2040) with the base period (1980–2010). The root mean square error (RMSE) calculations presented the best model and scenarios for generating future temperature and precipitation data.            
The Seymareh catchment is the largest and the main Karkheh sub-basin that covers parts of Kermanshah, Lorestan and Ilam provinces. The length of the largest river at the basin level to the site of the Seymareh Reservoir Dam is approximately 475 km, and the area of the basin is 26,700 km2. Geographic coordinates of the basin are from 33° 16 ́ 03 ̋to 34°59 ́ 29 ̋north latitudes and 46°6 ́9 ̋to ̋ 5 ́ 0 ° 49 Eastern longitudes, minimum basin height 698 m at the dam outlet and its maximum height 3,638 m. It is on the western highlands of Borujerd.
The information used in this study was obtained from the Meteorological Organization of the country. For this study, three synoptic stations of Kermanshah, Hamadan and Khorramabad, which had the highest statistical records and had appropriate distribution at basin level, were used. These data included daily and monthly temperature and precipitation information, and sunshine hours.
The LARS-WG fine-scale exponential model was proposed by Rasko et al., Semnoff and Barrow (1981). We used daily data at stations under current and future weather conditions. In order to select the best GCM model from the models mentioned above, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, precipitation and sunshine data were entered daily in the base period (1980–2010) and data were generated for five models under two scenarios of RCP45 and RCP85 for the period 2040–2021. The data were generated in 100 random series and the mean of required variables (minimum temperature, maximum temperature and rainfall) were extracted monthly in the period 2021-2040. Then, root mean square error (RMSE) and determination coefficient (R2) were used to evaluate the performance of the models and compare the results.
To ensure the models' ability to generate data in the coming period, computational data from the model and observational data at the stations under study should have been compared. The capability of the LARS-WG model in modeling the minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and radiation at the stations under study was completely consistent with the observed data. The model's ability to exemplify rainfall was also acceptable, however the highest modeling error was related to March rainfall.
By comparing the observed and produced data including monthly average precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures through five mentioned models with their indices, the best model and scenario for future fabrication were determined. The results of this comparison showed that among the available models, HADGEM2-ES model under RCP 4.5 scenario had the best result for precipitation and HADGEM2-ES under RCP 8.5 scenario predicted the best result for maximum temperature. Determining the best model, precipitation data, minimum temperature and maximum temperature produced in the selected models and scenarios were analyzed to investigate the climate change temperature and precipitation for the future period.
The results of this study indicated that due to the wide range of output variations of different models and scenarios, by not taking into account the uncertainties of the models and scenarios can have a great impact on the results of the studies. It was also found in this study that the LARS-WG exponential model was capable of modeling precipitation data and baseline temperature in the study area, so that the radiation data, minimum and maximum temperatures were completely consistent with the data.
The observations are consistent and the models' ability to predict rainfall is very good and acceptable manner. In investigating the uncertainties caused by atmospheric general circulation models and existing scenarios, the best model to predict precipitation in the study area is HADGEM2-ES model under RCP 8.5 scenario, the best model for temperature estimation model HADGEM2-ES under RCP scenario No. 4.5.
The overall results of this study revealed that the average precipitation in the basin will decrease by 4.5% on average, while the minimum temperature will be 1.5° C and the maximum temperature will be 2.17° C. The highest increase will be due to the warmer months of the year. Notable are the disruptions of rainfall distribution and the high temperatures will have significantly negative consequences than rainfall reduction.
  • : Climate Change, Climate Scenarios, Uncertainty, LARS-WG, Seymareh.
Nader Shohani, Lotfali Kozegar Kalj, Sajad Darabi, Said Yousefi Babadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Pandemic Covid-19 (Corona); Tehran's resilience against it

Nader Shohani; Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Payame Noor University. Tehran Iran
Lotfali College Potter; Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Sajjad Darabi; PhD Student, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Saeed Yousefi Babadi; PhD student, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

One of the dangers that has caused cities to face a serious crisis is the outbreak of Covid-19 disease. The corona pandemic has taken cities out of their normal routine. Therefore, cities seek to return to their past conditions and urban resilience as soon as possible. Research Method In this descriptive-analytical study, using field survey, four economic, social, managerial-institutional and infrastructural dimensions in the form of 29 items have examined the resilience of Tehran against Corona pandemic. In research, support and advocacy for affected businesses, insurance coverage, support for affected manufacturing sectors, are in the most unfavorable situation. The results obtained from the final table of Vikor technique show that the economic index with a score of 1 is the most important component of resilience against coronavirus, which is lower than other components of resilience. After that, the managerial-institutional component with a score of 0.94 and the infrastructure component with a score of 0.92 in the next ranks are the most important components of Tehran's resilience against coronavirus. The results show that the metropolis of Tehran is not in a favorable position in relation to the corona virus and is not resilient to selected indicators and the economic index has the most impact and the social index has the least impact on the resilience of Tehran.

Keywords: Urban Resilience, Covid 19, Pandemic, Tehran

Pandemic Covid-19 (Corona);
Tehran's resilience against it

Eng. Ebrahim Asgari, Eng. Mahboobeh Noori, Dr Mohammadreza Rezaei, Dr Raoof Mostafazadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

 Determining Strategies for Improving Environmental Resilience in Gharehshiran Watershed in Ardabil using SOAR Analysis Technique
Ebrahim Asgari - PhD Student of Watershed Science & Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
Mahboobeh Noori - PhD Student of Geography & Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
MohammadReza Rezaei - Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
Raoof Mostafazadeh - Associate Professor Department of Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. Email: (Corresponding author)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: New approaches of crisis management have changed from the concepts of vulnerability to resilience and emphasize on strengthening the system's ability to deal with the risks of natural disasters. Therfore, the aim of this study was identifying the watershed capabilities of Qarahshiran and crisis management planning with emphasis on environmental resilience.
Methodology: The SOAR analytical technique and expert opinions of 52 experts were used to formulate the strategy, determine the strengths, opportunities, ideals and measurable results. The results of SOAR technique and crisis management prevention and preparedness strategies were compared with the environmental resilience of the field.
Results: Based on the results, reducing direct and indirect flood damage with 51.9% and low amount of soil erosion and water loss with 42.3%, were the most important results of the SOAR model. Out of 15 components of environmental resilience, the performance of 5 components was accepted as significant (α<0.05 confidence level). The evaluation of environmental resilience using one-sample t-test showed that the environmental dimension of resilience (2.67) with a significant level (α=0.003) has a significant that indicates high vulnerability and low resilience.
Conclusion: Considering site selection of watershed management structures, creating more opportunities and using the private sector potentials, and local NGOs will be useful in crisis management. Analysis of watershed resilience components in achieving integrated watershed management, proper knowledge of watershed function, possibility of self-regulation and recovery of balance and acceptance of adaptation to natural hazards, co-design of watershed residents, preparedness and coping with crisis can be more effective over the study area.
Key words: SOAR Model, Strategic Planning, Prevention and Preparedness, Resilience, Gharehshiran Watershed

Mohammad Hosein Dadkhah, Behnod Barmayehvar,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

In recent years, with the significant increase in the number of various unfortunate events such as financial crises, natural and unnatural disasters, etc., the ability to survive has been a vital issue for projects, especially in infrastructure industries such as the building industry. In fact, projects like temporary systems need to endure in order to prevent and reduce the impact of damages. Therefore, the main goal of the current research is to investigate the factors affecting the enhancement of resilience in building projects in order to reduce damages and failures caused by accidents and disruptions. In this regard, in this combined research, effective factors were first introduced by using library studies. Next, the collected data through field studies and interviews with ten research experts, were analyzed (thematic qualitative). Based on this, the main and secondary effective factors were identified, modified and finalized in three time periods before, during and after construction. After that, the main factors were prioritized using a questionnaire distributed among sixty-one people, SPSS quantitative software, and the Friedman test; which are respectively: in the pre-construction stage - laws and macro policies and feasibility studies; In the construction phase - safety, project team, monitoring and controling, construction technology, agile management, education, stakeholder management, cost management, communication management, schedule management and lessons learned, and in the post-construction phase - crisis management, repair and maintenance and culturalization. Finally, the findings of the research show that adopting a management approach based on resilience in projects, especially in the field of building, can minimize damages and failures caused by accidents and disruptions.
It should be mentioned that, in the context of project management, especially in project-oriented organizations, this need is felt that new methods should be used to control incidents and disruptions, so that the destructive effect created can be reduced. In fact, around the implementation of modern and resilient project management, especially in the field of building, it is essential to conceptualize and operationalize resilience in projects in order to know how to achieve project recovery for better management of accidents and disruptions.
In this direction, although many scientific efforts have been made to achieve the goals of the projects and also to prevent their failure in the face of various incidents and risks, but there are less complete and desirable research papers to investigate these factors in the form of the concept of resilience and its use in the context. Project management, especially in the building industry (with regard to inclusiveness as well as micro and macro impact and all-round participation of the building field in development), especially in the country. Meanwhile, the concept of resilience has been used competently in other scientific fields; Therefore, the present research was formed to help improve the professional knowledge of project management from the perspective of resilience.
In thid regard, it should be noted that each research subject has its own unique characteristics; However, all research projects, regardless of the phenomenon under investigation, generally have stages such as: implementation plan (background, statistical population, experts, etc.), research questions, data collection (interview, questionnaire, etc.) and analysis and interpretation of data, both quantitative and qualitative (thematic, statistical analysis, etc.). In this research, first the required data were identified from the background of the research, and then with the help of interviews with experts, the collected data were verified and completed, and then these data were prioritized through a quantitative survey and questionnaire. In fact, the main objective of this research is to investigate the solutions to increase the resilience of the project. Therefore, the current research is applied-developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of the method of gathering information. Also, in this research, while focusing on the research philosophy of pragmatism and to some extent interpretation, as well as emphasizing the inductive and to some extent deductive approach, the exploratory mixed research plan has been used to provide a model to represent the phenomenon under study. In a way, the mixed or combined research method, consisting of two parts, qualitative and quantitative, has been used in order to increase the validity of the processes and findings and validate the outputs of the current research. Of course, it is worth noting that the general nature of this research is qualitative, and therefore, the qualitative part, both in terms of breadth and depth, is much more and more important than the quantitative part, and in fact, the quantitative part has a complementary state.


Hossein Hataminejad, Alireza Sadeghi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

Measuring urban resilience can help develop appropriate strategies and policies for cities facing unexpected shocks and their consequences. Since urban resilience is a complex concept and difficult to operationalize, developing a technique or method to actualize this concept is a major milestone in understanding the factors and interactions that help create and maintain resilience. Tehran's metropolis has a high concentration of industries, government organizations, services, and facilities, which makes its management very complicated when a natural disaster occurs. Previous conditions or inherent socio-economic characteristics show that Tehran is not immune from flood forces. In fact, it is important to measure resilience against urban disasters for areas located on rivers in Tehran due to its inherent characteristics and spatial-temporal changes of floods in the region. This research focuses on measuring the resilience of the areas located on the rivers of Tehran. The measurement approach is based on creating a composite index based on six dimensions of social, economic, institutional, infrastructure, social capital, and environmental resilience against floods. This research has been done by developing a mixed multi-criteria decision-making method. The AHP model has been used for prioritizing the selected indicators and the TOPSIS model has been used to rank the areas located on the rivers of Tehran city based on their resilience levels. The results show that region 22 is the most resilient region, while regions 4, 5, and 14 have the lowest resilience levels. The findings of this research can help urban planning organizations such as Tehran Research Planning Center to integrate disaster resilience in urban planning and change from reactive plans to preventive urban adaptive strategies such as risk-sensitive urban land use planning.

Majid Ramezani Mehrian,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2023)

Population growth and urbanization are two primary factors in increasing the risk of flooding in urban areas. Along with the increasing urbanization in many cities, changes in land use have led to an increase in the volume of surface runoff and a change in the flood regimes of rivers. Therefore, urban flooding is one of the risks that directly and indirectly have harmful effects. It has entered various cities in Iran. Since resilience thought provides a comprehensive understanding of the conditions by combining different components, it can be fruitful in creating urban flood risk management tools. To be able to effectively use the concept of resilience in the process of decision-making and management of urban floods, it is necessary to measure and evaluate the city's resilience against flood risk. Despite this, the measurement of resilience in urban environments against floods faces a serious challenge due to the lack of transparency in the field of methodological approaches. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the approaches and methods with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies conducted in the field of assessing the resilience of urban environments against floods. According to the findings of the research, the methods of assessing the resilience of urban environments against floods are divided into three categories: quantitative, semi-quantitative, and qualitative. Qualitative methods have less diversity than quantitative methods and often include interviewing methods and theoretical conceptual frameworks. The majority of evaluation methods in this field are quantitative and semi-quantitative methods, which can be placed in two widely used categories, i.e. simulation-based methods and indexing-based methods. In the simulation-based approach, hydrological modeling and flood simulation are generally used. Methods based on indexing have been developed in different ways, but they generally follow the same principles and can be used to analyze the resilience of other types of risks in geographic areas.

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