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Showing 8 results for Synoptic Analysis

Bohloul Alijani, Bahram Molazadeh, Mohammad Saligheh, Mohammad Hossein Nassrzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)

Climate is one of the important natural factors that affect all stages of life, particularly human exploitation. Selection of the type of clothing, housing, cultures, architecture, civil engineering, and settlements are influenced by climatic factors. It can be said that the climatic circumstances of the surface of the earth and atmospheric circulation patterns have an important role in shaping and organizing the environment (Alijani, 2009). In some cases, the normal weather conditions become abnormal and cause many damages, which are mostly catastrophes rooted in climatic changes, such as hail, frost, heat and cold waves, floods, storms and so on. Blizzard is one of the atmospheric phenomena, which happens as the result of snow combined with wind (15 meters per second), and low temperatures (below zero°C), and it causes severe losses.

Due to its special geographical location, Iran is placed in the transition region of the large-scale patterns of common tropospheric circulation, and is the intersectional place of the of extra-tropical and tropical circulation system. This feature along with its complex topography caused the land to have a considerable climatic diversity. The climatic diversity makes the various climatic phenomena to be observed with intensity, energy, and different frequencies, therefore, the climatic phenomena with high intensity always causes damage to natural resources and the human civilization. This undesirable phenomenon is called climatic risks. Since the West Azerbaijan Province is located in mountainous areas and high latitudes, the feature is triggered many climatic risks such as flood, hail, snow, snow storm, and so on. Therefore, snowstorm is one of such phenomena that have occurred every year or every few years due to the specific characteristics of the region and have caused damages in the fields of transportation, energy, livestock, closeness of schools and offices.

The purpose of this study is the statistical and synoptic analysis of snowstorm in west Azerbaijan province. Therefore, the data related to the present weather codes were collected during the period 1986 to 2009 from the National Meteorological Agency. The data related to the weather codes entered in Excel, and data related to the snowstorm were selected through Filter tool and isolation of codes related to the strong snowstorms (codes 37and39) and weak snowstorms (codes 36 and 38). Then the data related to the snowstorm was entered in SPSS, and the statistical analysis was performed. In the next step, three cases of the strong and common snowstorm (code 37 and 39) were selected for synoptic analysis. Then, the synoptic maps of the different layers of the atmosphere were selected as the samples for strong snowstorm for the days before the event of the phenomenon, the day of event, and the day after the event of the phenomenon by the using of the accuracy of 2.5 degrees from website. The study area has been selected in 10 to 80 degrees north latitude, and 15 to 90 degrees east longitude for identifying the patterns that affect West Azerbaijan Province. The data was received on wind speed and direction in digits from the National Center for Environmental Prediction. Then, the maps of the wind direction and speed were provided in Grads. Finally, the daily analysis and interpretation of pressure (500hPa at sea level), instability (700hPa level and the ground level), Earth's surface temperature, wind speed and direction maps for 700hPa level, and identification of patterns that have caused snowstorm in West Azerbaijan province were carried out. Statistical and synoptic analysis of snowstorm phenomenon in West Azerbaijan province during was performed in the period 1986 to 2009. To do this, using codes 36 to 39, which represent a variety of snowstorm (weak and strong), the frequency of snowstorm days on monthly and annual average, distribution of the snowstorm in the extracted stations, the frequency of strong snowstorms (codes 37and39), weak snowstorms (codes 36 and 38), all types of snowstorms (codes 36 to 39), and the frequency of storms in the station level were compared. Out of 322 snowstorms occurred during the period 1986 to 2009 in seven synoptic stations 108 have been determined as strong snowstorm and 214 as weak snowstorm. In order to analyze the synoptic snowstorm in West Azerbaijan province, in the first place, the strong snowstorms were identified, and then five of the strong and comprehensive storms were selected for the synoptic analysis. The snowstorms of choice are as follows: On 18 January 1986, on January 19, 2000, on February 7, 1992, on February 5, 1997, and on December 25, 1990.

For applying the study, pressure maps, Omega (700hp level at ground level), Earth's surface temperature, and wind speed and direction at 700hPa were analyzed, and patterns and conditions that are causing this phenomenon in the West Azerbaijan province were identified.

      In this study, to perform statistical and synoptic analysis of snowstorm in Western Azerbaijan province, the statistical data were examined during the period 1986 to 2009 from 7 stations, and the results of the statistical analysis showed that:

• Out of a total 322 snowstorm event days of 7 synoptic stations during the period 1986 to 2009, 108 and 214 days were strong and weak snowstorms, respectively.

• Review the annual and monthly snowstorm during the study period showed that the 1992, 1997, and 1989 with a total of 69, 29, and 25 days, as well as the 1999, 2006 and 2007 with 0, 1, and 1 day have the most and the fewest days of snowstorm, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the snowstorm phenomena happened in January, February, March, April, November, and December. January had the most and April had the fewest snowstorms with 119 and 3 days, respectively. February with 39 days, and April and November, with the number 0 and 1 had the most and the fewest days of strong and constant snowstorms.

• Distribution of the snowstorms in the stations indicated that out of the studied seven synoptic stations, which had a great impact on the synoptic situation of the region, topography, and height, Sardasht-Maku station had the most, and stations of Khoy, Mahabad, and Orumiyeh by having no snowstorms had the fewest days of snowstorm.

• The results of the maps of the different levels of the atmosphere and Earth’s surface in the days before the storm, event day and the day after the snowstorm were selected for the snowstorm pattern, which indicated that the snowstorm in the winter due to low compliance pressure formed in the earth's surface with synoptic patterns of middle levels of the atmosphere have provided the conditions for the event, in a way that among the sample cases of the strong snowstorms occurred in the West Azerbaijan Province two circulation patterns were involved in the formation of natural hazards: The Caspian Sea low pressure pattern- Eastern Europe high pressure pattern and the north of the Black Sea low pressure pattern.

Hassan Lashgari, Farshad Pajoh , Mohammad Bitar, Farzaneh Jafari,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)

The temperature as an indicator of heat intensity is one of the basic elements of knowing weather. The frost is a condition when the air temperature is less than 0 c Due to the geographical possition of Iran, spring is a season that plants resume a new life after leaving a pause in a periode of the growth. At the beginning of such a periode emerge of sudden cold cause loss bloom (in the case of openinig) or delay in a beginning of plant growth periode (Azizi,2002). Recentley with occuring climate chaos, one of the important climatic disasters which treats human and particularly different  areas of the country are cold waves and sever frosts that in some years covers large area of the country.

    Surface data including minimum daily temperature of the days of 29 to 30 and 25 to 26 of march of 2003 and 2005 in 9 meteorological synoptic stations in the area of north west of Iran in  table (1) was collected  from meteorology organization then the days of cold waves in the above mentioned time periode, were analyzed. In ordet to analyse the synoptic patterns, using ncep/ncar data, maps of sea level pressure ,combined of  geopotential height and vorticity and temperature advection  using Grads were drawn and analysed in the levels of 1000 to 500 hpa.
    As it mentioned, during the time period, 29 to 30 and 25 to 26 of the march in 2003 and 2005, 2 clod system  were located on the area of north west. In oeder to explain and analyze of  synoptic patterns of  mentioned period time, the absolute minimum temperature below 0 degrees celsius of stations in western Azarbayejan province were selected and maps of sea level pressure, combined of  geopotential height and vorticity and temperature advection  using Grads were drawed and analysed in the levels of 1000 to 500 HPA. 
     The results showed that in the time of occuring hazardous cold waves of  29 to 30 of march 2003 and 25 to 26 of march 2005 and analyzing the sea level map in the first day of cold wave with spreading the cold core high pressure  from the eastern Europe and its location on north and east north of the black sea and its pentration from north west corner of the country covered most of the areas of the country. 
    Analyzing the combined maps of geopotential height and vorticity in the levels of 1000 and 850 HPA in the first day of occurrence of  cold, generaly faced with huge anticyclonic development . But in the levels of 700 and 500 HPA , the under studied area was in the south trough of the obtained cold core of the low height locating in the cetral Asia. But on the day of cold peak, high pressure core was exactly located on the under the studied area . Also in the upper levels of atmosphere with locating the back of the trough cumulated  of cold air of upper width on the sea level high pressure centre while strengthening the lower levels anticyclonic flows, led to intensifying cold and frost in the west Azarbayejan province. 
Positive and negative vorticity maximum cells, also conformed the intensity cold circulation flows on the north half of the country in anticyclone and cyclone centers in order. Also analysing the temperature advection in the levels of 1000 to 500 HPA, direction and temperature intensity exactly followed geopotential height maps patterns. 
     Such that in the levels of 1000 hpA of the both cold wave analysed, the anticyclonic cold temperature adcection and northward is located on the north west of the Iran. In temperature advection maps of 29 and 30 march 2003 in 850 HPA in Azarbayejan province, the anticyclonic circulation is matches with sea level high pressure. But in the 2nd cold wave that’s occured on 25 and 26 march 2005, the north west area is between 2 antycyclonic circulation on Mediterranean and cyclon located on south of  Russia that the directions of temperature cold flows is completely north ward in this level. 
    In the temperature advection maps of 700 and 500 HPA, the Azarbayejan province is in the western edge of central Asia trough or south of Russia. 
    The results showed that with studying  atmospheric motions and synoptic systems which create cold flows, we can prevent of spring late  emergence cold wave destructive impact on agricultural products, energy consumption, and road accidentd by  forcasting of these atmospheric conditions.

Amir Hossien Halabian, Fereshteh Hossienalipour Jazi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

We can identify the flood not only considering circulation pattern in occurring day but also by studying circulation pattern a few days before fresh event. This subject has mutual approach. In one hand, it indicates  that circulation patterns which were before flood event have important role in determining the conditions and moisture content of studied area and playing the fundamental role in few coefficient of region because it determines the previous moisture. On the other hand, it indicates that we should tracking the rain-genesis synoptic systems from source to end place of their activity for studying floods and their meteorology factors which have created them. By this way, we can acquire more comprehensive recognition about the relationship between circulation pattern and floods. In the other words, the identification of synoptic patterns that have created the flood reveals not only the mechanism of their emergence but also is useful for prognosis and encountering with them. The extensive researches have been accomplished about Inundation in the world and Iran, but Iran haven’t much antiquity about synoptic researches. For foreign researches, we can name researchers such as Hireschboeck (1987), Kutiel et al(1996), Komusce and et al (1998), Krichak  and et al (2000), Rohli and et al (2001), Kahana (2002), Teruyuki Kato(2004), Ziv and et al (2005), Carlalima and et al (2009). The numerous researchers have studied the Inundation climatology in internal of country such as Bagheri (1373), Ghayour (1373), Kaviani and Hojatizadeh (1380), Moradi (1380), moradi (1383), Mofidy (1383), Masoodian (1384), Masoodian (1384), Hejazizadeh et al(1386), Parandeh Khozani and Lashkari (1389). In this research, we considered the heavy precipitation of Azar 1391 in southwestern of Iran that resulted in flood phenomenon in the cause and effect manner so that can do necessary prevention actions before occurring the flood for preventing the probable damages and optimal use of precipitations by forecasting the patterns that have created the flood.

In this synoptic study, we need to two database: one group is variables and atmospheric data consisting of geopotential height of 500 hpa level (in meter geopotential), zonal wind and meridional wind (in m/s) and special humidity (in gr/kg) during this times 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 Greenwich in 0-80° northern and 0-120° eastern with local resolution of 2.5*2.5 Arc that have been borrowed from database of (NCEP/NCAR) dependent to National Atmosphere and Oceanography Institute of USA, and other group is daily precipitation data of region rain gauge stations during 4-8th Azar of 1391 (24th November – 28th November 2012). In continuation. By applying the environment- circulation approach, we took action to drawing circulation pattern maps of 500 hpa level, thickness of atmosphere patterns of 500-1000 hpa and moisture flux convergence function from 4-8th Azar of 1391 (that for calendar, conform with 48 hours before beginning the showery precipitation until ending the storm activity) by using data which obtained from database of NCEP/NCAR and the synoptic conditions of above flood have been studied and interpreted in the region.

Flood is one of the most destructive natural hazards that have imposed and impose many damages to people during the history. Hence, the final aim of this research is to explain the key interactions between atmosphere and surface environment and in other words exploration of the relationship between circulation patterns leading to the flood generating precipitation in the southwestern of Iran for forecasting the time and intensity of showers occurrence that lead to flood. For this purpose, by applying environmental-circulation approach, the circulation patterns identified and studied which resulted in flood generating precipitation. The result of this research indicated that torrential precipitations in the region have formed the deep trough in days 4-8 of Azar on the east of Mediterranean and the studied region placed in the east half of this trough that is the location of atmosphere instability. At same time, thickness patterns, indicate the flux of cold air from northern Europe to lower latitudes and spreading the warm air of north of Africa to latitude 50° northern. As a result we expected the frontal discontinuity in the encountering place of these two air mass. Analysis of the moisture flux convergence patterns also indicated that torrential precipitations were the result of moisture flux from Mediterranean and Persian Gulf; and Red Sea and Arab Sea taken into account as reinforced sources.

Tahereh Soltani Gord Faramarzi, Abbas Mofedi, Amir Gandomkar,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

For a synoptic analysis of high polluted days in 13 and 14 November 2007, a combinatorial synoptic analysis was used. From methodology prospect, the present study has utilized the "circular environment" synoptic approach and with respect to the restrictions on very high-polluted days in Mashhad city, the subjective synoptic analysis used for data processing and analyzing the prevailing atmospheric conditions.

In the present research, four sets of the data, including the pollution data recorded at the stations monitoring air pollution, digital atmospheric data, data of upper air stations and the outputs of HYSPLIT model were utilized. The data on air pollution obtained from the Department of Environment Protection of Khorasan Razavi were related to Wahdat station located in the center of Mashhad city. The pollutants include CO, NO2, SO2, ozone, and particulate matter (PM10(  prepared and processed on a daily scale for a 7-year statistical period (2005-2012). When studying the quality of air pollution over Mashhad city, it is necessary to indicate that Mashhad city had only one station monitoring air pollution (Wahdat station) until 2010 and unfortunately, out of 10 present stations for monitoring the air pollution, only Wahdat station was involved a suitable statistical period duration to be studied. Accordingly, the present study has been conducted only by using the pollution data recorded in Wahdat station and utilizing the data of other stations ignored due to the shortness of statistical period duration. The reanalyzed data of the National Centers for Atmospheric Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) with a horizontal separation 2.5 × 2.5 were used in order to study the atmospheric conditions. The atmospheric conditions include the sea level pressure, geo-potential height, vertical velocity, and orbit wind (u) & meridian wind (v) components on different atmospheric levels from the past 48 hours and in a 6-hour interval. In addition, upper air data about Mashhad station (Mashhad airport) were used on a similar period. Upper air data have been obtained from the website of Wyoming university ( on under study days, including air temperature,  dew point, direction, wind intensity and the atmospheric stability and instability conditions (based on Skew-T Curves – logP). These data are only available on Zero Greenwich hour. The outputs of the HYSPLIT model were also used as complementary data for tracing particulate matter in days 10 -15 in November. In this study, the HYSPLIT model, version 4.9 was used. In the present research, the role of regional atmospheric circulation and pressure patterns were investigated on a synoptic scale in very high-polluted days in November 2007 in Mashhad metropolitan. For this purpose, the mechanism dominated on occurring a very high-polluted period in this city was analyzed using a combinatorial method based on synoptic and thermodynamic analyses as well as tracing particulate matter. The results of studies involve the following findings: the days 13 and 14 November 2007 (22 and 23 Aban, 1386) show the highest concentration rates among the polluted days in Mashhad city. The findings of the research show that the synoptic pattern dominated the very high polluted period (13 and 14 November 2007) is a migrant high-pressure pattern. Accordingly, it may be concluded that the incidence of serious pollutions in Mashhad is initially the result of interacting local conditions with air circulation on a regional scale and then the other local factors. In the other words, Mashhad city would experience very high-polluted days only when regional atmospheric circulation provides suitable conditions to increase the concentration of pollutants. What is obvious is that in the winter season the serious pollutions occurred in Mashhad city are mainly as the results of prevailing extra-tropical systems (migrant anticyclone). Studying subjective synoptic analysis, tracing the backtracking of particulate matter and the atmospheric thermodynamic conditions ( combinatorial synoptic analysis) have provided a deeper and more accurate understanding of the conditions prevailing in the occurrence of serious pollutions in the northeast of Iran. Studying the output of the HYSPLIT model indicates that the migrant stack system of western wave together with the subtropical stack would control the air circulation pattern on the northeast of Iran in 13 and 14 November 2007. Tracing the particulates shows an anticyclone system on the zone. Also, studying SKEW-T Curves related to the migrant high-pressure pattern revealed a different structure, so that the day 12 November 2007 faced with a radiation inversion along with an increased temperature, but on day 13 November 2007 an inversion from the sort of subsidence between the interval of level 850 to 700 hpa was appeared and also reached to higher than 700 hpa.

Saeed Balyani , Mohammad Saligheh,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (5-2016)

The results of this study indicated that the synoptic patterns that lead to heavy rainfall in 22 March 1996, 24 mar 1995 and 17 November 1994 in the northern portion of FARS province includes: the low pressure that located in eastern part of Mediterranean and Black sea and southern part of Caspian Sea that created by trough that located at the middle level of atmosphere. In addition to this low pressure, the bipolar pattern in of Saudi Arabia  having negative vorticity that lead to transporting moisture from (India ocean, Red sea, Arab sea, Persian gulf and Oman Sea )   and also to be alignment with east Mediterranean sea and black sea low pressure as ascending agent lead to precipitate of rainfall in mentioned days . and also we found that in 29feb 1996 as second patterns rainy day, a strong deep trough transporting moisture from Soudan region and east Mediterranean  low pressure, cause alignment of this atmospheric systems. In fifth patterns (21 mar 2001), existing an low pressure and positive vorticity center in east of Pakistan simultaneously with existing negative vorticity center in central part of Iran, lead to high pressure gradient which cause rainfall events in study area. The main founding of this study were that reveals the role of low pressure of east, north and south of Caspean sea in heavy rainfall events in study area.

Pre-warning of natural hazards events such as heavy rainfall has a significant effect in damage reducing. The analysis of synoptic-dynamic condition of atmospheric circulation patterns, has great importance in recognize affective agents in heavy rainfall events. Especially this heavy rainfall could lead to flash floods suddenly. This study's aim is to analysis and extraction of daily heavy Rainfall lead atmospheric patterns in northern portion of Persian gulf (Helle and Mond Subbasin).

The study area, Helle and Mond basins, with about 21,274, 47653 km2 area,respectively are located in the south of Iran. The Helle basin approximately is between 28° 20'N and 30° 10'N latitudes and between 50° E and 52° 20'E longitudes and Mond basin is between 27° 20' and 29° 55' latitudes and between 51° 15' and 30° 27'E longitudes.These basins are located in sides of a massive sources of moisture, Persian Gulf.

In this study we investigate the data of daily rainfall of 37 synoptic and meteorological station of study area during 1991 to 2011(20 years) to extraction the atmospheric patterns lead top heavy rainfall. In this study in order to archiving heavy rainfall days based on 95 percentile in study area, the data of sea level pressure, geopotantial high of 300 and 500 hp and also data of verticit and stream line and omega in the spatial framework of -10 to 100 longitude and 10 to 70 Latitude has been selected. Then we create the sea level pressure matrix as rainfall associated days, based on Lond method of Correlation to classify days.

Our founding indicated that the main synoptic systems that lead to heavy rainfall is related to low pressure in eastern Mediterranean  and southern part of Caspian sea. So that in detected rainfalls patterns shown that the transporting moisture from nearby sea by high pressure of Saudi Arabia by associating eastern Mediterranean low pressure and deep strong trough in east and southern part of Caspian sea  cause heavy rainfall events in study area. So that the low pressure located in eastern and southern portion of Caspian sea could affect the study area.

Faryad Shayesteh, , ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

The role of tropospheric vertical anomalies in rainfall solid Case study: the hazard of hail in Kermanshah
Climate risks is one of the Types of hazards that damages human communities such as the phenomenon of hail, in the micro-scale, it causes financial losses and casualties. Hail is associated to the atmospheric elements and geo-location factors. Whenever weather conditions and appropriate physical processes are combined with geo-location creates and intensifies this phenomenon.
Losses resulted from hail has been more effective in the agricultural sector and in the effect of damaging the crops When growth and budding. However, it disorders in other sectors such as, blemishing residential buildings, Losing large and small animals also, damaging to the aircraft flight and its components. Hail considerable damage in Kermanshah province every year so that Farmers insure their crops against this Phenomenon and the government will incur heavy costs for
damage that is inflicted on the sector of activity.
Research methodology
The current weather data has been used with 3-hour intervals in the statistical period of 65 years (1951 to 2016) from synoptic stations of Kermanshah Province that includes the stations of Kermanshah, West Islamabad, Ravansar, Kangavar, West Gilan, and Sar-e-Pole-Zahab.
Among the 100 present weather code, Codes 99, 96, 91, 90, 89, 87 and 27 have been considered that including hail phenomenon by varying intensities and includes any appearance of this phenomenon in Hours scout and three hours earlier. Then, based on the above code, Were coded in Excel to identifies Codes 96, 91, 90, 89, 87 and 27 When entering from the Meteorological Data To the desired program among Group VII of the data, And when the written code, were identified, Hail days were marked.
Given that in this study Hail is studied regarding the synoptic conditions and temperature anomalies. Therefore, for the synoptic situation, Pressure data, vorticity, Special moisture, Components U and V, Omega transverse profile And outgoing longwave radiation, And for the temperature anomaly, Temperature and isothermal anomalies components Were getting from site And using the software Grads were drawn maps for a selected day To determine the formation of hail.
Commentaries Results
The frequency of occurrence of hail has reached 187 in the period 65 years in Kermanshah province. This phenomenon generally occurs from mid-September to mid-June. The most number has been in Kermanshah station and the Least in Sar-Pol-Zahab station.
April has had the highest number of hail frequencies in Kermanshah province and the greatest losses in the month related to the agricultural sector. Therefore, Select System hail seems essential to examine how the temperature anomalies and the formation of hail in the month.
On the day of the event, trough hail has been formed in the East Mediterranean.Wrying the trough axis From North East to South West resulted in cold air from high latitudes to the East of the Mediterranean.
The establishment of trough in the middle and low pressure level in sea level and its following Convergence in the balance has created positive omega until balance of 200 hPa and most serious it is at the level of 400 hPa. Negative omega has maintained its association from ground surface until High levels in the study area.
The airflow of vorticity balance 1000 and 500 Hpa Suggests vorticity positive settlement area on the case study. Establishment of short wave in the vicinity of the study area and intensifying ascending conditions also Prolong Positive trough conditions from surface of Earth until 500hpa balance have been The necessary dynamic conditions for Hail in this day.
Special moisture and wind Vector with 700hpa balance of Moisture transfer has been done by two opposite vorticity system. Trough rotary motion Based on the Mediterranean and along the Red Sea on the one hand and Moving anticyclone over the Arabian Sea And the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on the other, have conveyed Moisture of all moisture sources from The seas around to The study area.
Also OLR anomalies for the hail event day indicates being Negative in the study area and the sharp decline of Outgoing longwave in this day Compared to its long-term average And hence the conditions of cloudiness and the formation and intensification of convection has been provided.
1000 hpa positive anomaly 2 ° is representative the Higher than the average temperature conditions and in the 500hpa anomaly balance Minus 2 degrees Celsius is representative Lower than normal temperatures in the balance. These factors aggravate the vertical temperature gradient in the study area these days. 20+ degrees Celsius the Isothermal curve and -20 ° C. Respectively, the levels of 1000 and 500 Drawn to the area of study And has created a large temperature difference Between the upper and lower levels.
Keywords: Synoptic analysis, Hail hazard, Tropospheric anomalies, Vorticity, Kermanshah Province

Yousef Ghavidel, Manouchehr Farajzadeh, Bashir Ghahramani,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2019)

The application of Extreme value analysis method in heat wave hazard climatology; case study in Mid-Southern Iran
Greenhouse warming poses the main cause of atmospheric hazards’ exacerbation and emergence in recent years. Earth planet has been witnessing frequent and severe natural hazards from the distant past; however, global warming has strongly influenced the occurrence of some atmospheric hazards, especially the ones induced by temperature and has increased the frequency and severity of those risks. Such extreme risks arising from temperature element and being affected by global warming could be referred to hot days and their frequency more than one day which undergo heat waves. Of the studies conducted worldwide in conjunction with the phenomenon of heat waves, the following can be pointed out; Schär (2015) has focused his studies on the Persian Gulf and the worst heat waves expected in this area. The recent work revealed an upper limit of stability which enables the adaptability of human body with heat stress and humidity. If people are exposed to a combination of temperature and humidity over long periods higher than this level, they will lead to hyperthermia and death, because heat dissipation from the body is physically impossible. Paul and al-Tahrir (2015) using a high-resolution regional climate model demonstrated that such a situation can occur much earlier. In Iran, in relation to heat waves, Ghavidel (2013) analyzed climatic risk of Khuzestan province in 2000 regarding super heat waves using the clustering approach. The obtained results unveiled the establishment of a low pressure at ground level and high pressure dominance at mid-altitudes up to 500 hp as well as the increase in atmosphere thickness having led to the ground overheating. Added to that, the source of heat entering into Khuzestan is advective and hot and dry air transport through Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and Africa. Ghavidel and Rezai (2014) addressed in a study to determine the temperature-related threshold and analyze the synoptic patterns of super heat temperatures in southeast region of Iran; the results of study approved that the only pattern effective on the occurrence of super heat days in Iran’s southeast is the establishment of the Grange’s heat low-pressure at ground level and subtropical Azores high elevation dominance at 500 hPa level. In this study, absolute statistical indicators, also recognized as above-threshold values approach, were used in order to identify, classify and heat waves synoptic analysis in the warm period of the year in the southern half of Iran. To use above-mentioned indicators, firstly daily maximum temperature statistics of studied stations with the highest periods were averaged every day once in June to September and once for the months of July and September. Using statistical indicators of long-term mean and standard deviation or base period, indicators would be defined for the classification of heat waves and days with peak extreme temperatures. In such classifications, usually long-term average or base period is multiplied by 1 to 3 to 4 times standard deviation and each time is account for the factor of each class.
To select the days for synoptic analysis, averaging was performed of all classified waves into four heat wave categories of low, intermediate, strong and super heat; accordingly based on the maximum blocks in each class of heat waves, days that had the highest temperature values were selected as the class representative for mapping and synoptic analysis.
This study dealt with investigating heat waves synoptic during the year’s warm period in the southern half of Iran. Studies showed that a variety of synoptic systems in the year’s warm period affect the study area. As well as, synoptic analyses concluded that in the southern half of Iran over the year’s warm period when occurring heat waves, low-pressure status dominates the ground level (caused by Gang’s low-pressure and local radiant mode); thus high-pressure status with closed curves is prevailing in atmosphere’s upper levels that gives rise to the divergence, air fall and Earth's surface heating. Studying the status of the atmosphere thickness in the days with the heat wave in the study area indicates its high altitude and thickness that this itself implies the existence of very hot air and susceptibility of the conditions for the occurrence of heat waves. In addition, wind maps at atmosphere’s different levels well illustrate the wind of very warm and hot air masses from the surrounding areas to the southern part of Iran; therefore it can be noted that aforementioned hot air masses mainly wind from places like different regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, North Africa and the low latitudes to the study area.
Keywords: Synoptic analysis, heat waves, maximum blocks, southern half of Iran.

Dr Hassan Lashkari, Miss Neda Esfandiari,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Identification and synoptic analysis of the highest precipitation linked to ARs in Iran
        Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long-narrow, concentrated structures of water vapour flux associated with extreme rainfall and floods. Accordingly, the arid and semi-arid regions are more vulnerable to this phenomenon. Therefore, this study identifies and introduces the highest precipitation occurred during the presence of ARs from November to April (2007-2018). The study also attempted to demonstrate the importance of ARs in extreme precipitation, influenced areas and identifies the effective synoptic factors. To this end, integrated water vapour transport data were used to identify ARs, and documented thresholds applied. AR event dates were investigated by their daily precipitation, and eventually, ten of the highest precipitation events (equivalent to the 95th percentile of maximum precipitation) associated with ARs were introduced and analyzed. The results showed that most ARs associated with extreme precipitation directly or indirectly originated from the southern warm seas. So the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Horn of Africa were the major source of ARs at the time of maximum IVT occurred. Synoptically, seven AR events formed from the low-pressure Sudanese system and three events from integration systems. The subtropical jet was the dominant dynamic of the upper troposphere, which helped to develop and constant of ARs. Moreover, the predominant structure of jets had a meridional tendency in Sudanese systems, while it was a zonal orientation in integration systems. The intense convective flows have caused extreme precipitation due to the dominance of strong upstream flow besides having the highest moisture flux. The station had the highest precipitation has been located in the eastern and northwestern region of the negative omega field or upstream flows.
        Keywords: Identification and synoptic analysis, highest precipitation, Ars, Iran.

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