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Hadi Soltani Fard, Ahmad Zanganeh, Marzih Nodeh, Farzanehsadat Hossini,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

As an important factor to be considered, rapid population growth, lack of resources and appropriate management has led the natural hazards threatening human societies increasingly. Although it is impossible to eliminate the effects of natural hazards, however, risk reduction and risk cities against natural phenomena has become the main topics of urban planning and design in recent years. Iran is one of the countries that are faced with numerous natural hazards. With Location and geographical characteristics, Iran is a main country located in earthquake belt; therefore earthquake is one of the main natural hazards in human settlements. Now, more than 70 percentage of Iran are at risk of earthquake. This study investigated spatial effects of urban roads and network on vulnerability in Amirieh neighborhoods. The aim of this study, identification and isolation of factors affecting the vulnerability of urban streets and quantify the effect of each factor is the vulnerability. Amirieh neighborhood with 10 (he) area, located in center of Sabzevar city. Amirieh is part of the detorated urban fabric in Sabzevar, therefore, earthquakes it is one of the main threats of this urban historic neighborhood. As a holistic approach, safety and immunization of the city is in regard with the recognition of constituent elements of urban structure completely. Comprehensive identification is aimed at reducing the vulnerability of urban and urban elements. In order to, one of the most important elements is the road network and impacts on the vulnerability of urban neighborhoods. Neighborhood is smallest unit of urban spatial planning that has the most important role in the planning and reduction at the risks of natural hazards. The spatial relationships between the components of an urban system that can fit through association with the whole city would be reduced environmental hazards, particularly earthquakes.-From planning perspective, any activity be organized in small-scale and size, will increase the possibility of its constituent elements in crisis management. The vulnerability of urban networks in related to spatial structure and impact on other infrastructure directly. The nature of the vulnerability of urban streets can be based on three factors: the structure, origin and traffic. As a structure, form and pattern of urban access associated with the vulnerability that this pattern is in related to urban network movement geometry and topological properties. Road network and access can be analyzed spatially by both composition and configuration. Composition of road network affected by the physical geometry and presented in different scales and defined by location, form, length, angle and direction. While the configuration is sets of the points witch defined by the related lines. Roads determine accessibility to critical points, and are including topological features, displacement, time travel or transport costs.

In analysis process of data and maps, scientific methods and models were used such as geographic information systems (GIS), the Analytic Hierarchy Process and method (AHP) and weighted overlaying map. Research method involves the following steps:

  1. Introduction of indicators: In order to determine the vulnerability of the network in the various aspects needed to be based on the criteria established to determine the vulnerability and damaging. In this study, selected Indicators include: Type of road, the width of road, construction quality, density, population density and age of the buildings.
  2. To determines the importance and ranking criteria: Each of the above criteria has the sub-criteria which based on expert opinions, and comparing them with field studies. The (AHP) was used to weight sub-criteria for the experts and paired comparison.
  3. To weight the criteria: At this stage, the selection criteria are weighted by research. To determine weights, the criteria and sub-criteria, were quantified by which is determined measure the intensity excellence criterion of i to j. At this step, the above criteria and sub-criteria in the form of a questionnaire was given weight by the Group of Experts. Then, weights of each criterion was determined the final weight by Expert Choice software.
  4. Layers integration and production of Vulnerability final map: in order to produce the final map of vulnerability, the command Raster Calculator and weighted overlap method was used in the GIS environment. Density calculation is one of the suitable methods of spatial analysis. we calculated the density to represent the value of points or lines in the form of levels. In this study was used Kernel density equation for converting line to surface value, due to represent of spatial value. Map applying numerical value to each pixel density is formed in the periphery.

In Amirieh neighborhood, Results show that width of streets, land use, population density, quality of construction and age of building will be in the range of medium to high vulnerability. In this study, 50% of the length of passages, more than 73 percent of the quality of the existing structure, 69% of land uses, and more than 40 percent of population density were classified in the range of high to very high vulnerability. The final vulnerability map shows that more than 58% of the total area is in the range of high and very high vulnerability. The areas with moderate vulnerability involve 19 percent of the entire neighborhood approximately. The final map shows that areas with low vulnerability appropriate width placed adjacent to the passages open while the passages the end and low width are critical zone of significant congestion. Too, the results showed that the topological characteristics of the network involved in the formation of critical points. So that in the event of a crisis and then could impair relief and evacuation of the neighborhood. From spatial perspective, vulnerability is influenced by two urban network properties:

  1. Urban network structure: The street network is determined based on geometric features. This communication and spatial distribution of the points and roads in the neighborhood.
  2. Spatial hierarchy: Spatial hierarchy access to the neighborhood of the important points is that the crisis could guarantee public services.

Dr. Javad Sadidi, Mrs. Zahra Judaki, Hani Rezayan,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Designing and implementing a 3D indoor navigation web application
              Extended abstract
Nowadays, due to the complexity of interior space of buildings, the need arises for indoor navigation inside such spaces. Indoor navigation systems may be helpful for emergency evacuation of the crowd in natural hazards such as earthquake as well as human-made disasters. These systems can also act as a decision support system for officials. Literature survey on indoor navigation services shows that a large number of researches have been conducted around designing and implementing such systems but automatic indoor spaces topology extraction of the current building information models remains as a challenge. This research aims to introduce, design and implement a web-based indoor navigation system using CityGML data model in LOD4 (level of detail) to overcome the mentioned problem.
The architecture of the current research is a browser-based web application service such that the data model processing and graph creation is implemented on the server side, the client interface and calculated path are represented on the client side (browser). Through the CityGML data model processing, firstly, the building navigable spaces such as room floor, doors and stairs are extracted and then, each space as a node and the connections between the nodes are defined as edges, are imported to the navigation graph. Programming on the server side has been performed by Python language and web development languages including HTML (Hypertext Markup language), JavaScript, JQuery and AJAX are used on the client side. Cesium virtual globe has been exploited to display the data model and the calculated route.
To evaluate the introduced methodology and designed service, a three floor house with CityGML format in LOD4 was used as the case study. Generally, a client can request a 3D calculated path by selecting the source and destination points on the client browser. The server receives the request and returns the response as a 3D line to the client browser on the Cesium environment. In addition, a descriptive graphical user interface for visual inception of the route is offered to the users on their browser.
One of the advantages of the designed web application is that, the service is implemented on the browser. Hence, all devices equipped with a browser have possibility to run the 3D routing service. Besides the mentioned cross-platform capability, average expectation time of the graphical interface loading, data module processing and path finder module are 7.03 milliseconds, 12.42 seconds and 2.44 seconds respectively that visits a valuable criteria in emergency situations like an earthquake phenomenon. Regarding this fact that CityGML is a new data model and supported by a few software, the introduced architecture causes less implementation costs as well as automation of these systems.
Keywords: 3D indoor navigation, web application, interior space of buildings

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