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Showing 29 results for Vulnerability

Tajeddin Karami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (4-2014)

Although environmental hazards occur because of natural factors, however, political economy, controlling the sociospatial relations and conditions, also affect centrally the increase or decrease of physical and social vulnerability caused by hazards. In this regard, present paper has put the spotlight on “explaining the role of spatial distribution of social stratification in vulnerability to environmental hazards in the city of Tehran”. This is based on Political Ecology Approach which emphasizes the domination of prosperous social strata on the urban natural-ecological endowments and utilities and marginalizes low-income and inferior social strata. So, the recognition of social strata inhabitation across the city is significant for the analysis of social inequalities and their effects on the vulnerability of environmental and human hazards. The concentration of middle to high class and working and inferior classes has also caused the range of social inequality to increase in the metropolitan of Tehran and this trend per se has transformed Tehran to the spatial reflection of the contrast between poverty and wealth to the greatest extent in the country. Hence, regarding the fundamental role of social stratification and class structure and its evolution in explaining the dynamics of socio-economical relations in the dominant society and the process of urban space production and reproduction, explaining the role of spatial distribution of social stratification in vulnerability to environmental hazards in the city of Tehran is significant and necessary. Vulnerability to environmental hazards has been studied from the physical, biological perspectives, social construction perspective and contingency perspective. The present paper emphasizes the effects of social construction on the production of vulnerability. Scientists think radical and critical geography of space is a kind of social production. They believe that not only urban space, but also the entire space has a social structure and nobody can analyze it thoroughly regardless to the society’s work on the space. Thus in a world under the Capitalist System, urban space represents a reflection of the control and domination of superior social strata (owners of power, wealth and high status, or the owners of political, economic and socio-cultural assets) in its functional zones.  This has been appeared in the recent decades, within the literature of hazards and catastrophes and based on “an approach of vulnerability” which has been rested on Political Ecology. The mentioned approach has been concentrated on a series of socio-spatial conditions and political economy which shapes the hazards and catastrophes. Some of the effective social conditions in shaping the hazards and catastrophes and their amounts of vulnerability depend on the racial, ethnic and class characteristics. Racial, class, ethnic and political economy analyses, which dominate their social ties, are considered as part of understanding knowledge system of hazards and catastrophes. Since this causes detecting the role of political economy of inequalities and racial, class and ethical processes and the marginalization caused by it, in the emergence of hazards and exacerbation of catastrophes and crises impacts. To use job structure means to emphasize concrete class structures, according to which an image of social inequality can be offered. Thus in present study, for structure determination and main composition of social stratification in Iran and Tehran “Structure Determination and Composition of Social Strata Model” was used. According to this model and with the use of data from matrix tables, major occupational groups and occupational situation have been classified in 5 classes superior strata, traditional middle strata, new middle strata, working and inferior strata and farmers. The data were prepared and analyzed by ArcGIS and Ms Excel softwaares.   During the last century, uneven development process of the country was in favor of the Tehran and superior strata and powerful institutions located in this city. Regarding the processes and relations emerged from political economy of space and political ecology of Tehran, social strata inhabitation of Tehran has been in compliance with environmental capacities raised from topographic and microclimatic distinctions and ecological endowments. The findings of present paper also indicate physical and social vulnerability changes caused by probable hazards related to the general pattern of social strata inhabitation in north-south geographical direction. Spatial distribution of populated blocks in 1996, for which more than 30% of their inhabitants were “senior managers and experts” and “manufacturing jobs employees and laborers”, indicates the above mentioned issue and clearly show the poverty (old poor neighborhoods) and wealth (expensive and rich neighborhoods) spatial centers. In addition, according to the supporting studies on Tehran Comprehensive Plan, most of old urban tissues are in central and southern regions. Also according to the International Seismological Research Agency (JICA), the mentioned regions would be the most vulnerable in the Tehran probable earthquakes. Therefore, it can be said that findings and results of the present study indicate the determining place of political economy of space and urban political ecology and also the fundamental role of social stratification and class structure for recognition, analysis, explanation and understanding of the urban development challenges and problems. Hence, this is impossible to reduce social and physical vulnerabilities caused by natural and human hazards, particularly in the poor neighborhoods, regardless of political economy of space mechanisms and reduction of the gap and even urban development. 

Seyed Hassan Sadogh, Khabat Derafshi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)


Coastal areas are dynamic and complex multi-function systems. A wide number of often conflicting human socio-economic activities occur in these areas. These include urbanization, tourism and recreational activities, industrial production, energy production and delivering, port activities, shipping, and agriculture. Coastal systems are also characterized by important ecological and natural values; their high habitat and biological diversity is fundamental to sustain coastal processes and provide ecosystem services which are essential also for human well-being. Human activities often conflict with the need to preserve natural coastal systems and their ecological processes.

   One of the most important applied problems in coastal geology today is determining the physical response of the coastline to sea-level rise. Predicting shoreline retreat and land loss rates is critical to planning future coastal zone management strategies and assessing biological impacts due to habitat changes or destruction. Presently, long-term (>50 years) coastal planning and decision-making has been done piecemeal, if at all, for the nation's shoreline. Consequently, facilities are being located and entire communities are being developed without adequate consideration of the potential costs of protecting or relocating them from sea-level rise-related erosion, flooding and storm damage.

   Research on major natural disasters and related technologies has become an important subject in geography and its application. The complexity analysis of the issue is possible in a system approach to theoretical and applied geography also in the integrity of physical and human geography.

Due to the Caspian Sea water-level fluctuation in coastal zone of Babolsar which happens very quickly in decade scale, the observance of safety element will be possible in light of the integrated coastal zone management with determine of sea frontage. In this context, geography and especially geomorphology is a main basic in this kind of coastal management.

   Detection of sea level fluctuations causing morphological changes in the earth surface and damage to facilities, clarifies the necessary of the present research to study the role of geomorphological indices in Babolsar coast zone constructions. The Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) is one of the most commonly used and simple methods to assess coastal vulnerability to sea level rise, in particular due to erosion and/or inundation. The CVI provides a simple numerical basis for ranking sections of coastline in terms of their potential for change that can be used by managers to identify regions where risks may be relatively high. The CVI results can be displayed on maps to highlight regions where the factors that contribute to shoreline changes may have the greatest potential to contribute to changes to shoreline retreat.

In this study, coastal vulnerability index (CVI) is used as effective geomorphic index on Babolsar coast zone constructions. In first, primary and secondary vertical frontages were detect using topographic data (digital elevation model with cell size 10-meter) and Caspian Sea water-level fluctuations.

   The primary vertical frontage includes areas which have the lower height of -24.7 meters and secondary vertical frontage consists of areas which are placed between -24.7 and -23.5 meters. Following this issue, within the primary and secondary vertical frontage, coastal vulnerability index was performed based on five parameters, elevation, slope, landform, land use and distance from main road. According to the coastal vulnerability based on natural (NCVI), human (HCVI) and total vulnerability index (TCVI), large parts of the Babolsar coastal zone (especially in Fereidoonkenar and Babolsar city areas) placed in classes of high and very high vulnerability.

   With respect to detection of the primary (level -24.7 m) and secondary (from level -24.7 to -23.5 m) frontages in Babolsar township area, 345 and 7177 hectares of the township lands are located in the primary and secondary vertical frontages, respectively. The most area of the township land uses in primary frontage belongs to natural structures that have 153 hectares of area. Survey of lands distribution in the height of -24.7 to -23.5 m (secondary vertical frontage) shows that agriculture land use has the most extent in this area; the area of this land use is 5293 hectares that equivalent to 74 percent of all lands which are located in the secondary frontage. Urban and industrial structures have 45 and 522 hectares of area in the primary and secondary frontages of Caspian Sea in Babolsar Township, respectively.

Amir Saffari,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)

Today, urban and regional issues related to sustainable development is a key challenge for policy-makers, planners and specialists in various disciplines. Geomorphologic studies can be useful and effective in analyzing and deriving acceptable means to assess the growth and development of the city, and to set criteria to determine the directions of urban development.    Landslides range of motions not only affect the human structures such as roads, rail lines and residential areas, but also lead to casualties. Tehran metropolis mountainous basins, including Kan, Vesk, Farahzad, Darake, Velenjak, Darband, Golabdare, Darabad, Sorkheh-Hesar, and Sohanak due to the lithology, geologic structure, weathered sediments, steep slope, rainfall and poor urban development are considered as one of the places where landslides are a range of geomorphologic processes can be studied.    At this research, using Fuzzy and AHP methods and by the use 8 factor variables such as lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, annual rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, distance from fault and drainage system. the map of landslide zonation hazard in mountainous areas of the city is prepared to determine risky strips. After the standardization of the criteria for the occurrence of landslides and using frequency ratio method and fuzzy model and functions, Landslide hazard zonation maps was prepared for evaluating from the fuzzy sum, fuzzy product and fuzzy gamma operator 0.8 and 0.9. Then the final map of landslide zonation, obtained from the above-mentioned method matched with the map of urban regions in mountainous areas. In this way the constructed region have been distinguished from very high and very low hazard zonation.    Lithological studies showed that most of the basin areas covered by Karaj Formation. About 45/7 percent of units with sliding movement in areas with "rock crystal tuff and tuff lytic green, with the layers of limestone" (unit Et2) of the intermediate tuff formation occurred. Cross of faults distance map with landslide density map showed that about 33/1 percent of landslides occurred within 200 m of the fault lines and 78/4 percent of landslides occurred within 500 m of drainage network. Most sliding movements (60/2 percent) in the range of 1900 to 2500 meters altitude and about 35/3 percent of this type of range of motion in height of 1500 to 1900 meters occurred. This area is about 81/6 percent of sliding movements in slopes between 15 and 40 degrees (26/8 to 83/9 percent) and about 17/6 percent on slopes less than 15 degrees (26.8 percent) occurred. In the aspect, sliding movements of the basin, mainly in the south-western slopes (about 23/2 percent), the South (about 17/5 percent), West (about 16/6 percent) and Southeast (about 77/1 percent), northwest (about 33/1 percent) occurred. About 88/9 percent of sliding movements in areas with average annual rainfall of 244 to 280 mm occurred. According to the zoning map, 12 percent of mountainous basins area (approximately 10,057 acres) is in the zone of very high risk, 33 percent (approximately 27,723 acres) is in high risk areas, 20.5 percent (approximately 17,143 acres) in the moderate risk zone, 30/ 7 percent (approximately 25,672 acres) in area and 3.8 percent of the total area of the basin, low risk (approximately 3172 acres) located in low risk areas. The results showed that approximately 5.2 hectares (about 0/05 percent) of the urban in zones with a huge landslide, about 51/5 acre (approximately 1 percent) in zones with high landslide risk and about 821 acres (equivalent to 25/16 percent) in the medium risk landslide zones are located and developed.     The final results indicate that some mountainous regions of Tehran Metropolis are apt to landslide with middle to high risk. (Apart from strengthening the vulnerable area) avoiding these areas is an important solution to decrease damages caused by landslide.

Abolfazl Ghanbari, Ali Zolfi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)

In advance crisis management of natural disasters, particularly earthquakes in urban areas is one of the necessities of urban planning. However, nowadays with the help of technology we can determine the risk of crisis in the urban areas and settlements. Due to population growth and increasing urbanization, the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake can cause terrible disasters in the cities. The need to reduce the vulnerability of the cities is one of the main objectives of physical planning of urban areas and city designing. The city of Kashmar in one of Iran's earthquake-prone areas (due to its adjacency to the Lut fault)  has  witnessed the sever destruction from  the September 25, 1903 earthquake (with a magnitude MS= 5/9) and Torbat Haidariye earthquake on 25 May 1923 (a magnitude MS= 5/8). It is very important to identifying vulnerable areas to earthquakes in advance. Accordingly the objective of this study is to identify the vulnerability of urban areas of  Kashmar city to the earthquake by using VIKOR model of urban planning. The vulnerability of the city was computed on several parameters among which the population density is the most important one.

     In order to carry out the research eleven population and other indices were used. These indices are as follows:

  1. Building Materials;
  2.  The quality of the building;
  3. Old buildings;
  4. Number of floors;
  5. The materials of facades of building;
  6. Compatibility of land uses;
  7. Access to network passages;
  8. Distance from the main fault;
  9. The building density;
  10. Numbers of population; and
  11.   Relief and rescue centers.

 By using the VIKOR ranking model the vulnerability of the urban areas of the city was identified and classified. The correlation between the city vulnerability and each of these indices was calculated. The impact of the indices on the city vulnerability was calculated according to the AHP model.

      The results of the study showed that the zone 3 had the highest and the zone 8 had the lowest physical vulnerability in the model. Based on the results of the Spearman correlation, the impact of the population on the vulnerability was about .5866 which is relatively noteworthy.  This means that highest degree of vulnerability can occur in very populated areas of the city. All of the city was regionalized according to the degree of vulnerability to earthquake.

The lack of amenities and facilities such as health centers, fire stations, building materials and weak areas within the city will increase the losses and casualties. It is noteworthy that comprehensive city planning in the future must improve and the needed facilities should be provided. In addition providing services to the residents, especially in critical times after the earthquake should be provided.

Esmaeil Ali Akbari, Nafiseh Saadat Miraii,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)

Urban planning has to perform seismic pathology of urban streets in seismic cities. Streets and roads are the most important spaces and urban elements in the cities which should be considered not only in space occupation and connecting spaces and urban activities but also in seismic vulnerability and on this basis it is planned to reduce environmental hazards and on top of earthquake-related. Many physical and functional characteristics of urban spaces and the distribution and concentration of the urban population take shape to comply with the location, capacity and function of the city streets network. Therefore, one of the most essential and the most important topics in the study of seismic cities is understanding of the relation between seismicity and urban streets through seismic vulnerability studies. This paper aims to assess factors and patterns of seismic vulnerability of urban networks with a prevention planning view in the 3rd district of Tabriz City.

    This research has descriptive-analytic method and the statistical population is street network of 3rd district of Tabriz city. Data and layers of information have been prepared by documentary method and have been processed using the Delphi method and the method of ranking and rating IHWP in GIS. The main factors and indicators influencing streets vulnerability have been selected based on the eight indicators. These indicators include distance and proximity to faults, quality of buildings, the degree of closeness (width of the wall), building density, population density, the traffic service or traffic volume toward roads capacity, access to health centers and services and the land use system. The final map of seismic vulnerability has been produced by combining eight layers of information related to above mentioned indicatorsand based on it the seismic vulnerability levels and factors of the street network has been analyzed.

    The final results of the seismic vulnerability of streets have been categorized in the 5 classes of vulnerability including very low, low, medium, high and very high. From total area 18.4% is estimated very low, 29.37% low, 31.77% medium, 14.21% high and 6.22% very high. Thus, taking into account the streets with medium, high and very high degree as vulnerable axes, it is concluded that 52.2% or more than half of the streets are seismic vulnerable and other half are relatively stable.

    Within the vulnerable and unstable network, more than 20% of the streets are in high and very high vulnerable classes. Street network with high and very high vulnerability are mainly arterial streets with commercial and service land uses in the scale of trans-regional or secondary roads leading to artery of trans-regional which have high population density. These streets compose a high degree of closeness, increase in traffic service level, population density and land use system with the concentration of commercial, recreational and trans-regional land uses are the main causes of vulnerability. But, in the narrow streets (8 to 10 meters), the degree of closeness of arterial streets, traffic parameters and user system have increased the seismic vulnerability index. Spatial pattern of streets vulnerability has an increasing trend from East to West and from North to south. The results show Spatial intensity of vulnerable streets is located at the center of the district and on Vali Asr, Shariati, Aref  and Razi Streets. Thus, the efficient and sustainable streets are located in the East of the under studied district.

    The results also show that high vulnerable streets has less distance to fault and more distance from medical centers. In addition, they have high traffic and lower quality buildings and high risk land uses (electric and gas infrastructure) are located there. Since the wide streets are more often subject to less obstruction, this characteristic in seismic time cause to transfer the traffic of narrow passage to the main streets. Grid pattern of streets and frequency of intersections by slowing down the speed of the vehicle increase the volume of traffic and lead to an increase in seismic vulnerability.

Ali Shammaii, دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران , ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Human and social crisis and natural hazards are of great importance and urgency in urban development planning. As a result, in order to reduce the loss of life and financial damages, one of the necessities of urban planning and spatial analysis is identification of vulnerable areas. In Piranshahr city due to its sensitive geographical location and zoning the implementation of passive defense in urban planning is of utmost importance. The importance of this study is to examine vulnerabilities in order to operate an optimal crisis management. The main objectives of the study are:

- Identifying the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the city.

- Identification of vulnerable facilities and equipments.

The research method is descriptive - analytical and research space is Piranshahr city limits. In order to identify the characteristics and distribution of facilities and equipment in the border town Piranshahr library and field methods have been used. The results of the last census (1390) of Statistical Center of Iran, observation and interviews with local people and experts was used. The master plan and detailed studies of 1391 and relevant maps of the municipalities, the aggregation and dispersion of urban facilities and equipments were used. To value the passive defense importance in the city sixteen vulnerability variables were defined and measured according to opinions of people and experts. Then the data were analyised with the  Delphi software. The main variables include: Lifeline, crisis management centers, military bases, equipment and support centers. After determining the rating of each factor and sub-sectors, by using AHP and Expert Choice software vulnerability of each of the following criteria were calculated. For mapping the city Piranshahr fuzzy model is used.

The results showed that the variables of vital artery with coefficient of (0.469), crisis management centers and joint support centers with coefficient (0.201), municipal equipment by a factor of (0.086) and military centers coefficient (0.043) are among the most vulnerable facilities and equipments in Piranshahr city. The neighborhood of western, central and south-west of the city, including the Kohneh-Khaneh and Grow of a cultural1 neighborhoods, Ghods, Isargaran, Zrgtn and Mom-Khalil, were the most vulnerable neighborhoods in the city regarding the military attacks. Spatial analysis of vulnerability of the city resulted in three vulnerability regions. The neighborhoods of the West, Central and South West (Kohneh-Khaneh and Grove neighborhoods and part of a cultural1 neighborhoods, Ghods, Isargaran, Zrgtn and Mom-Khalil) are the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the city. The reason for this situation are the physical characteristics of the city such as texture, organic, fine texture and high density residential units, existence of urban infrastructure, core founding of the city (the Kohneh-Khaneh neighborhood) and the secondary core (Zrgtn neighborhood). whereas the neighborhood (Park City and part of Koy-e-Khayyam and new neighborhoods of Mohammadkhan in the north and the south and southeast of the city) due to the preparations made for the perfect skeletal indices as well as the extent of large open spaces are somewhat immune and safe regarding the passive defense.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, vulnerability, Passive defense, city of Piranshahr.

Alireza Mohammadi, Bahman Javid Moghvan,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Most of the large cities in developing countries have faced with the problem of informal settlements. The formation and growth of these settlements for reasons such as rapid and outside the customs building construction are the threatening issue for their communities. Informal settlements are areas that often shaped and expanded in major and middle cities of the Iran’s cities including the city of Parsabad. During the last decades, the rapid growth of urbanization and the lack of appropriate planning for low-income families housing leads to the formation of the urban informal settlements in most cities of the Iran. In most cases, these settlements have a structural and demographic dense texture. The structural texture of these settlements is often fine aggregate, impermeable, and unstable. In times of crisis, the possibilities of human and material losses to them are high.

Environmental hazards such as earthquakes are a serious threat to these settlements. However, these hazards in most developing countries, due to the unavailability and lack of preventive actions, end to the crisis. We cannot prevent earthquakes. But we can reduce the losses and damages caused by the earthquakes. Remove of the disaster is impossible, but it is possible to reduce the damage caused by the disaster. One of the most important ways to reduce the risk of earthquakes is preparation to deal with earthquakes. Preparation means having previous programs and plans.

     Iran is one of the countries where earthquakes always happen. Because Iran located in the world's earthquake belt, each year on average about 1,000 earthquakes happening in Iran. Ardebil and Pars-Abad city, located in an area that the possibility of earthquakes shakings in these areas, is more. The Zire Nahre Torab Neighborhood is one of the Parsabad city’s informal settlements that located in the northwest of the city. Regarding the possibility of an earthquake in the city of Pars Abad, identification and assessment the vulnerability of the neighborhood during an earthquake, is essential. Therefore, identifying and assessing the vulnerability, especially in the poor neighborhoods to offer strategies for dealing with the injuries, is essential. The aim of this study is assessing vulnerability of the informal settlements during an earthquake by using spatial data and GIS. This study, have been prepared in fifth main parts including: introduction and background, methodology and presentation of case study, theoretical framework, analysis and conclusions.  

This research in terms of the nature is practical and is descriptive and in terms of the method is analytical. Three methods including library, documentary and survey have been used for data collection. In the first phase, data and base maps were extracted from documents and reports of projects such as city comprehensive and detailed plans. Also, in this phase of the study data were updated. In the second phase, the problem, questions and research objectives were defined. In the third phase, the 3 criteria and 12 sub-criteria based on research literature and according to available data were selected. In the fourth phase, after preparation of databases related to each of the criteria in GIS, input layers were prepared for each of them. In the fifth step, the method of network analysis process (ANP) was used to determine the significance of criteria. In the sixth phase, the weighted overlay index (WOI) was used for combining output layers.

The results of this study show that more than 80% of neighborhood buildings are vulnerable against the risk of a possible earthquake. Also, research findings suggest that physical characteristics such as building structure, quality and age of the buildings will have the greatest role in determining the neighborhood buildings vulnerability level. Doing activities such as resisting buildings, improving roads, locating facilities in appropriate places, training and informing citizens to prevent a crisis caused by the possible earthquakes, is essential. Other recommendations are listed in below:

  1. Identifying vulnerable buildings
  2. The use of GIS in the management of settlements
  3. Preparations cities, to deal with urban hazards
  4. Empowering citizens to deal with environmental hazards
  5. Action to reduce earthquake risk
  6. Civil engineering Renovation of buildings
  7. New practices in the urban construction
  8. Equip cities with facilities and relief supplies.
  9. The use of specialists in urban planning.
  10. Conducting workshops on urban resilience.

Arasto Yari, Majid Parishan,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (4-2017)

Disaster risk which is the potential loss expressed in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services, can occur in a particular community or a society due to the impact of a natural hazard. Disaster Risk Reduction is a systematic approach to identify, assess and reduce that risk. Or (in identifying, assessing, and reducing …) To be specific, the purpose of this or (the current) approach is to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout an education factors (throughout an educational factor Or throughout educational factors) to avoid or limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards.

Knowledge and education are recognized as the key components of disaster risk management. Occurrence of enormous disaster in the world shows ( or pinpoints) the need to use  (or for using , in order to prevent repetition of the same structure) knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. The role of education for disaster risk reduction strategies can thus be presented based on three types of activities, including Save lives and prevent injuries should a hazardous event occur; Prevent interruptions to the provision of education, or ensure its swift resumption in the event of an interruption, and finally Develop a resilient population which is able to reduce the economic, social and cultural impacts should a hazardous event occur. Education for Disaster Risk Reduction promotes critical thinking and problem-solving as well as social and emotional life skills which are essential to the empowerment of groups threatened or affected by disasters.

Iran is crossed by several major faults, 90% of whom are seismically active and subject to many earthquakes each year. Qazvin Province, which is located among active zones, suffers less earthquakes, but these may be more powerful because stresses have longer to build. Occurring earthquakes often affected rural settlement and societies. The main aim of the article is to respond how is the role of education in risk management and decreasing vulnerability level of rural areas based on earthquake in Qazvin province? The purposes of this article are to outline the existing seismic risk in Qazvin and to identify the crucial role of education in advancing culture of safety and the resilience of Qazvin rural communities to destructive earthquakes.

From objective points of view, this paper is practical kind of research and from analytic points of view; it would be categorized as the qualitative and quantitative research. The information contained in this article is based on a variety of sources and have been collected by means of both documentary and questionnaire techniques.

This research has adopted or adopts the qualitative and quantitative methods to respond to  (or to answer a basic question) a basic question. To formulate the strategies of earthquake risk reduction 29 villages were selected by cluster sampling and then it was estimated the samples by Cochrane method. For data collection, 386 households were selected by random method.

According to the research topic, the main criteria divided into two groups: formal and informal education. The formal education includes indicators as the number of showed films, corrugated education about earthquake and the informal education encompasses indices as  the effect of media or institutions raising awareness for earthquake, the effect of the earthquake, affected rural and peoples and finally experiences  concerning  the earthquake training.

Based on the results of the current research, the level of education plays an important role in enhancing the effects of hazards and ensuing vulnerability of rural areas after the occurrence of natural hazards (earthquakes).

The result of this research also shows that the rural or regions of Qazvin province are the more vulnerable and the range of knowledge of peoples about earthquake risk is low. It is necessary to consider the earthquake risk management to (or so as to) decrease the earthquake risk among the studied regions/areas in all earthquake phases. In order to reduce the vulnerability of rural settlements in Qazvin County, it is necessary to increase awareness and knowledge.

Regarding/ considering the results of this research and the role of education in risk reduction to  reduce the vulnerability of rural spaces, some strategies such as strengthening disaster risk management awareness, increasing knowledge among rural residents, improving communication skills regarding/concerning disaster risk management  have been proposed.

Zeinabe Sharifi, Mehdi Nooripour, Maryam Sharifzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Sustainable livelihoods approach as one of the new sustainable rural development approaches is one way of thinking and attempting to achieve development which arose in the late 1980s with the aim of progress and poverty alleviation in rural communities (Sojasi Ghidari et al.,2016).
Five critical concepts to understand sustainable livelihoods framework include the concept of vulnerability, livelihood assets, transforming structures and processes, livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes (Motiee Langroodi et al,2012). According to the sustainable livelihoods framework, vulnerability is one of the fundamental concepts based on the vulnerability context (Forouzani et al.,2017). The vulnerability context forms the people's external environment. It comprises shocks (such as human, livestock or crop health shocks; natural hazards, like floods or earthquakes; economic shocks; conflicts in form of national or international wars) trends (such as demographic trends; resource trends; trends in governance), and seasonality (such as seasonality of prices, products or employment opportunities) and represents the part of the framework that is outside stakeholder’s control (Kollmair and Gamper,   .(2002
Various research explored the factors influencing vulnerability and its dimensions and less research investigated to assess the vulnerability of rural households. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate rural households' vulnerability in the Central District of Dena County. Accordingly, this research is to answer the following questions:
  • What is the status of rural households' vulnerability to shocks?
  • What is the status of rural households' vulnerability to trends?
  • What is the status of rural households' vulnerability to seasonality?
The research method is applied in terms of purpose and non-experimental survey in terms of data collection. The statistical population of the study consisted of 2500 rural households in the Central District of Dena County, which according to Krejcie and Morgan table 300 households were selected using cluster random sampling.
The research tool for data collection was a structured and research-made questionnaire. Face validity was used in order to determine the validity of the questionnaire and the face validity of the research tool was confirmed by a panel of experts. A pre-test study was carried out in order to determine the reliability of the various sections of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha was calculated and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed.
Vulnerability was measured using 20 questions and in three sections including shocks (8 items), trends (6 items) and seasonality (6 items) with a three-point Likert scale (low, medium and high) and SPSS software was used to analyze data.
The results of calculated vulnerability showed that the rural households had the most vulnerability to shocks including "causing damage to crops due to frost", "causing damage to crops due to drought" and "plant pests and diseases". In contrast, rural households had the lowest vulnerability to shocks including "family fights and ethnic conflict", "animal disease" and "illness of family members".
The respondents had the most vulnerability to the trends including "the rise in food prices and other life necessities" and "the rise in the price of energy carriers such as diesel, gasoline, etc.". In contrast, the respondents had the least vulnerability in trends including "gradual air pollution" and "increase in households' population".
The respondents had the most vulnerability to the seasonality including "lack of funds and capital in low working seasons" and "fluctuations in the prices of agricultural products". In contrast, the respondents had the least vulnerability to seasonality including "the impossibility of growing crops in different seasons" and "decrease and increase in the amount of agricultural production in different seasons".
The results showed that generally respondents’ vulnerability to shocks, trends and seasonality and the total vulnerability was at a medium level for the majority of the respondents (over 40%), at a high level for about 25 percent of the respondents, at a very high level for about 15 percent of the respondents and at a very low level for only about 10 percent of the respondents. Therefore, it could be concluded that more than half of the respondents' vulnerabilities was at a low and medium level.
Furthermore, in two groups with low and medium vulnerability, the average vulnerability to shocks, trends and seasonality are almost the same, whereas in two groups with high and very high vulnerability, the most vulnerability referred to seasonality, trends and shocks, respectively.
According to the research findings, the following suggestions are offered in order to reduce the vulnerability of rural households.
In order to reduce the vulnerability of rural households to shocks including "causing damage to crops due to frost", "causing damage to crops due to drought" and "plant pests and diseases", it is suggested that educational courses are held by the relevant organizations such as Agriculture Jihad in order to get familiar with ways to deal with damages caused by frost, drought and plant pests and disease. In addition, the use of heating system before the frost, the use of drought resistant varieties, the use of such techniques as land fallowing in order to reduce the need for water, the use of integrated pests management are offered as well in order to reduce the vulnerability of rural households.
Considering that the respondents had the most vulnerability to the trends including "the rise in food prices and other life necessities" and "the rise in the price of energy carriers such as diesel, gasoline, etc.", the rise in food prices as well as energy carriers in rural areas should be cautiously.
Founding loan fund in order to give loan and credit to households in low working seasons as well as determining a guaranteed price for agricultural products by the relevant authorities to reduce the volatility of agricultural prices are recommended.

Mrs Masoomeh Niyasti, Mr Seyed Amir Hossein Garakani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Study of vulnerability of settlements in rural areas A comparative study of salvage towns and villages in the eastern part of Golestan province
There are important choices to be made after the various accidents and the numerous financial and psychological effects of rural settlements, including decisions on how to intervene in rural settlements and the adoption of reconstruction policies. This intervention is identified as four types of identification, relocation, continuous development, or integration and integration for the reconstruction of damaged or destroyed villages due to natural hazards.Many scholars and scholars believe that among the above models, aggregation and integration have economic advantages in supplying facilities and services. The ruler's insight has led to less attention to its economic, social, physical and environmental implications. It seems that this indifference has led to the implementation and implementation of relocation and integration plans of rural settlements with the change in their vulnerability in the economic, social, physical and environmental dimensions and the development of the vulnerability of affected society Increase against future accidents. Extreme rainfall in the eastern province of Golestan province in August 2005 resulted in two devastating floods, one of the most damaging floods in the country. The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Housing Foundation has been providing housing for the affected population and in order to reduce the resettlement of villages due to the occurrence of future floods, the eleven villages in the city of Kalaleh, which had been damaged in recent floods in Golestan Province, were displaced. This research is descriptive-analytic and its data have been collected in two sections of library and field. The statistical population of this study is a collection of residents of the walled city and villagers who have returned to the villages of Chatal, Ghapan Oliya and Sofla. To test the vulnerability in two samples, independent samples t have been used. Comparison of two sample returns in villages Chatal, Gapan Oliya and Sofla with the displacement and aggregation of villages in the recreational city showed that each of the studied samples had weaknesses and strengths in different dimensions of vulnerability. The vulnerability of the Faragi city in the economic dimension, using the average for each of the three villages and the city of recreation (3.18 and 2.89, respectively), shows that the resettlement policy in the area of study has increased the vulnerability, especially in the outskirts of the Faragi city Is. The results of this research in the economic sector are consistent with the results of Firouznia and colleagues (2011) and Stadekelai et al. (1394). Regarding the role of resettlement in social vulnerability after examining the criteria, the average for each of the three villages and the Faragi city (3.21 and 2.77 respectively) shows that the resettlement policy from the social perspective in the scope of the study increases the level of vulnerability especially in the Faragi city. The results of this research in the social section are consistent with the results of Montazarian (2011), Mohammadi, Professor Kalayeh et al. (1394), Zaharan et al. (2011), Peik et al. (2014) and Navara et al. (2013). In the physical dimension of the environment, it can be said that resettlement in general has reduced the level of vulnerability and improved life indicators in the Faragi city. The average for each of the three villages and the Faragi city (2.89 and 3.57, respectively) shows that the resettlement policy from the physical-environmental perspective in the study area has reduced the amount of vulnerability in the outskirts of the Faragi city to the three villages. On the other hand, the zoning of physical-permafrost
range shows that although the physical injuries of the outskirts of the Faragi city are lower than the three villages, but considering the location of the Pishkamar's site in the zone with moderate damage, the physical-peripheral city of leisure also vulnerable. In most post-traumatic reconstruction programs, the policy of removing the entire or part of the settlement as a suitable technical solution to reduce the vulnerability and safety of phenomena such as floods, landslides and so on Considered
. However, the review of various experiences suggests that displacement of settlements, although effective in reducing physical morbidity, is mainly due to numerous social and economic consequences. The displacement and consolidation of 11 villages of Golestan province in the post-flood Pishkamar site of 1384 were unsuccessful due to the lack of planning and designing, with macroeconomic and social costs, in reducing the dimensions of vulnerability of a settlement, including social and economic. This has led to the return of villagers to their old villages. The quantitative results of this research also confirm the hypothesis that increasing the migration to cities, returning to old villages, ethnic conflicts, reducing production levels, increasing bank debt and the prevalence of insecurity in the outskirts of the Faragi city are one of the most important factors in increasing the vulnerability in the social and economic dimensions of the study area. The investigations indicate an increase in the amount of vulnerability in recreational areas in terms of economic and social dimensions and reducing its physical-environmental vulnerability to three villages. Since reducing the vulnerability of settlements is subject
to control and reduction of damage and damage in all aspects, it seems that the
reconstruction of rural settlements after the flood of 2005 in Golestan province has been
effective in increasing the vulnerability of this area.
Keywords: Vulnerability, Relocation, Resettlement, Faragi city, Golestan Province.

Abolfazl Ghanbari, Ehsan Pashanejhad Silab,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

     Environment, development and sustainability are the three significant issues of worldwide concern. Environmental vulnerability and assessment of natural and anthropogenic activities impacts represent a comprehensive evaluation approach. The main purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive and novel framework in order to environmental vulnerability assessment using by spatial data and techniques. The method of this research is analytical-descriptive. The basic premise is that the finding of this study can be applied in the local planning system and policy making process of environmental conservation particularly to cope with rapid environmental change. The environmental vulnerability is defined and governed by four factors: hydro-meteorology signatures, environmental attributes, human activities and natural hazard. Based on data availability and vulnerability status of different areas, there is no general rule for selecting how many variables are required to assess the environmental vulnerability. In this study, 18 variables were taken into account and organized into four aforementioned groups.  The process of environmental vulnerability index is proposed to integrate AHP approach, remote sensing indices and GIS techniques. The environmental vulnerability showed distinct spatial distribution in the study area. Furthermore, the distribution of heavy and very heavy vulnerability patterns mainly occur in low and medium lands where the human activities have been developing rapidly and is the nearest region to Urmia lake in the west region.

Dr Manouchehr Farajzadeh, Miss Zahra Kazemnezhad, Dr Reza Borna,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)


Climate change in one area has severe impacts on water resources and, consequently, agriculture in that area. Therefore, studying the extent of the vulnerability of regions to adopting policies to reduce or adapt to new conditions is of particular importance. One of the methods for assessing the extent of damage to agricultural activities is the calculation of the vulnerability index. In this study, with the aim of assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change, The CVI index was calculated for 16 cities in Guilan province.

The results showed that the cities of Rasht (61.58) and Talesh (55.21) had the highest vulnerability and, accordingly, had the least adaptive power to climate change compared to other cities. And Langrood County (29.51) has the lowest number of vulnerabilities. The average value of the calculated index is 40.42 in Guilan province. In component R, the most vulnerable were Talesh (99.66) and lowest for Lahijan (2.27), In component M, the highest vulnerability was for Rudbar (97.21) and the lowest for Talesh (24.30), In component A, the most vulnerable were Rasht (89.99) and the lowest for Anzali (2.21), In component C, the most vulnerable were Shaft (66.66) and lowest for Anzali (1.89), In component U, the most vulnerable were Rasht (67.55) and the lowest for Astara (28.92), In component E, the highest vulnerability was for Talesh (76.49) and lowest for Lahijan (22.69), In component G, the most vulnerable was reported to Rasht (53.05) and the lowest vulnerability was reported for Sunnelk (23.24).

Abdol Hamid Nazari, Mostafa Taleshi, Mohammad Mirzaali,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Analysis and Measurement of Environmental Resilience of Villages in Gorganrud Watershed against Flood (Golestan province, Iran)
Environmental hazards are inevitable phenomena that always place serious risks on the development of human societies, especially rural development. In the recent years, however, significant changes have been made in crisis management approaches, and the prevailing view has shifted from the "reduction of vulnerability" approach to "resilience improvement". Resilience is a new concept often used in the face of unknowns and uncertainties. Therefore, along with this change of attitude, it is important to examine and analyze natural hazards in terms of resilience. According to global statistics, floods, as one of the most devastating natural disasters, have caused the greatest losses and casualties to human settlements, which is true both in our country and in Golestan province. Investigations show that only in the statistical period of 1991-2014, 106 rainfall cases have led to the occurrence of floods in this province. These floods have damaged natural resources, the environment and the prevalence of environmental pollution; In addition, other natural and human factors have contributed to the heightened risk of flood damage. But if it was planned for the restoration of villages, then the damage could be reduced. Therefore, this research was conducted with the general purpose of determining the relationships between environmental factors and factors of rural communities of Gorganrud watershed on their resilience and numerical values. Finally, the residual spatial analysis of rural limited settlements was studied. Accordingly, the research questions are as follows: a) What is the relationship between environmental factors and factors in the villages of Gorganrud watershed in Golestan province with the resilience of the communities living in them in the face of flood? b) What are the resiliency values ​​of these communities in the environmental dimension and which zones? This is an applied research with descriptive-analytical method. A library of researcher-made questionnaires was used for collecting data using library resources. The statistical population consisted of 106 villages with 22,942 households. First, 31 villages were selected by cluster sampling. Then, using Cochran formula, 318 families were selected as sample size and selected by simple random sampling method. Also, for assessing the validity of the questionnaire, using Delphi collective wisdom methods, it was determined by using historical studies and opinions of experts in rural areas. The reliability of the questionnaires was also determined by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the pre-test method. The value for the household questionnaire was ra1=0.841 and ra2=0.862, respectively. All steps for statistical analyzes have been performed by Excel and SPSS software. Additionally, the development of mapping, risk-taking, risk and resilience was also done with the help of ArcGIS software and the weight of each criterion was determined by the Super Decision tool; Then, using the weighted and linear overlapping methods, each of the sub-criteria of the main indexes was multiplied in its weights. The study area is divided into two distinct sections in terms of geological and geomorphological structure. The southern and eastern parts of it are the ripples of the eastern Alborz mountains, which are taller in the southern part and extend along the east-west direction. Also, the northern part of the studied basin is the Gorgan plain, in which the main branch of Gorganrud flows from east to west and all branches of the south and east are drained. Following the general slope of the main branch and its long-standing walls in the mid-east, it is usually not flooded; but as far as the west is concerned, its slope is very low and one of the flood plains is considered as the basin. The results of the research show that there is a significant relationship between the environmental factors of the studied basin villages and the resilience of the communities inhabited by them in the face of floods. Also, the average environmental resilience of the whole region was lower than the average (2.76 average), rural households in the sub-basins of TilAbad and ChehelChai with an average of 3.24 and 3 had relatively good environmental resilience, But most of the rural households in the sub-basins of Ghurechai and Lower of Gorganrud, Mohammad Abad-Zaringol, Madarsoo and Sarisoo, with an average of 2.89 to 1.85, had a poor environmental resilience. In addition, According to the flood risk resilience map, it can be said that of the total 31 sample villages studied, about 29 percent of sample villages have "medium upward" resilience in facing flood risks; conversely, most of these villages (71%) also have relatively low degree of resilience. Also, comparing the findings of this study with the results of most other researches, such as the studies of Olshansky and Kartes (1998) regarding the necessity of considering the environmental factors of settlements, observing the necessary environmental standards and the necessity of using proper land use management tools to reduce risk hazards and improve resilience, Center of Emergency Management Australia (2001) on the need to consider the state of the infrastructure, including the level of communications and accesses, biological conditions, including the status of pollution, as well as geographical characteristics, such as distances and proximity, climate, topography, as well as the general results of studies by Rafiean et al. (2012) in special selection of the most suitable model of resilience based on the combination of carter and socioeconomic model due to the simultaneous attention of this model to its geographical features and its comprehensiveness, as well as attention to the local communities' participation, Rezaei (2010), Shokri Firoozjah (2017) and Anabestani et al. (2017) Regarding the low value of the calculated population, the resiliency number of the society is consistent and consistent with the lack of attention to infrastructure issues, locations, etc., which is below the baseline (3). As a result, all of the aforementioned components of the resilience of inhabitants of sample societies have been affected by its environmental dimension, which is often due to insufficient attention and insufficient handling of them, which reduces resilience of rural residents to flood risks.
Keywords: Environmental hazards, Flood, Vulnerability, Resilience, Spatial analysis, Golestan Gorganrud basin.
Hossein Hosseinekhah, Asghar Zarrabi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Role mode combination decision Waspas in Identify zoning Seismic
 (Case study: Population center, township Bahmaei in Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province)
Hossein,Hosseinekhah[1], Asghar Zarrabi [2], Hamid Reza Varsi[3]
According placement Country of iran On the belt earthquake Alpine - Himalayas and Placement Partial of Iran Plateau Between two pages of Saudi Arabia (south) And Eurasia (north) And consequently the existence of active faults And the existence of seismic point And most importantly, record high intensity earthquakes, Etc in the township of Bahmei, in The present study will try, with Using the WASPA model, Identified and reviewed The Seismic zones. The main purpose of this study is Identify and zoning Earthquake risk in township Bahmaei and Secondary objectives research:
- Review and Assessment City Likak against earthquake risk.
- Identify and zoning district township Bahmaei against the danger of earthquakes.
- provide strategies to Reduce Damage and and physical and financial vulnerabilities of citizens.
According the nature of the subject and research objectives, Research Methodology Based on descriptive – analytical and functional. Collect dates provided in two part, weights and layers of information, based on Documentary method and using satellite images, Mapping organization, USGS organization. The statistical population of the research, the entire limits township Bahmaei based on dividing the national. Indicators used in the study, 10 key indicators, including Active faults, seismic areas, rivers, urban and rural settlements, the elevation, slope and more. To collect data Of the America Geological organization, National mapping organization, Satellite imagery and as well as to review and analyze data used is of ARC GIS software and Wapas model.
Results of the research show that from area 1245 square kilometers of Bahmei Township, there are 252.228 square kilometers, equivalent to 20 percent of the Township in an unsafe zone. 149 square kilometers equivalent to 12 percent is in the high risk zone and 167 square kilometers, equivalent to 13 percent in area with the high-risk. Also, of the area of 1245 square kilometers in the Township of Bahmei 386 square kilometers, equivalent to 31 percent is in the zone with low risk of the earthquake. The final weights achieved by each Propeller (weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats) in a separate and individual weighting with one another, have dominance of the dominating role of the matrix threat.
Results Research shows, 252 square kilometers, equivalent to 40 perecnt of Bahmaei township in zone safe, 386 square kilometers in the zone with low-risk, 289 square kilometers of the township In the zone with middle danger, 149 square kilometers of the township Equivalent with 12 percent of the township In zone with high risk and 167 square kilometers, equivalent to 13 percent is in the zone whit high-risk of ​​the earthquake
The city Likak as Bahmaei township center is in zone with low very risk Compared to the risk of earthquakes. Also The results showed The 160 sq. Km  of The central part of township Equivalent to 18 percent in zone with low-risk And 137 square kilometers, equivalent to %15 in zone whit high risk and 15 percent of central city The zone have very high hazard. Also the results showed of area 506 square kilometers Section Garmsar, 30 percent in the zone safe, %44 in the zone with low risk and 6 percent is in zone with the very high risk. The also results showed that 15 villages and villages (6%) are very vulnerable, 20 villages (8.43%) are in high danger zones and 112 villages are in zone with low risk.
Keywords: Waspas model, earthquake, Likak city, township Bahmae.


Dr Abolfazl Meshkini, Mr Ali Mohammad Mansourzadeh, Mr Zeynab Shahrokhy Far, ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Identifying spatial patterns in vulnerability involves a comprehensive look at vulnerable points. And provides analytical power to the authorities. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize patterns of vulnerability so as to minimize the amount of damage to them in the event of a crisis. The city of Tehran, as the political and administrative center of the country, is faced with a variety of risks due to demographic burden and physical development. In this research, we tried to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of urban vulnerability to natural hazards in social and physical dimensions in Tehran's 7th region. The method of this descriptive-analytic study and the model used for trigonometric fuzzy logic. The results indicate that: According to the z score, the positive values are 1.96 up, which form the clusters of hot spots in the southeastern region of the arena; It is a sign of more vulnerability in these areas. Also, negative values of 1.96 and less, which are statistically significant and blue, have formed cold spots, And it is interpreted that low vulnerability zones are clustered in space and are mainly located in the northwest. Therefore, the lower the color range in the red and blue areas was less statistically significant  to the point where this positive net worth is 1.65 that in this situation, the spatial behavior of the vulnerability is considered to be non-significant in terms of hot or cold clusters with high and low values and spatial autocorrelation that the map is also displayed in yellow.
Mohammad Javanbakht, Hosein Hoseini,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Vulnerability is the limitation of a society to a risk and to dominate it for all physical, economic, social and political factors, which adversely affects the ability of the community to respond to those events. An earthquake is a natural phenomenon that will be irreversibly damaged. It has caused severe humanitarian earthquakes in the minds of a compilation of an infrastructure program to reduce the risks and damage caused by it. The country's geostationary characteristics have suggested earthquakes as one of the most destructive factors in the destruction of human life. Historical surveys show that vast areas of our country suffered financial and financial losses due to this natural disaster. According to the United Nations, in 2003, Iran ranked first in the number of earthquakes with a high intensity of 5.5 millimeters among the countries of the world.
Earthquake is a natural hazard that often causes too many losses and casualties. Iran is  country with a lot of earthquakes and  and Khorasan Razavi province which is studied in this study also experiences a large number of this natural hazard and 71% of the surface area of this province is in the range of medium, high and too high hazard of earthquake. One of the important sectors in which the effect of the earthquake damage very large is power transmission lines. Transmission of oil and gas products by pipelines is one of the most appropriate, inexpensive, fast and reliable methods. These lines are mostly buried in terms of safety and social considerations. In engineering collections, such structures are considered as vital arteries. Due to the fact that pipelines are spreading widely, therefore, due to the vulnerability of the transmission lines, it can damage the economy of the country.
 In this study the vulnerability of the network lines of power transmission of Khorasan Razavi province against earthquake were studied.  The aim of the present study was applicable and method of study was descriptive-analytic. To prepare a map of the extent of the vulnerability, the fuzzy gamma method was used. Effective parameters for this research include proximity to a fault line, geological structure, land slope, population density of urban and rural areas, distance from the communication lines. One of the most important fuzzy operators for overlapping indices is the GAMMA operator. Gamma operator is the general mode of multiplication and addition operators.
Mousa Kamanroodi, Moohamad Solemani, Mohamad Ghasemi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-2020)


Ecologically-based Management Factors and criteria of River-Valleys in Tehran metropolis-Case Study: River-Valleys of Kan
Iran has seasonal rivers because of dry climate, low rainfall and different topography. These river- valleys have main role in forming, genesis, and sustainability of human settlements and provide different ecological services. The main services include beauty, store of green spaces, water supply, reduce and create temperature differences, local air flow and natural ventilation which are part of the functions. Tehran is roughly the same area as 730 square kilometers and its population is 8.7 million people. It is located in51° and 17´ to 51° and 33´ east longitude and 35° and 36´ to 35° and 44´ north latitude. The height of this city is 900 to 1800 meters. The north and north east of this city are located in peculiarity range of the southern part of the middle Alborz. This city includes 7 river valleys to the names Darabad, Golabdareh, Darband, Velenjak, Darakeh, Farahzad and Kan. The ecological role of these river valleys is reduced because of non- ecological axis developmental interventions by urban management and citizens. These interventions have changed river valleys to high risk space of skirt movements and flood. Kan is the most important river valley because of the breadth of the basin and permanent water discharge rate. The part of this river valley has changed to park (Javanmardan) by municipality. The purpose of this research is that to provide factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley.
ANP has been used in this research. To use this method for analyzing   factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley, firstly, these factors have been identified by library studies and scrolling. These factors include 4 criteria (natural: 15 sub criteria, social: 3, management:  6, economic: 2). the books, journals, reports, maps, aerial photos, satellite images and internet sites have been studied in library studies. In site studies, some information from library studies have been edited. After that, the findings of these two methods in form of questionnaire called factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley, was in charge academics and professionals. They were elected among pundits of urban management science, urban planning, geography and environment in Tehran. At first the number of them was 30 people came to agreement in two process about 4 factors and 18 criteria and determined importance and priority by Delphy method. Findings in Delphy method were analyzed through ANP and SUPER DECISIONS. In this process, firstly, a conceptual model and relation inter and intra clusters and nodes determined. These relations in this process are very important because paired comparison depends on this process. Assumption of equality of effects and similar relations in these factors is illogical because there are the grading of effects and relations in this research. Second, the factors have been compared to each other to create a super matrix based on paired comparison. Generally, in this process decision makers compare two different factors to each other and paired comparisons have grading of between1to9. In double- sided valuation, each factor is used to show initial inverse comparison. Inconsistent rate in paired comparison must be less than 0.1 like AHP. Third initial super matrix is created. It is the weights created from paired comparison and identified the importance of each factor in each cluster. Forth, the weighted super matrix was created. The weights of clusters was calculated in this process to identify the weight of final super matrix. Fifth, limited super matrix was created. The weighted super matrix reached for infinity band each row convergenced to a number and that number was the weight of factor. By this way limited super matrix was reached.
Based on ANP and table 1, management: 46%, natural – ecological: 26% and economic and social factors: 14% are important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Based on reached results, inconsistent rate is 0.003 and it shows that the weight is valid and review is not necessary. Among sub criteria in management factor, organizational pattern: 32%, method of management: 23% and policies: 21% are the most important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Among sub criteria in natural- ecological factor, flood, domain movements and building and texture of soil are the most important respectively 23%, 18% and 11.5% also in social factor, participation, security and public trust have the importance respectively equal to 49% 31% 19%. In economic factor, environmental assets and stakeholder’s economic participation have the same importance.
Based on this research, management factor (organizational pattern and the method of management) is the most important in ecosystem based management. But this approach, the management pattern and intervention to organize this river valley, need comprehensiveness and integrity of the subject (nature, society, management and economic), purpose (protection, resuscitation and use), factors (government, city council, municipality, private sector and people), duties (policy making, planning, designing and perform), method (collaborative), tools (knowledge, skill, rule, program, budget, machinery and materials) and management domain. Use of these factors and criteria need some infrastructure and reforms. The most important reform is reform of management structure, production of subject matter and topical program special to organize river valleys by ecological approach to release Kan of loading and contradictory this management can follow protection, resuscitation, sustainable use and continuity of ecological services.
Key words: ecosystem, ecosystem based management, analytic network process, river valley of Kan

Mohammadreza Jafari, Shamsullah Asgari,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

One of the causes of environmental hazards is the change in the pattern of surface water flow in floodplains following the construction of flood Spreading networks. The purpose of this study is to prepare a zoning map of vulnerable areas of the flood Spreading station of Musian plain  in Ilam province after the implementation of the aquifer project in this plain. To prepare this map, five factors influencing the change in flow pattern including elevation, slope, flow direction, geological formations, and landuse change were examined. Then, in the GIS environment, each class of the mentioned factors was given a score of zero to 10 based on the range and the corresponding weight layers were created. Then, by combining the created weight layers, the vulnerability zoning map of the area was created based on 5 classes: very low, low, medium, high and very high. The results showed that the most important threat and danger factor is the concentration of waterways behind erosion-sensitive embankments. Also, the study area in terms of vulnerability includes three classes with medium risk, high and very high and covers 16, 62 and 22% of the area, respectively. Flood and upland Spreading areas, risk areas and lowland lands are the most vulnerable parts of the basin in terms of floods and sedimentary deposits.
Narges Kefayati, Khalil Ghorbani, Gholam Hossein Abdollahzade,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Regional leveling of drought vulnerability in Golestan province
Narges Kefayati*1-  Khalil Ghorbani2- Gholamhossein Abdollahzadeh 3-
1- PhD student of irrigation and drainage, Department of Water Engineering, College  Of Water   Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan,Iran. (Corresponding Author)*
2- Associated Professor, Department of Water Engineering, College  Of Water   Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resourcesm, Gorgan, Iran.
3- Associated Professor, Department of Agricultural Promotion and Training, Faculty of Agricultural Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Drought is one of the natural phenomena that causes a lot of damage to human life and natural ecosystems. In general, drought is a lack of rainfall compared to normal or what is expected, when it is longer than a season or a period of time and is insufficient to meet the needs. Drought causes damage to the agricultural sector. The vulnerability of the agricultural sector in each region depends on three factors: the degree of drought exposure, the degree of sensitivity to drought and the capacity to adapt to drought. A review of previous studies indicates the diversity of indicators and methods used to assess vulnerability, which indicates the importance of the issue. Institutions responsible for agricultural management can only manage drought properly if they have the appropriate tools to measure the vulnerability of the agricultural sector to drought. Therefore, the first step in drought studies is to identify vulnerable areas and assess the vulnerability of areas. Vulnerability measurement in geographical dimensions and measurement of indicators by main vulnerability components have received less attention. Based on this, the present study has investigated drought vulnerability in Golestan by scientific method and by combining the three mentioned components and has compared the exposure situation, sensitivity level and level of drought adaptation capacity among the cities of Golestan province. Golestan province as one of the important agricultural hubs is highly dependent on the amount of annual rainfall. Due to fluctuations in rainfall and drought in some parts of the province, there have been 4 outbreaks and as a result, 7-12 and 10 days of drought have occurred, which has caused severe damage to the livelihood of farming families. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare drought vulnerability among cities in Golestan province by three components (exposure, sensitivity and adaptation). First, by reviewing the sources, the effective indicators on drought vulnerability are identified separately by the three components and judged by experts (faculty members of water engineering, agriculture and plant breeding, agricultural extension and education, and agricultural economics and experts of water engineers). 55 appropriate indicators in three main dimensions of vulnerability, namely: a) exposure (14 indicators), b) sensitivity (26 indicators) and c) compatibility (17 indicators) were developed and data related to the indicators were collected. The weights of the indices were extracted by Shannon entropy model and by the TOPSIS method the combined index was compiled separately into three vulnerability components. The final result of the combined index was combined with the GIS layers of the cities of Golestan province, and the level of vulnerability of the cities was determined separately for the desired components. The results showed that in terms of exposure to Bandar-e-Gaz, Bandar-e-Turkmen and Aq Qala are in the first to third ranks, respectively, and are exposed to drought. Azadshahr, Galikesh and Bandar-e-Turkmen counties are in the first to third ranks with the highest sensitivity to drought, respectively. The cities of Gomishan, Galikesh and Maravah Tappeh are the most adapted to drought, respectively. Finally, the results of calculating the total vulnerability index showed that the cities of Marwah Tappeh and Bandar-e-Turkmen are the most vulnerable areas to drought in Golestan province. The findings of this study showed that rainy areas can be more exposed to drought at the same time than other areas and there is no direct relationship between rainfall and drought exposure. This confirms the findings of other studies such as Kramker et al. And O'Brien et al. On the other hand, the findings of this study showed that there is no direct relationship between rainfall and vulnerability to drought and the most  rainy areas of a region at the same time can be the most vulnerable to drought. This is in line with the findings of Tanzler et al. And Salvati et al. On the relationship between rainfall and drought vulnerability. Due to the fact that the rainy areas of this province are more exposed to drought than other areas and farmers in these areas have shown a higher degree of sensitivity to drought and are more vulnerable to drought than other areas, it is recommended Measures should be taken to reduce the sensitivity and increase the adaptation capacity of farmers in these areas.
Keywords: Drought, Vulnerability, Exposure, Sensitivity, Compatibility, Regional Leveling
Changiz Seravani, Gholamhossein Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Sharif Sharifzadeh, Khalil Ghorbani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Zoning map Vulnerability of Flood Spreading areas
(Case study: Musian Flood spreading station in Ilam province)
One of the flood plain hazards is a change in the pattern of surface flows due to natural factors or human activities. Changes in the stream pattern are the changes that occur due to the surface stream patterns in terms of the shape of the drains, drainage form and quantitative morphological indices of the basin. These changes ,by formation of flood, submersibility, erosion, longitudinal and transverse displacements of rivers and streams, environmental degradation, etc., have a great deal of risk and harm to residents of the land adjacent to the watersheds, including the demolition of residential buildings,  valuable agriculture lands, facilities, river structures, buildings and relation routes, etc. There are several watersheds in the Musian Plain Basin that regularly change the direction of surface streams and, while displacing large volumes of sediments of erosion-sensitive structures, degrades crops, rural dwellings, connection paths, facilities, Irrigation canals obstruction, water supply and a lot of financial and physical damage to the residents of the region. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, in 1997, the Dehloran flood spreading plan was carried out at a level of 5000 hectares from the Basin of Musian Plain. Although some of the changes in the dynamics of the region, such as stream pattern, flood control, supllying groundwater aquifers, etc., have been caused by the implementation of this plan, but the problem of the concentration of watersheds behind the embankments composed of sensitive formations ,and the release of these areas will have many financial and even physical losses. Therefore, with the implementation of this research, it is attempted to identify the domain and risks that threaten the lowlands and to identify the appropriate measures to prevent them from happening with the zoning and inspection of the vulnerable areas of the Musain Plain.
This study was conducted in five stages to prepare a vulnerability map of the flood spreading area of ​​Mosian plain. First, the implementation phases of the flood distribution plan were separated. In the second stage, information layers of effective factors in changing the flow pattern and concentration of surface currents behind the flood spreading structures were prepared. These layers included elevation, slope, and direction classes, which were prepared based on the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extracted from the 1: 50,000 topographic maps of the Armed Forces Geographical Organization, as well as the layers of geological formations and land use changes. The lands were prepared based on the maps of the Geological Survey of Iran and the processing of Landsat satellite images of eight OLI sensors in 2013, respectively, by the method of determining educational samples. In the third stage, each class of effective factors in changing the flow pattern (mentioned layers) was given a score based on the range of zero to 10. The basis of the scores of the classes of each factor was according to the number of classes and the average of the total classes of that factor. The fourth stage in the GIS environment was created by combining the weight layers created, the vulnerability layer of the study area (quantitative map of vulnerability areas) of the basin. Then, by analyzing the vulnerability layer (filtering), the pixels and small units were removed or merged into larger units. The last (fifth) step was to classify the quantitative layer and then extract the qualitative map of the vulnerability zoning according to the range of scores based on the five very low, low, medium, severe and very severe classes. A summary of the research steps is shown in the form of a diagram.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the most important threat and danger factor is the concentration of waterways behind erosion-sensitive embankments. Also, the study area in terms of vulnerability includes three classes with medium risk, high and very high and covers 16, 62 and 22% of the area, respectively. Flood and upland Spreading areas, risk areas and lowland lands are the most vulnerable parts of the basin in terms of floods and sedimentary deposits.
Based on the results obtained by combining the information layersof the factors influencing the stream pattern change, the zoning map of vulnerable areas of the region was created in 5 classes. Except for very few and very small classes that are not present in the region, there are other cases at the basin level:
Medium class:Includes about 16% of the basin. The existing watersheds in this part are ranked 1th class, and some of them are entering the rivers of Dojraj and Chiqab in the eastern and western parts. The formations of this part are often Bakhtyari and limitedly Aghajari. The floors have a height of 100 to 400 meters and the gradient is from 0-2 percent to 20 percent.
Medium class: About 62% of the basin level. The watersheds that flow in this section are in 1to 5 class. The formations of this part are often alluvial and bakhtiari of lahbori sections. It has a height of less than 100 meters to 300 meters and a gradient of 2-0 percent to 20 percent.
very intense: it covers about 22% of the basin's surface. The existing watersheds are of of class 2 and 3. The formations of this part are often alluvial and bakhtiari of lahbori sections. They have height classes of 100 to 300 meters and the gradient is 5-2 percent and is limited to 5 to 10 percent in the slopes.
Keywords: Vulnerability, Aquifer, zoning, Satellite imagery, Environmental hazards, Musian

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