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Showing 5 results for Zanjan

Mehdi Mohammadi Sarin Dizaj, Mohsen Ahadnejad Roshti,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

Iran, due to its geographical location and its human and environmental characteristics including those at risk of natural hazards there. In the area northwestern Iran, Zanjan city in three dangerous fault ,Zanjan in the north, fault Soltanieh in south and Byatlar located in West And based on a hazard map for earthquake country, prepared by the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology as well as Based on Earthquake Resistant Design of Buildings (Regulations 2800) prepared by the Research Center, Department of Housing and Urban Development and Urban Country, the relative risk of high-grade is zone. A major part of the Physical structures of Zanjan in recent decades regardless of the strength and stability of the regulations, such as Regulations 2800 is applied.On the other hand the lack of required data, including geometric and non-geometric data of the infrastructure and buildings in the city Such as the problems that have not been noted. Accordingly, this study examines the relationship between resilience Zanjan city's Against Earthquake And indicators and factors affecting resilience Physical and infrastructure to identify And will evaluate the resiliency Physical and infrastructure in the city of the study.

The results of scientific and experimental studies in the field of natural hazards and the head of the earthquake, in the last few decades shows That the best way to deal with these risks, is be more resilient settlement in different dimensions. Settlements in risk reduction approach, resilient system that can temporarily or permanently absorb risks And with conditions changing rapidly, adapted without losing its function.

In this study, the analysis and evaluation; the region and evaluation criteria include Quality building, types of structures building, Old building, facade building, building density,  particle size distribution and land use compatibility. With the explanation that in the analysis of the dimensions and physical infrastructure and support multi-criteria decision-making methods (model Todim) and produced for the processing of the above mentioned methods, is used Arc GIS software. This study is applied and in terms of methodology, quantitative comparative and analytical. This study from to goal ,applied and in terms of methodology, quantitative- comparative and analytical.

International :::union::: strategy for disaster risk reduction program titled "Strengthening the resilience of nations and communities to disasters" in the Hyogo Framework for 2005 to 2015 plan adopted, The program, in addition to reducing vulnerability of communities in crisis, will tend to increase and improve the resilience of communities.

Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) to motivate more active at the global level in the wake of the International Decade for Disaster Reduction natural framework (2000-1990) and Yokohama Strategy adopted in 1994 and the International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) in 1999, was formed. After the Hyogo Framework period (2015-2005) in order to improve the resilience of nations and communities to disaster, Sendai framework (2030-2015) aimed at the Third World Conference of the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan in dated March 18, 2015 was adopted.

Generally, in this paper, according to the definitions and objectives resilience, resilience include: 1. The destruction and damage that a system can absorb, without being out of equilibrium, 2. The ability of a system to organize and self-renewal in different situations and 3. Create and increasing learning capacity and strengthen the system's ability to cope with the situation.

In this study, the analysis and evaluation; district and Evaluation criteria include the quality, type of structure, building, old building, the facade of the building, building density, particle size distribution and consistent user. With the explanation that in the analysis of the dimensions and physical infrastructure and support multi-criteria decision-making methods (Todim,s model) And for processing materials produced by the above mentioned methods, GIS software ARC GIS, is used. Todim,s technique is one of the techniques used to solve multi-criteria decision making problems. The technique using pairwise comparisons among decision criteria, accidental incompatibilities of this comparisons to remove it. In this study, according to seven criteria affecting the physical dimensions and infrastructure (quality building, building structures, old building, the facade of the building, building density, particle size distribution and consistent user) to assess the resilience of the 24 districts in Zanjan, a matrix of 24 * 7 production was.

After performing calculations according to the formulas described in steps 1 and 2 of this technique, the performance of each supplier to obtain. Finally, according to the formula Step 3 to obtain the minimum and maximum for each criterion to rank the areas according to the values 0 and 1 action. The highest value obtained from the best available option. This study is applied and in terms of methodology, quantitative comparative and analytical.

Our results can be inferred from That regions corresponding to the North and East of Zanjan due to Old low and relatively new texture That neighborhoods Zibashahr, Amirkabir and PayenKoh, Golestan Andishe and Daneshgah alley, Golshahr Kazemieh, poonak, Vahidieh and Ansarieh covered And most have regular access to the local system and network resilience were presented. But the central and southern parts of city, That old and historic neighborhoods such as Hosseinieh and Bazar, Yidde Borogh, Yery mosque and Dbaghlar are included ,Because of Ancient and worn out textur and also Islamabad Neighborhoods, trans and Bisim, Fatmieh as problematic texture, the degree of resilience of poor and very poor were evaluated. Given the discussion above earthquake fault lines that crosses the city from two sides, Strength and high-level security measures should also be implemented in the arteries of infrastructure and structural elements. On the other hand, in the historic old city neighborhoods in the city should strengthen endogenous development based on standard building regulations 2800 and the geographical structure of the region be made available.

Manijeh Ahmadi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

   In the recent years there has been attention on the management of dangerous wastes because of their incremental growth, since ignorance toward this problem will result in numerous environmental, social and economical problems. Finding an optimized place for the urban and rural waste burial, with least environmental danger and economical optimality is one of the main objectives of this paper. In the presented study, the research method and the type of practical research is description-analysis and for data gathering, we used the library and athletic studies. The data analysis has been done by a scoring method (5-0) and the web analysis method which is a multi-objective decision-making method. Since in the ANP method the qualitative and quantitative factors and the correlation of the factors have been taken into account, we used social, economical and environmental factors for evaluation of the waste burial centers and their impacts on the towns and villages of the Zanjan province. The process of evaluation of the optimal waste burial centers is done in some stages including preparation of distance maps, prioritizing from the importance point of view using the geographical information system technologies (GIS), determination of the weights and at last, merging the resulted maps using the ANP method. The research results show that the prioritized regions in the map are based on the waste burial places. Based on this method, the 5th priority in the maps and especially in the final map shows the most suitable place and the 1th priority shows the least value and the 0 priority has no value for the waste burial places.

Manijeh Ahmadi, Mohsen Kalantari, Mostafa Mohammadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Today, various social ills such as addiction, cultural issues and problems have been added to the issues raised in the past and require extensive studies and planning in this area to preserve the small human capital of rural settlements and be used for sustainable rural development. The present study has spatially analyzed the effective factors for drug addiction and abuse. Today, various social ills such as addiction, cultural issues and problems have been added to the issues raised in the past and require extensive studies and planning in this area to preserve the small human capital of rural settlements and be used for sustainable rural development. In recent years, drug abuse has increased worldwide, so that now all countries in the world are incurring significant costs as a result of the damage caused by this phenomenon. Drug abuse has incurred enormous social and economic costs through its devastating effects on human health and the increase in crime and mortality in society, and as a result has become a major threat to societies. There is no specific agreement on the root causes of drug abuse, so that the factors associated with it are numerous and varied, including individual contexts, family characteristics, and social and environmental factors.  The present study has spatially analyzed the effective factors for drug addiction and abuse.

Research Method
The type of research is applied and the nature of the research is descriptive-analytical. Independent variables in this study are physical and demographic factors in the study village. The dependent variable of this study is the situation of addiction and drug abuse in Dizajabad village. The validity of the research indicators was reviewed and modified by the professors and the reliability value was calculated based on Cronbach's alpha of 0.784. The statistical population of the present study is villages at risk of addiction and drug abuse. This village was identified through interviews with law enforcement experts and statistics available in this organization as well as unofficial statistics. The number of these villages includes four villages (Sayan (Mahdieh town), Dizajabad, NoghtehBandi and Choreh Nab) which were selected as a sample village using the lottery method of Dizajabad village. The study population in Dizajabad village includes people who are addicted to drugs and abuse in Dizajabad village, which have been collected through irregular interviews, as well as for comparison and assessment between addicts and other people. The questionnaire was completed in all residential units where people lived and the Cochran's formula was used for accurate sampling.
The baseline map was used to perform the analyzes. Using Cochran's formula, 115 residential units belonging to people with addiction and drug abuse were selected as a sample. In order to analyze descriptive data from Excel software and also for correlation between physical characteristics, population of people with addiction and drug abuse, Spss software and Human Whitney and two-group T tests were used in Arc Gis / Arc map environment. Hot Spot Analysis, kernel density estimation and standard deviation ellipse tests were used.
Interpretation of results
Findings show that the spatial distribution of addiction and drug abuse in Dizajabad village is not evenly distributed and are mostly concentrated in the northwest and southeast, which are in these two areas due to the high density of residential units. . According to the tests of hot spots of addiction and according to the studied items, the two southeastern and northwestern parts of the village have hot spots and the standard deviation ellipse in this map indicates that its direction is northwest, southeast. This direction is influenced by the shape of the village. The pattern of drug distribution in the village also indicates that it is concentrated in two parts, northwest and southeast. The median center indicates that the southern and to some extent the southeastern part are more addicted than the other parts. The reason for the increase in the points of addiction and abuse in the two mentioned parts is the density of the residential unit and the existence of a network of winding and unbalanced passages, especially in the southeastern part. Centers of addiction and drug abuse by kernel density estimation method show that the two parts of the northwest and southeast of the village are more affected by drug addiction and abuse.
Keywords: Spatial distribution, Drugs, Addiction, Suburban villages, Zanjan Township

Leila Ahadi, Hossein Asakereh, Younes Khosravi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Simulation of Zanjan temperature trends based on climate scenarios and artificial neural network method

Severe climate changes (and global warming) in recent years have led to changes in weather patterns and the emergence of climate anomalies in most parts of the world. The process of climate change, especially temperature changes, is one of the most important challenges in the field of earth sciences and environmental sciences. Any change in the temperature characteristics, as one of the important climatic elements of any region, causes a change in the climatic structure of that region. The summary of the investigated experimental models on climate change shows that if the concentration of greenhouse gases increases in the same way, the average temperature of the earth will increase dangerously in the near future. More than 70% of the world's CO2 emissions are attributed to cities. It is expected that with the continuation of the urbanization process, the amount of greenhouse gases will increase. According to the fifth report of the International Panel on Climate Change, the average global temperature has increased by 0.85 degrees Celsius during 1880-2012. Therefore, knowing the temperature changes and trends in environmental planning based on the climate knowledge of each point and region seems essential. For this reason, the present study simulates the daily temperature (minimum, maximum and average) of Zanjan until the year 2100.

Research Methods
The method of conducting the research is descriptive-analytical and the method of collecting data is library (documents). To check the temperature of Zanjan city, the minimum, maximum and average daily temperature data from Hamdeed station of Zanjan city during the period of 1961-2021 were used. The data of general atmospheric circulation model was used to simulate climate variables (minimum, average and maximum temperature) using artificial neural network and climate scenarios in future periods. The output variables in this study are minimum, maximum and average daily temperature. Therefore, three neural network models were selected. For model simulation, model inputs (independent variables) need to be selected from among 26 atmospheric variables. Therefore, two methods of progressive and step-by-step elimination were chosen to determine the inputs of the model. In these methods, climate variables that have the highest correlation with minimum, maximum and average daily temperature were selected. By using RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, variables were simulated until the year 2100. Markov chain model was used to check the possibility of occurrence of extreme temperatures of the simulated values.

According to the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios and the simulation made by the neural network model, it is possible that on average the minimum temperature will be 3.6 degrees Celsius, the average temperature will be 3.3 degrees Celsius and the maximum temperature will be 2.7 degrees Celsius. Celsius will rise. The monthly review of the simulated data for all scenarios and the observed data of the studied variables shows that the average minimum, average and maximum temperatures in January and February, which are the coldest months of the year, will increase the most and become warmer. While the average minimum temperature in August, the average temperature in April and the maximum temperature in October will have the least increase. According to the simulated seasonal temperature table based on all scenarios, it was found that the average minimum, average and maximum temperature observed with the maximum simulated conditions were 6.9, 5.5 and 5.4 respectively in the winter season, and 3.3 in the spring season. 4, 2.3 and 3, in the summer season it increases by 3.3, 3.4 and 1.4 and in the autumn season it increases by 4.6, 4.5 and zero degrees. The frequency of extreme temperatures observed in all three variables of minimum, average and maximum temperature for the 25th and 75th quartiles is less than the number of occurrences of extreme temperatures simulated in all three scenarios. Based on this, all three variables will increase and there will be fewer cold periods. An increase in night temperature and average temperature in winter season and maximum temperature in summer season will occur more than other seasons. The difference between day and night temperature will be less in autumn and summer. Also, all seasons, especially the summer season, will be hotter and the occurrence of extreme temperatures is increasing for the coming years.

Keywords: climate scenarios, simulation, extreme temperatures, artificial neural network, Zanjan

Sediqeh Mozaffari Qarah Bolagh, Brhrooz Mozaffari Qarah Bolagh, Mehdi Cheraghi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

Providing food to achieve food security is considered one of the important goals of development in all countries, reducing food insecurity is considered an important political and social achievement for governments. One of the effects of food insecurity in rural areas is the number of patients and deaths caused by the corona epidemic. In this regard, the current research seeks to answer the following questions: What is the level of food insecurity in the studied villages? And what effect does food insecurity have on the spatial distribution of corona patients and deaths? The type of research is applied and descriptive-analytical in nature. The statistical population of this research is all the villages in the central part of Zanjan city, which were surveyed in full. The method of collecting information is in the form of a library and the method of data analysis is in the form of descriptive statistics and spatial analysis. The findings of the research show that the average food insecurity of the studied villages is equal to 36.08%, the highest level of food insecurity is related to Taham district with 40.76% and the lowest level of food insecurity is related to Mirizat district. In order to analyze the effects of food insecurity on the mortality caused by Corona, geographic weighted regression has been used, based on the results obtained from this spatial analysis tool, the width is equal to 0.172, the remaining squares are equal to 2836, the effective number is equal to 16.86, Sigma is equal to 5.64 and the coefficient of determination, which measures the degree of linear relationship between two variables, has been calculated as equal to 0.72, so it can be said that with the increase in food insecurity, the death rate due to Corona will also increase.

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