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Forogh Momenpour, Nima Faridmojtahedi, Shabnami Hadi Nejad Saboor, Hossien Abed, Samaneh Negah,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)

Mountain systems have an important role on meteorological variations. Different components of the mountain affect the atmospheric parameters and have essential role in atmosphereic circulation. Garmesh wind is one of the most well-known phenomena that are related to mountain systems. In this research, mechanism of garmesh wind are identified using database of garmesh wind  in the last 29 years  and using remote sensing technology from 2005 to 2010.

To survey the Synoptic and dynamic conditions of atmospheric patterns in the Garmesh wind’s events in the region, SCDATA  of several synoptic stations in Gilan province, including Rasht, Bandar Anzali, Astara and Jirandeh  are used which had continuous long-term data in 1982-2010period After Identification of days with Garmesh wind, daily images of Modis sensor of  terra and aqua  satellites in visible band and 7-2-1  band are monitored for checking the cloudiness on the  both  sides (southern and northern slops) of Alborz mountains and  data of Jirande station in southern slop of Alborz mountains are used for detecting atmospheric phenomena like precipitation and snowfall. Also for studying the synoptic and dynamic pattern of this phenomena, reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR were  used.

    In this research, Based on the presence or absence of the atmospheric phenomenon (like rainfall and snowfall), three categories were identified.  In the first category, Garmesh winds were happened in clear sky conditions and without any atmospheric phenomena on both side of mountain’s slope. In the second category, only cloudiness was seen at the time of the Garmesh wind.  In the third category, precipitations (in this research, snowfall) were seen in southern slope of Alborz Mountains.

Statistical analysis of Garmesh wind in central plains of Gilan

Totally, Occurrence of Garmesh wind was 479 days in Rasht, during 1982-2010. The frequency of occurrence of this phenomena was in January, February, November and December and rarely, in September and June.  Clouds that observed in the time of Garmesh wind were: Altocumulus (type 4), Cirrus, CirroCumulus.

Patterns of Garmesh wind mechanisms on western half of Alborz Mountain:

  • B1. Garmesh wind without any phenomena

    This category includes11 cases of total 47 studied cases. 29 January 2008 is an example of clear sky condition in the time of Garmesh wind. In this pattern, in the surface zonal extension of   Mediterranean dynamical low pressure’s contours from west of Caspian to Gilan plain and at the same time formation of cold high pressure cell on Zagros mountains caused strong pressure gradient   on southern coastal zone of Caspian Sea, As it led to the the increase of wind velocity in Rasht airport synoptic station from 11 kilometer per hour in 00 UTC to 36 kilometer per hour in 12 UTC. Dominance of warm core on southern Caspian versus dominance of cold surface air on Iran Plateau indicates adiabatic warming in northern slope of Alborz Mountains.

  • B2. Garmesh wind with cloudiness

   This category includes 34 cases of total 47 studied cases.  Free of air mass’s patterns in the surface and conditions of atmospheric flows in low-troposphere that are similar to previous category, transition of height trough in mid-troposphere and high-troposphere  can be name variant component verses previous category.

  • B3. Garmesh wind and precipitation (snowfall)

   This category includes 2 cases of total 47 studied cases. At the same time, surface high pressure was on Iran Plateau and low pressure system was on Caspian Sea and also Gilan providence that caused the formation of Northerly stream and west-east stream to southern coastal zone of Caspian Sea and backward of Alborz Mountains like other patterns, snowfall occurred on southern slope of Alborz Mountains. Strong southern and south-western stream and strong positive vorticity   on southern slope of Alborz Mountains by deep height trough in low-troposphere has an important role on intensification of vertical motions on lee ward of Alborz Mountains.

    Garmesh wind is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs as a result of interaction between atmospheric systems in synoptic scale and topography on back ward of mountain. In the other words, existence of Alborz Mountain’s as a great wall has an important role in the interaction between synoptic systems and formation of Garmesh wind.

    Formation of Garmesh wind phenomena in Gilan province, is affected by extension of Siberian high pressure’s counters and sub-tropical high pressure on central of Iran Plateau and also existence of advection of pressure’s counter  like sub-polar  low pressure and or the Mediterranean Sea on north of Alborz mountains are required. Without any notification to origin of air masses, three categories has been observed based on existence or absence of Phenomena (in this research, sowfall)

    In 700 and 500 hPa, Geopotential height patterns and relative vorticity field indicate that in the first category, wide parts of Iran is affected by high height and negative vortisity like low troposphere,  during peak hours the wind. But in the second and third category (specially in third category ) existence of upper trough and  easterly extension of trough caused to reduction of height and formation of strong positive vorticity in upper level and all over of air column  in  both south and north slopes of Alborz mountains.

Ali Bayat, Mohammad Saligheh, Mehri Akbari,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Cyclones as the most important factor in the turbulence of mid-latitude regions are low pressure centers that have one or more closed Isobaric curves. Mid-latitude cyclones are responsible for transfer of the heat and moisture between the tropics and the polar regions. Mediterranean cyclones have the most important role in Iran's rainfalls and get from different tracks to the country and affect Northwest, West and South West of Iran in the cold period of the year. Cyclones are the prevailing weather phenomenon in Mid-latitude region and studying the characteristics and effects of these phenomena has always been of interest to climatologists and meteorologists. Iran which is located in mid-latitude region, actually is located in the path of one of the world's largest cyclone formation and the Mediterranean Sea has a main impact on the rainfall occurrence in Iran. Regarding the importance of cyclones in rainfall occurrence in Iran, especially in cold season, studying this atmospheric event seems very necessary.
The aim of this study, is to identify, tracking and analysis of the winter season (December, January and February or DJF) rain producing cyclones using special database and algorithm during three recently decades (1979-2009). 
In this study, in order to specify, tracking and statistical analysis of the DJF rain producing cyclones, relative Vorticity of 700 hPa were received from ECMWF data center  with AWT IMAGE spatial resolution  and temporal resolutions of 6-hourly for a 30 years period (1979-2009). The study domain includes Mediterranean and Middle East, from AWT IMAGE E to AWT IMAGE E and AWT IMAGE N to AWT IMAGE N.
Cyclone identification will follow the approach presented in Blender et al. (1997) and Flaounas et al. (2014), including two important points and conditions: 1- A cyclone is considered to be a relative Vorticity extrema, thus the aim will be to look for the maximum value of relative Vorticity at the 700 hPa level in a box of AWT IMAGE grid points. 2. For the intensity of the cyclone, the threshold of relative Vorticity, is considered equal or greater than AWT IMAGE. Then by 6-hour tracking the maximum amount  points of Vorticity  and connecting them to each other, identification and routing of cyclone is implemented. The track AWT IMAGE can be written as AWT IMAGE, where AWT IMAGE describes the cyclone position in sequential time steps t = 0, … , T, which are given at 00, 06, 12 and 18 GMT. The initial position is considered the first detected maximum of relative Vorticity. During the cyclone detection and tracking method, different threshold values are commonly applied to eliminate, for instance, the weakest centers and short living systems. For this reason, the threshold of equal or greater than 8 time steps (3 days and more) is considered based on Alijani (1366) to eliminate short living cyclones.
In this study, climatology of cyclones such as genesis and lysis centers, tracks and frequencies in the Mediterranean Basin and Middle East were analyzed. The results showed that, center and eastern part of the Mediterranean region include Aegean Sea, Cyprus, and northern borders of Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea and also Red Sea, Sudan and Iraq, are most important cyclogenesis centers in winter season.
These cyclones which form in these cyclogenesis centers, move to the east with two eastward and northeastward distinguished directions. In northwest of Iran, the cyclones by passing over West and East Azerbaijan and Ardebil provinces in eastward and northeastward directions, move into western and southern shores of Caspian Sea. In southwest of the country, the cyclones are entered into Iran over Khozestan, Chaharmahal and Kohkilouyeh provinces. Part the cyclones are moved into center and northeast of the country with northeastward direction and other part by crossing over southern shores of the country move to the southeast of the country. In mid-west of the country, the cyclones are arrived into Iran in three different tracks. The most important path is Kordestan's path which the cyclones in the origin of Mediterranean are entered eastward into Iran by crossing over Zanjan and Hamadan provinces, under the Alborz ranges are moved into east and northeast of the country. Two other paths are observed in Ilam and Kermanshah Provinces which in these tracks also the cyclones are approximately moved eastward into center and northeast of the country. The results also showed that eastern part of the Mediterranean region specially Cyprus, Aegean sea, Adriatic sea, Red sea and Sudan and also Iraq are most important wintertime cyclogenesis centers of Iran. The main entrance paths of the cyclones includes northwest, mid- west and southwest. The averages cyclones lifetime are 4.5 days, movement speed is about 20 km/h and also travelling length is about 1700 km. Of the other notable results we can refer to decreasing of the rain producing cyclones during 3 last decades. 

Yousef Ghavidel, , ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Climatic geography of Tropical Cyclone hazards Affective on the southern coasts of Iran
The occurrence of any climatic fringes, including annual tropical storms, leave irreparable risks in its dominated areas. Understanding these events and knowledge of the time of their occurrence can be helpful in managing the unexpected incidents caused by them. Tropical cyclones are important natural turbulent processes in tropical and middle ecosystems in a number of regions of the world. Among the dynamic conditions of the atmosphere for the formation of tropical storms, there are three basic conditions: 1. The vertical wind shear should be limited between the 850 to 200 mb and the wind speed between these levels should be less than 10 meters per second. Such a situation allows the formation of a straight column, without breaking, to initiate tropical storms. 2- The formation state of tropical storms should be such that at least it is five degrees of latitude distant from the equator. Such conditions provide the minimum of Coriolis force to provide the tropical cyclic rotation along with other fundamental and apparent forces of the atmosphere and they occur following the pressure forces, Coriolis and centrifugal forces, cyclostrophic winds, and cyclic circulation in the center of the low pressure. 3- The presence of turbulence or discordance with vorticity and the convergence in the lower troposphere, or the anticyclone rotation and divergence in the upper levels of the atmosphere before the onset of activity, and the formation of tidal disturbances. Tropical storms are created by the presence of various dynamic and thermodynamic factors such as sea surface temperature and moisture content (thermodynamic properties), and flow and vertical winding functions (dynamic characteristics).
The parameters studied in this study for the dynamic and thermodynamic analysis of the tropical rotation of 1948 generally included the mean sea level pressure, geopotential heights, zonal and meridional components of wind, convection available potential energy, convective stabilization index, vertical velocity, relative vorticity, Sea surface temperature, humidity, and cloud cover levels which are drawn from the European Center for Medium Forecast Scale (ECMWF) with spatial resolution of 0.75 applying GRADS software. The study of combinational maps of 500 milligrams of geopotential heights and vorticity advection on the first day of the cyclone (1948/06/05) indicates the presence of a very strong low-altitude center with seven closed curves on the Arabian Sea. The most inner curve of this low-altitude center has the lowest elevation with 5650 geopotential meters height and the maximum vorticity advection and downright negative velocity of 10 and 0.5 Pascal to seconds, respectively. The above-mentioned Jetstream map with a maximum speed of 16 m / s, which covers the east of the center of the altitude, contributes to the greater divergence of this system. The formation of a very strong negative eddy in the 500-mb equilibrium also indicates intense instability at the site of the tropical cyclone and is actually a factor in the formation and reinforcement of such cyclones .The above-mentioned low altitude continues its cyclonic rotation at the level of 850 mb with two closed curves, and the maximum vorticity advection and downright negative velocity of 16 and 0.6 Pascal to second, respectively, due to the presence of lower level radar with a maximum speed of 20 m / s on the south side and similarly, in the south-east, it continued to circulate more rapidly at a rate higher than 500 mb, which results in the formation of the first pressure packet with a central
pressure of 997.5 mb on the sea surface. The high amount of specific humidity of 850 mb from the start of cyclone activity (12 g / kg), and the increase in this parameter in the next days of activity reaches 14 g / kg and also 4.5 g / kg at 500 millimeter equilibrium point to the high humidity at the location of the low-pressure center and the optimum conditions for the extraction of heavy rainfall in the eye wall of cyclone. Cloud cover maps also indicate a climber air density of up to 500 mb and the formation of a cloud at different levels of the atmosphere at the site of the formation of tropical rotation. The results show that the formation of the lower Jetstream, along with the tropical cyclone event (from 05 to 08 of 1948) affecting the southern coast of Iran, has been able to create severe air mass divergences in the left half of the nucleus and following this mechanism and the relationship between this velocity nucleus and the lower levels of the atmosphere and the sea level in the vertical direction, with the convergence of the mass, has been accompanied with the reduction of density and, finally, the reduction of pressure and the formation of turbulence, as the first ring for the development of tropical cyclones; therefore, the altitude of 850 mb and jet stream located at this elevation affected by the high-rise phenomenon on the western shores of the ocean (sometimes in the east of Madagascar) is considered as one of the most effective dynamic factors for the birth and development of this tropical cyclone on the southern coast of Iran. The tropical cyclone was formed from June 5 to June 8, 1948, at approximately 16 degrees north and 60 degrees east on the Arabian Sea. And, in general, the interaction between high pressure tongues on Saudi Arabia, Tibet and Iran, and the tropical cyclones has prepared the conditions for the activity and displacement of the tropical rotation. Previous studies of tropical storms have considered other synthetic systems, such as cyclones over Europe, and the integration of cyclones on the Mediterranean and Oman, as well as the displacement of the axis of tropical cyclones at middle and upper levels of the atmosphere affective in the escalation and displacement of the storm. It is also believed that the southern coast of Iran is also effective, and in general, less attention is paid to the causes of the development of the storm.
Key words:Tropical Cyclone, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis, low level jet stream, Thermodynamic parameters, Southern coast of Iran

Kamal Omidvar, Mehdi Mahmodabadi, Parisa Shams, Mahbobeh Amiri Esfandegheh,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

Due to the fact that the mechanism of anticyclone Movements is the desire to descend and suppress the air, so the effect of these movements and their location in the occurrence of flood falls is significant. For this purpose, in this paper, flood precipitation in the last two decades of Kerman province was studied and two of the most severe ones were selected. Due to the emphasis of this paper on the province of Kerman, the heavy rainfall was calculated for each station in the province using the Gumble Type 1 Distribution Statistical Index. Then, the thermodynamic properties of the precipitation were analyzed using radial data and Kerman station's sketch diagram. For analysis of these floods, daily rainfall data of the synoptic station 10 of the province and sea surface pressure maps and850,500,300 hectopascal levels were used. Then, the arrangement of the simulated pattern and its trend in the air maps, were studied during a selective period daily3. The results of the study indicate that the main cause of flood precipitation in the study area is to strengthen the eastern Mediterranean landfall in the middle troposphere, so when moved downward to the bottom of the polar system, it is transmitted to lower latitudes As a result, Western systems, with their movements on the southern warm waters, have a high moisture content and cause heavy rainfall in the region. Also noteworthy in the occurrence of precipitation is the presence of intense swinging movements on the southern waters, especially the Oman Sea, which causes more humidity to be injected into the interior areas of the country and provides the conditions necessary for the occurrence of such rainfall.
Ghasem Keikhosravi, , ,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

This study was conducted to investigate the foehn mechanism in the Alborz Mountains.For this purpose, daily temperature, mean and maximum daily temperature, minimum, mean and maximum daily relative humidity, hourly wind direction and velocity data were collected and prepared at 8 selected stations over a 10-year statistical period (2006-2010). To derive the sum of frequency of occurrence of foehn, hot days are extracted using Baldy index and taking into account wind direction relative to station position and temperature rise compared to previous days were identified as days associated with foehn. Then, using NCEP / NCAR database data, different atmospheric alignment maps were obtained for the selected samples and plotted in Grads software environment. Then the position of high pressure cores and adjacent low pressures on the maps were determined. Results showed that Masouleh station with 41 days frequency and Astara and Bandar Anzali station with 18 days had the highest and lowest occurrence of foehn. Investigations on the synoptic maps of 35 foehn events showed that a total of three groups of Anti-cyclone or high-pressure centers were affected by the synoptic pattern of the region in the days involved. The first group is the Siberian High Pressure Tabs, whose cores are located in the confines of Lake Baikal, Balchash and northern Pakistan, depending on the season and synoptic conditions. The low pressure cores are located on the Caspian Sea and the pressure difference between the high pressure tab of the Alborz Outer Slopes and the Caspian Sea causes a compressive stress. In this model, Cyclone currents with increasing moisture of the Caspian Sea on the western slopes of Alborz Heights cause precipitation and warm flow due to warming under windward slopes. The second group is the anticyclone of Saudi Arabia, in which specimens with spin cores are deployed on southwestern Iran. As the north side of the Arabian High Pressure extends northwest of Iran and the presence of low polar pressure in the Caspian region with intensified compressive flow causes currents southwest along the perpendicular heights. Western anticyclone currents in the Arabian Sea circulate the moisture of the southern warm seas to northwestern Iran. The third group is a combination of African anticyclones, immigrants, Siberian highs and its tabs that create a thermal and compressive style over the study area and west of the Alborz Mountains. And provide the basis for the formation of the foehn phenomenon.

Roya Poorkarim, Hossein Asakereh, Abdollah Faraji, Mahmood Khosravi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)

In the present study, the data of the ECMWF for a period of 1979 to 2018 was adopted to analyze the long term changes (trends) of the number of cyclones centers of the Mediterranean Sea.There are many methods (e.g. parametric and non- parametric)  for examining changes and trends in a given dataset. The linear regression method is of parametric category and the most common nonparametric method is Mann-Kendall test. By fitting the Mann-kendall model and the linear regression model, the frequency of the cyclone centers of the Mediterranean basin was evaluated in seasonal and annual time scales. Analyzing the trend of changes of the number of cyclone centers on a seasonal scale showed that the five-day duration have had a significant trend in spring, autumn and summer. Whilest on an annual scale, there was no significant trend in any of the duration. By fitting the regression model on seasonal and annual scale, one- and two-day duration have a positive regression line slop.
Dr. Mostafa Karimi, Norouzi Fahimeh, Dr. Mahnaz Jafari, Dr. Khoshakhlagh Faramarz, Dr. Shamsipour Aliakbar,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Vulnerability assessment of Miangaran wetland ecosystem

To support the proper management of ecosystems, vulnerability analysis of ecosystems is very important. Vulnerability analysis of ecosystems provides information about weaknesses and capacity of the studied ecosystem for recovery after damage. Considering the degradation status of Miangaran wetland, vulnerability evaluation of this wetland is one of the most important management methods in the region. For this purpose, in this study, after identifying and evaluating the threatening factors of Miangaran wetland, these factors were scored using evaluation matrices. Then, the interaction between these values ​​and threatening factors was examined and the vulnerability of wetland values ​​was obtained by multiplying the scores of all studied factors. Finally, management solutions were presented to deal with the most important threatening factors. According to the results, the most vulnerability is to the hydrological and ecological values ​​of the wetland. The highest effects of threats on the ecological value are also on the birds of Miangaran wetland. The results of the evaluation of Miangaran Wetland show that this wetland has a high potential for ecosystem functions of the wetland. These functions have been neglected in the planning and managing of wetlands at the local, regional and national levels. As a result, ecosystem-based management is suggested as the best management approach. The management in these areas should take action to prevent the vulnerability of Miangaran wetland. Also, the vulnerability evaluation method used in this study can provide a good understanding of the relationship between wetland functions and the resulting services for the management of the ecosystem of Miangaran Wetland.
Key words: Miangaran wetland, ecosystem management, vulnerability assessment

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