Search published articles

Showing 3 results for Frequency

Dr Mozhgan Entezari, Mrs Tahere Jalilian, Mr Javad Darvishi Khatooni,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-2020)

Flood susceptibility mapping using frequency ratio and weight of evidence technique: a case study of Kermanshah Province
Flood is considered as one of the most destructive natural disasters worldwide, because of claiming a large number of lives and incurring extensive damage to the property, disrupting social fabric, paralyzing transportation systems, and threatening natural ecosystems. Flood is one of the most devastating natural disasters causing massive damages to natural and man-made features Flood is a major threet to human life (injure or death of man and animal life), properties (agricultural area, yield production, building and homes) and infrastructures (bridges, roads, railways, urban infrastructures). The damage thet can occur due to such disaster leads to huge economic loss and bring pathogens into urban environments thet causes microbial development and diseases Therefore, the assessment and regionalization of flood disaster risks are becoming increasingly important and urgent. Although it is a very difficult task to prevent floods, we can predict and compensate for the disaster. To predict the probability of a flood, an essential step is to map flood susceptibility.
The methodology of the current research is includes the following steps:
Flood inventory mapping;
Determination of flood-conditioning factors;
Modeling flood susceptibility and its validations.
 Et first , 146 flood locations were identified in the study area. Of these, 102 (70%) points were randomly selected as training data and the remaining 44 points (30%) cases were used for the validation purposes. In the next step 1 flood-conditioning factors were prepared including geology, landuse , distance from river , soil , slope angle, plan curvature, topographic wetness index, Drainage density elevation, rainfall. Then, the probability of the flood occurring for each class of parameters was calculated. Et the end, the obtained weights for each class in the Geographical Information System (GIS) were applied to the corresponding layer and flood risk map of th studied region was prepared. Subsequently, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for produced flood susceptibility maps.
To determine the level of correlation between flood locations and conditioning factors, the FR
method was used. The results of spatial relationship between the flood location and the conditioning factors using FR model is shown in Table 2. In general, the FR value of 1 indicates
an average correlation between flood locations and effective factors. If the FR value would be larger than 1, there is a high correlation, and a lower correlation equals to the FR value lower than 1.
The analysis of FR for the relationship between flood location and lithology units indicates thet Cenozoic group has the highest FR value. In the case of land-use, it can be seen thet the residential areas and agriculture land-use have values. One of the most important factors affecting the flood is distance from the river. The results showed thet the class of >500 m FR was the most effective one. The analysis of FR for the relationship between flood location and slope angle indicate thet class 0-6. 1 has the highest FR value. In the case of slope aspect, flood event is most abundant on flet and East facing slopes According to the analysis of FR for the relationship between flood location and plan curvature, flet shape has the highest FR value., A flet shape retains surface run-off for a longer period especially during heavy rainfall . Flood locations are concentrated in areas with a TWI >6. 8 drainage density > 4. 6 km/km2 and altitude classes of 1200 m. In the soil layer, the tallest weight is from the earth with a small transformation of gravel. Finally, the maximum weight is the maximum rainfall.
In this study, all parameters of WofE model were calculated for each conditioning factor. In the lithology unit, the Cenozoic class has the highest flood susceptibility. Among the different land-use types, agriculture categories had the highest values . The distance from the river from 0 to 1000 m indicated positive influence in flooding, while the areas more than 1000 m or far from the river represented the negative correlation with flood occurrence. In the soil layer, clayey soil and tuberous soil had the highest weight. The analysis of WofE for the relationship between flood occurrence and slope angle indicated thet slope angle from 0 to 6. 21 had positive influences in flooding. In the case of slope aspect and plan curvature, flet area had a strong positive correlation with flood occurrence. Effectiveness increases wit increasing TWI classes. The results of drainage density indicate thet areas with higher drainage densities are more susceptible to flood occurrence. By increasing the height of the flooding reduced sensitivity classes. byn flooding rainfall and flood events increased with increasing rainfall.
The prediction accuracy and quality of the development model were examined using the area under the curve (AUC). Specifically, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to examine the basis of the assessment is true and false positive rates . So the results showed thet based on the area under the curve, the FR and WofE models show similar results and can be used as a simple tool for verifying the map prepared for flood sensitivity and reducing its future risks.
Floods are the most damaging catastrophic phenomena in the worldwide. Therefore, flood susceptibility mapping is necessary for integrated watershed management in order to have sustainable development. In this study, flood susceptibility zones have been identified using FR and WofE methods. Et first step, a flood inventory map containing 146 flood locations was prepared in the kermanshah Province using documentary sources of Iranian Water Resources Department and field surveys. Then, eleven data layers (lithology, landuse, distance from rivers, soil texture, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature, topographic wetness index, drainage density, and altitude) were derived from the spatial database. Using the mentioned conditioning factors, flood susceptibility maps were produced from map index calculated using FR and WofE models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. Finally, the AUC-ROC curves using validation dataset were prepared for the two models to test their accuracy. For this reason, of 146 identified flood locations, 102 (70%) cases were used as training data and the remaining 44(30%) was used for validation. The validation of results indicated thet the FR and WofE models had almost similar and reasonable results in the study area. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches in this study were concluded as objective and applicable. The scientific information derived from the present study can assist governments, planners, and engineers to perform proper actions in order to prevent and mitigate the flood occurrence in the future.
Key words: Flood susceptibility mapping, validation, method of frequency, weight of evidence, GIS- Kermanshah
Dr Sayyad Asghari, Hasan Mozafari,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (2-2020)

Evaluating and comparing the performance of Frequency ratio coefficient models and network analysis in Rock fall zoning
(A case study of Zanjan-Taham-Tarom Road)

Extended Abstract
One of the natural hazards of the collapse of rocks from the foothills of the mountains, causing great financial losses and loss of life. Especially when it comes to the path of communication. The rock fall is a rapid movement of a mass without cohesion in the powder or a mixture of soil and rock, so that the initial construction is not discernible, the level that occurs along that rupture it is often unclear. The falling stones of a mountain depend on several factors, which have the natural origin or origin of human origin. Natural factors influencing the fall can be rock factors, slopes and altitudes, geological structure, fault and slope of the geological layers, rainfall and temperature changes distance from the river, etc. human factors can also be referred to as road, land use and mining, destruction of vegetation, etc. in Iran, the collapse of rock parts on mountain roads causes massive loss of life and financial damage. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and classify the roads in terms of risk of suitable methods. In the north west of Iran it has mountainous topography and due to the state of tectonic and its seismic and climatic conditions, suitable conditions for landslide are provided in some domains. So, due to the fact that the area studied in the mountainous north - west region and the possession of all the crumbling conditions are very prone to collapse.
The research method is applicable in terms of practical purpose and the process of doing work on a combination of library and field methods. In this study, it has been used to determine the prone areas of collapse and zoning of anp models and frequency ratio. Two models that differ in terms of process and mechanism. In order to organize the research framework, first, a field study of the study area has been studied and the mathematical position of falling points is recorded with gps. Then, in order to model the mentioned models, the layers of GIs for the shape of the Georeferenced and digital were prepared. to provide the zoning layers of geology , slope and Aspect , elevation levels , land use and vegetation , fault , and land cover maps , annual temperature and precipitation , distance from the road , distance from the stream were used . The 20 m x 20 m contour line were originally prepared using the topography map of 1: 25,000 in the ArcGIS environment. Then, the contour line and Dem of the area were constructed. The slope and Aspect maps, elevation levels, Isothermal and isohyet map frost and stream network were created via Dem and meteorological data. Geological map and fault map were created using digital map 1: 100,000 Zanjan and map and vegetation map and road distance using Landsat 8 - 2017 OLI and ArcGIS images. To produce linear layers, the Distance function was used.
Using the statistical method, the frequency ratio and the network analysis method are using the landslide hazard zonation using the statistical method, the frequency ratio and analysis of network analysis to zoning the risk of falling by combination and sum of maps in class were low-risk to very high. From the tangible results of this study, the relationship between slope maps, elevation levels, rock material, Isothermal and isohyet is done. So that each side of the road had operated on the five factors that had happened. With regard to the output of the maps, the risk zones were high to very high for ANP models 14/17, 35/27 and FR 02/6, 35/14 percent. Ranges from high to very high with slopes between 40 and 80 percent and Sedimentary formations such as sandstone, siltstone with tuff layers, elevation levels 1,500 – 2300, Southern and Eastern slopes, Distance between 0 and 500 faults, Road and stream have adaptations . The changes in the percentage of area in both models show despite the difference in the size of the risk zones, Follow a similar process. To assess the zoning accuracy of these methods, two sets of quality and accuracy index (experimental probability) were used. The evaluation of the models showed that in the network analysis model, the indexes were 0.76 and 0.88, respectively, that the relation of frequency ratio coefficient model had optimal quality and accuracy.
In this research, various factors influencing the occurrence of rock falls on Zanjan-Taham-Tarom road were investigated. From there, mass movements such as rock fall on the roads act as a system, as a result, all factors play a role in the occurrence of such phenomena. But some elements have a more vibrant role. In the studied area, among the factors affecting lithology, slop, elevation levels, precipitation, temperature changes, number of freezing days and distance from the road and land use are more than other factors in the occurrence of rock fall. Assessing the quality and accuracy of zoning maps while confirming zoning accuracy showed that the network analysis method has better performance. The risk of collapse on Zanjan – taham- tarom road is always exists. Therefore, we need to use sustainable methods to reduce the risks. Domain stabilization methods are generally done in the form of mechanical, biological and bio-mechanical which, according to the long course of the road and the duration of the road, Mechanical methods such as unloading , embankment , drainage , use of separation walls as well as the use of  net Grid are suggested .
Keywords: Frequency ratio, Network analysis, Zanjan Road - Taham - Tarom

Popak Dananiyani, Ehsan Soureh, Bakhtiyar Mohammamdi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Thunderstorms are one of the atmospheric phenomena; when they occur, strong winds are often reported along with heavy rains and lightning. In many cases, their occurrence is accompanied by a lot of financial and human losses. This research was carried out to investigate the Spatio-Temporal of thunderstorms and understand their trends in Iran. For this purpose, the monthly data of the number of days of thunderstorms in 201 Synoptic stations in Iran from the beginning of establishment to 2010 were used. First, the frequency of monthly and annual occurrence of thunderstorms at Synoptic stations in Iran was calculated. Also, the trend of thunderstorms was investigated based on the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the amount of decrease or increase of this phenomenon was determined with the help of the Sen’s slope estimator test. The results of this research showed that thunderstorms occur in all areas of Iran. However, the frequency of this phenomenon is more in the North-West, South-West, and South-East of Iran than in other parts. In terms of time, in every month of the year, part(s) of Iran is the center of the maximum occurrence of thunderstorms. For example, in the winter of southwest, south, and southeast of Iran, in the early spring of west and northwest of Iran, and the late spring of the southeast of the country, the main focus of this phenomenon has been. In the summer, northwest to the northeast of Iran and southeast and south of Fars province are the main centers of thunderstorm formation. At the beginning of the autumn season, the coasts of the Caspian Sea to the north of the Persian Gulf and towards the northwest of Iran, and in November and December, the southwest and west of Iran were the main places of occurrence of this weather phenomenon. Other results of this research showed that the trend of thunderstorms was not similar in Iran. This phenomenon showed a significant increasing trend (more than 1 day per year) at the 99% confidence level in the northwest, southwest, and southern half of Kerman province. Also, a significant decrease (0.7 days per year) was estimated in the southeast and a large part of central Iran. In other parts of Iran, a decrease or increase in thunderstorms has been observed in a scattered manner, although the amount was not significant at the 99%, 95%, and 90% confidence levels.

Page 1 from 1     

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental hazarts

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb