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Manuchehr Farajzadeh, Yosef Ghavidel Rahimi, Mehdi Ardeshirikalhor,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Ultra violet radiation has some useful effects and some harmful effects on human health an d create many diseases. Nowadays not only declined but the usefulness of the therapeutic effects of the Sun in the treatment of diseases such as rickets, psoriasis and eczema have been proved. But prolonged exposure to radiation of the Sun is not always beneficial and may cause acute and chronic effects on the health of the skin, eyes and immune system. Ultraviolet radiation of the Sun is one of the most destructive waves for life on Earth. So Ultraviolet radiation index and predict its rate (1 to +11) as well as the analysis of this indicator will help people to protect themselves against the Sun

    Ozone station , global ozone measurement stations and only stratosphere in Isfahan, Iran, which is in the South and in the Northern geographical position latitude 32' 31 and 70 ' 51 is located over the East. The altitude of this station from sea is 1550 m. Also atmospheric parameters in this station which are measured daily include temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction and in the upper levels of the atmosphere at 12 GMT with the help of Joe's high temp radio instrument.

    The first step to do this research was gathering of climatic data and the statistical and quantitative analysis in order to study on the subject. Ultraviolet radiation data on the same basis of assessment, ozone station during the period January 2001-December 2010 has been collected. The second batch of data information gathered from meteorological station of Isfahan climatic elements from 2001 to 2010. This data is based on monthly averages for analysis of solar UV radiations from meteorological solidarity with the country.

Adjust the time series at the first step in the study and analysis of the data was done in order to equal intervals in these regular categories and methods of statistical analysis was carried out on them and the overall process of UV changes in the form of daily, monthly, quarterly and annually. Also part of the analysis that was carried out on the data, check how the sequence or they had over time; this way specify whether data periodically changes or trends have been or not. Once the data is based on the time of occurrence, sort and arrange the time series on them.

Annually analysis of UV index showed the general variation is a common feature of studied years but in the spring season have high variation in compared with other season. The main reason of this variation may be related to sunlight angle that can be showed atmosphere effect on received radiation. Descriptive statistic result indicated that the highest mean of UV index is 6.52 and minimum were 4.8 that have very high variations and may be it has different harmful effects. Also seasonal analysis showed highest UV index created in hot summer related to highest temperature in this season. The computational modeling of UV index against years in different season indicates there do not exist a linear relation between two factors. The correlation analysis of UV index and some climatic factors showed there are a significant relation between temperature  with 0.8570 coefficient that  can be said in relation to increase of temperature, UV rate increased and vice versa and with cloud cover correlation coefficient is  -0.393 that have significant negative relation.

    Results showed that the peak time period are output in the first half and the second half of the year, landing in the specified time series. As well as through a linear fit to all charts, increase or decrease of the radiation, changes the trend in recent years, showed that based on the ultraviolet radiation changes the average increase in the spring and summer and fall and winter shows a decline. Also according to the ultraviolet radiation in daily statistics review ozone assessment station in the studied period (2001-2011) maximum amounts of ultraviolet radiation index, (11.5) observed in the middle of the summer and the minimum amounts of radiation index (0.5) observed in mid-winter.

Mr. Rasol Bagherabadi, Dr. Mazaher Moeinaddini,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2022)

Clean air is a necessity for human well-being and health. Air pollution is a major threat to humans and other organisms and is considered as one of the environmental challenges. Today, with the increase in air pollution, the need to know more about the causes of its occurrence has been raised. The various consequences of air pollution have made air quality monitoring and control inevitable in all societies at the forefront of environmental issues. In recent years, air pollutants have caused serious risks to human health and the environment. One of these pollutants Tropospheric ozone is the cause of health and environmental problems, especially respiratory problems and lung dysfunction and asthma attacks. Other effects of tropospheric ozone can be reduced lung capacity, cough, chest pain, sore throat, condition Nausea, damage to plants (growth disorders and the effect on germination) and reduced tire life, hence, it is necessary to know and study the tropospheric ozone in large and industrial cities. Tropospheric ozone is a pollutant because it plays an effective role in converting primary pollutants into secondary pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the trend of changes in tropospheric ozone concentration with meteorological parameters, ozone precursors (nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides). In this study, data from Kermanshah synoptic station and air quality station of Kermanshah General Department of Environmental Protection (Ziba Park station) in a long-term period of 10 years (2007-2016) have been used. Also, in this study using sensor images The OMI satellite Aura was surveyed in February and July 2016. Tropospheric ozone is known as a pollutant in Kermanshah. Therefore, no systematic studies have been conducted on the recognition of tropospheric ozone and the relationship between tropospheric ozone and meteorological parameters in Kermanshah over a long period of time. Tropospheric ozone and its relationship with changes in nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide and synoptic parameters in Kermanshah were studied and the correlation between tropospheric ozone concentration and meteorological parameters was studied by Pearson test and the relationship between them was studied by linear regression. Based on the results. The maximum concentration of ozone occurs in the afternoon between 14:00 and 17:00 and the maximum amounts of nitrogen oxides occur at night and in the early morning of the year. Also, the study of seasonal changes in ozone concentration showed that in warm seasons due to the conditions of tropospheric ozone formation, including the intensity of sunlight, temperature and time of radiation and the presence of pollutants including nitrogen oxides, the concentration of tropospheric ozone was much higher. Ozone concentrations are highest in June, July, August, and spring and summer. The results also showed that there is a direct relationship between solar radiation and ozone concentration. Simultaneously with increasing solar radiation, it increases the air temperature, which increases the photochemical activity and thus increases the ozone concentration. This can be seen in the warm months of the year (June, July and August). Wind speed is also directly related to the concentration of tropospheric ozone. As the wind speed increases, the reactants mix faster and the tropospheric ozone concentration increases. However, precipitation is inversely related to the concentration of tropospheric ozone, which decreases with the occurrence of precipitation in the months associated with the onset of precipitation, and in the dry months of the year, the concentration is increasing. Therefore, meteorological factors and parameters play an important role in tropospheric ozone changes. Which can be seen by linear regression and Pearson test. The results of the study of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides showed that the highest concentration of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides during the day is the opposite of the concentration of tropospheric ozone and the lowest concentration of ozone occurs in summer due to increased solar radiation, increased oxidation of di Nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides, and as a result increase the concentration of tropospheric ozone, in autumn and winter, this amount has an increasing trend. Therefore, the trend of changes in tropospheric ozone concentration is the opposite of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which can be seen in the daily, monthly and seasonal sections, which linear regression and Pearson test show this important and OMI sensor images confirm this fact. In conclusion of this study, all parameters related to the concentration of pollutants along with meteorological parameters have been effective factors in the concentration of tropospheric ozone.
Keywords: air pollution, meteorological parameters, ozone tropospheric, NO2, NOX

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