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Mohammad Ali Saghafi, Abbas Ali Aliakbari Bidokhti,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (4-2014)
Abstract

Nowadays air pollution in large cities such as Tehran have dramatic effects on public health, hence study of the way air pollutions varies with meteorological parameters appears to be important. One important aspect of sustainability of large cities such as Tehran, is controlling the emissions of pollutants as the meteorological (climatic) conditions are becoming more acute in terms of air pollution and temperature rise. In this paper some recent records of near surface meteorological parameters as well as some pollutants records are examine to observe how they change daily, monthly and annually and how they are correlated. Considering the variations of winds and temperature (extracted from a 2D sonic anemometer at 10 m at the Institute of Geophysics, Tehran University in the northern part of central Tehran, with one minute intervals) and hurly data of CO and PM10 concentrations for the same station for 2007, their relations were investigated. Also using upper air meteorological data (at 00.00 and 12.00 UTC) from Mehrabad Airport station, the stability of the atmosphere during this period was analysed. Here the buoyancy frequencies that are measure of stability of air column were calculated. For averaging of winds two methods based on the real wind vectors and wind unit vectors were used. By correlations between the pollutants concentrations and meteorological parameters, their relationships were considered. Based on the probability distributions of winds for 2007, it was found that most of the time wind speeds were in the range of 0.5 and 2 m/s. Hence most of the time due to this weak wind there was a condition of air pollution accumulations over the city and only local winds could move the polluted air over the area. Annual cycle of variations of mean surface winds had small amplitude that appears to be due to high mountain ranges that surround the city from north and east. The annual cycle of CO variations showed a peak in autumn and winter while PM10 amounts showed a trough in winter and spring. The higher values of CO in winter seems to be due to the surface temperature inversions and improper burnings of the fuel of vehicles as well as the domestic heating systems. This was indicated in the correlations between temperature and CO concentration.  In annual cycle the correlation between CO and PM10 concentrations was about 0.4 which increased to 0.7 for spring time. This may indicate that in this season the sources of these two are similar and one of them may be used to estimate the others is the sources are not changed. There are two maxima in the daily variations of CO which coincides with minima of wind in morning and evening transition times. In this study it was found that due to calm meteorological conditions (often od local origin, called mountain breezes) over the city air pollution problem is a serious problem requiring more emission control. Also trend factors as the pollutant sources (traffic) and the depth of the atmospheric surface layer are important. It is particularly noticeable that during the midday as the depth of the mixed layer increases, the air pollution concentration is reduced substantially. At night surface drainage flow from north of the city and surface radiation cooling creates near surface inversions that can limit mixing and ventilation of the polluted air from the area leading to higher values of gaseous pollutant over the city.  Also lager stability in the air over the city at higher levels in autumn and winter is due to subsidence inversions as a result of the prevailing meteorological conditions of high pressure systems over this area in these months. Such conditions seem to have increased the creation of more acute conditions for air pollution over the city. For a more resilient city in terms of air pollution, some mitigation need to be undertaken in the face of climate change effects that are deteriorating the atmosphere of the city.  


Mehdi Ramezanzadeh Lasboei, Ali Asgari, Seyed Ali Badri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (4-2014)
Abstract

Natural disasters are investigated of various dimensions and consequences of natural hazards. As well, they can become as a repeatable phenomenon in the absence of mitigation systems, and could be caused devastating consequences. Resiliency approach as a basis for reducing the negative effects is taken into account to reduce the impact of natural disasters. Today, the two tourist areas of Cheshmekile (Tonkabon County) and Sardabrud (Kelardasht County) as typical feature of regional tourism planning have important potentials for development of tourism. But in recent years they have repeatedly been invaded by floods so that in some cases the impact of economic, environmental, socio-cultural and physical environment is followed. In economic dimension, flash flood destroyed agricultural fields and rural houses and in socio-cultural dimension it has increased insecurity. And finally, in terms of the physical and environmental aspect, it has created the most damage such as adverse changes in the appearance of the landscape, loss of trees, and destruction of public infrastructure (roads and bridges network). It is an approved hypothesis that rural settlements cannot be moved to the riverbank, but have created a situation that endangered abiding rural settlement. Various aspects such as socio-cultural, economic and administrative highly effect on resiliency. Among them, the role of infrastructures such networks, the location of health care facilities, police stations, fire stations and disaster management offices, communication networks (telephone, Internet) are more important to improve resiliency. This paper seeks to answer the key question that is the infrastructure in promoting resiliency after flooding in the two areas satisfactory?  The methodology of the study is objective and analytical analysis is based on the nature and method. The main variables are infrastructures and resiliency. Resiliency as the dependent variable consists of two main components of individual and community resiliency. Required information on the objectives, data integrity and availability has been developed in both library and field methods. In previous studies, library and documentation center is studied. Questions are sorted in the distance range, rated and ranked based on the needs and nature of the research and the knowledge and the education level of the local community. Questions are tested initially and after a measurement of the level of reliability (0.812), which is obtained using Cronbach's alpha. First, to determine the total sample size of villages located in flood risk areas in the two basins 9 villages (50%) were selected. Cochran formula is used to determine sample size. According to Cochran formula for the total population 296 households that included 129 head of households for Sardabrud basin and 167 head of households for Cheshmekileh basin. After the initial survey the collected information is encoded using a statistical software SPSS and then has been processed according to the assumptions formulated. Based on the results of the questionnaire analysis, some indicators, same as access to aid agencies (Crescent) and disaster management center, there were no significant differences between rural settlements such as the two basins distance to the city center is short. The nearest major communication route roads - Branch is located at a distance of 5 km from the city of Kelardasht, but in Cheshmekileh basin there are less than 5 kilometers distance to the main road of the Caspian Sea. That is why the average satisfaction of the local authorities in these areas is much higher than Sardabrood basin. Check out the highlights of each area residents is showed more satisfaction on facilities and services infrastructure in Cheshmekile. Result. To understand the relationship between resiliency and infrastructure used is the correlation coefficient between these two measures 003/0 there is level. This relationship of mutual relations, the improvement of infrastructure in the area with 99% probability of increasing population resiliency against natural disasters (floods) within it. The average calculated for the physical aspects - infrastructure represents the position of the component. Ring roads in northern cities, near airports such as Ramsar Branch, and there are several large medical centers, access to police stations in both basins are made ​​from the perspective of the respondents favored the status of this criterion is to be evaluated. However, among the subset of infrastructure, the roads are better than others. The reason can be attributed to the investment and construction of new networks of communication. In the case of energy network, although the topography of the area is caused that part of the basin, some of villages such as Gavpol, Letak, Drazlat in Cheshmekile basin and Lush, Krdychal and Roudbarak in Sardabrood basin was still stay deprived of the gas network but have favorable drink water and electricity network. However, keeping the population in the rural area is largely dependent on the infrastructure. Resiliency in relation to rural and infrastructural facilities, access to places of temporary accommodation is very important but in this particular field in any of the villages still planning has been done.


Tajeddin Karami,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (4-2014)
Abstract

Although environmental hazards occur because of natural factors, however, political economy, controlling the sociospatial relations and conditions, also affect centrally the increase or decrease of physical and social vulnerability caused by hazards. In this regard, present paper has put the spotlight on “explaining the role of spatial distribution of social stratification in vulnerability to environmental hazards in the city of Tehran”. This is based on Political Ecology Approach which emphasizes the domination of prosperous social strata on the urban natural-ecological endowments and utilities and marginalizes low-income and inferior social strata. So, the recognition of social strata inhabitation across the city is significant for the analysis of social inequalities and their effects on the vulnerability of environmental and human hazards. The concentration of middle to high class and working and inferior classes has also caused the range of social inequality to increase in the metropolitan of Tehran and this trend per se has transformed Tehran to the spatial reflection of the contrast between poverty and wealth to the greatest extent in the country. Hence, regarding the fundamental role of social stratification and class structure and its evolution in explaining the dynamics of socio-economical relations in the dominant society and the process of urban space production and reproduction, explaining the role of spatial distribution of social stratification in vulnerability to environmental hazards in the city of Tehran is significant and necessary. Vulnerability to environmental hazards has been studied from the physical, biological perspectives, social construction perspective and contingency perspective. The present paper emphasizes the effects of social construction on the production of vulnerability. Scientists think radical and critical geography of space is a kind of social production. They believe that not only urban space, but also the entire space has a social structure and nobody can analyze it thoroughly regardless to the society’s work on the space. Thus in a world under the Capitalist System, urban space represents a reflection of the control and domination of superior social strata (owners of power, wealth and high status, or the owners of political, economic and socio-cultural assets) in its functional zones.  This has been appeared in the recent decades, within the literature of hazards and catastrophes and based on “an approach of vulnerability” which has been rested on Political Ecology. The mentioned approach has been concentrated on a series of socio-spatial conditions and political economy which shapes the hazards and catastrophes. Some of the effective social conditions in shaping the hazards and catastrophes and their amounts of vulnerability depend on the racial, ethnic and class characteristics. Racial, class, ethnic and political economy analyses, which dominate their social ties, are considered as part of understanding knowledge system of hazards and catastrophes. Since this causes detecting the role of political economy of inequalities and racial, class and ethical processes and the marginalization caused by it, in the emergence of hazards and exacerbation of catastrophes and crises impacts. To use job structure means to emphasize concrete class structures, according to which an image of social inequality can be offered. Thus in present study, for structure determination and main composition of social stratification in Iran and Tehran “Structure Determination and Composition of Social Strata Model” was used. According to this model and with the use of data from matrix tables, major occupational groups and occupational situation have been classified in 5 classes superior strata, traditional middle strata, new middle strata, working and inferior strata and farmers. The data were prepared and analyzed by ArcGIS and Ms Excel softwaares.   During the last century, uneven development process of the country was in favor of the Tehran and superior strata and powerful institutions located in this city. Regarding the processes and relations emerged from political economy of space and political ecology of Tehran, social strata inhabitation of Tehran has been in compliance with environmental capacities raised from topographic and microclimatic distinctions and ecological endowments. The findings of present paper also indicate physical and social vulnerability changes caused by probable hazards related to the general pattern of social strata inhabitation in north-south geographical direction. Spatial distribution of populated blocks in 1996, for which more than 30% of their inhabitants were “senior managers and experts” and “manufacturing jobs employees and laborers”, indicates the above mentioned issue and clearly show the poverty (old poor neighborhoods) and wealth (expensive and rich neighborhoods) spatial centers. In addition, according to the supporting studies on Tehran Comprehensive Plan, most of old urban tissues are in central and southern regions. Also according to the International Seismological Research Agency (JICA), the mentioned regions would be the most vulnerable in the Tehran probable earthquakes. Therefore, it can be said that findings and results of the present study indicate the determining place of political economy of space and urban political ecology and also the fundamental role of social stratification and class structure for recognition, analysis, explanation and understanding of the urban development challenges and problems. Hence, this is impossible to reduce social and physical vulnerabilities caused by natural and human hazards, particularly in the poor neighborhoods, regardless of political economy of space mechanisms and reduction of the gap and even urban development. 


Peyman Mahmoudi, Taghi Tavosi, Daneshmand Hojjat, Abdolmajid Shabab Moghadam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)
Abstract

Hot, humid weather causes to the sultry feel. Sultry condition is usually accompanied with loss of physical ability and human respiratory and it has an adverse effect on peoples who have circulatory or other heart problems and this feeling is more than others. Sultry feel is a feeling like any other sensitive reflections of mental state. And this state apparently can’t be measured by special instruments. With this description, there are a lot of efforts has been done to identify this phenomenon by meteorologists and climatologists. And a series of psychological climate tests show that we can examine the creation and incidence of this sense based on empirical studies as a scientific and objective attitude. Therefore, this study aims to classify the sultry days in the southern half of Iran based on sultry continuous hours. And the obtained results are presented as a form of zoning maps.

     The studied zone in this research is selected stations in the southern half of the country located in the province of Sistan & Baluchestan, Kerman, Hormozgan, Fars, Bushehr and Khuzestan. This area is located between two latitude 25 and 35 north and length of 47 to 63 east degrees. To achieve this goal, hourly partial pressure of water vapor of 13 selected stations were obtained for a period of 15 years (1995-2009) from Meteorological agency. After obtaining data and creating the database, to separate sultry conditions from non-sultry conditions, threshold of partial pressure of water vapor of Scharlou which was equivalent to 8.18 Hpa were used.

    Based on these data, the hours and days that the partial pressure of water vapor was equal or greater than 8.18 hpa will have sultry conditions and otherwise, they have non-sultry conditions. Then, based on this threshold, sultry days were divided into eight categories. The basis of this classification is that if in a particular day among eight branches of observation, one station, only in one observation record a pressure equal to or greater than 8.18 hpa was observed, it will be placed in first class and if only two observed records a value equal or greater than defined value, it will be placed in second catagory and finally, if all eight observations amounts equal to or greater than 8.18 had been recorded, it will be placed in eight class. After placing the sultry days in one of eight branches of classes, long-term averages of monthly, quarterly, quarterly and annual were calculated and mapped.

    Based on defined thresholds, sultry days were separated from non-sultry days, then sultry days were extracted and it was placed in first to eighth classes. The results of this classification showed that on monthly scale, January has the fewest sultry days in twelve months of the year. In this month, only two stations of Chabahar and Bandar Abbas had the sultry days of eighth classes. It means that 24 hours, they were in sultry conditions. Other stations that have a sultry day in this month, often their sultry days are from first to fourth classes and it means that they had maximum 3 to 12 hours of sultry conditions during the day. Most sultry days can be seen in two June and July months. So, in these two months, all studied stations have at least one sultry day,Specially  in three stations of Chabahar, Bandar Abbas and Bushehr. And all 61 days, they have sultry conditions. In terms of classification of sultry days, all 61 days of Chabarhar station are part of sultry days of eighth class. In two stations of Bandar Abbas and Bushehr, except few days that are from sixth and seventh classes, other days are from eightth class, other stations experienced one of the eightth classes of sultry days with different ratios. , and at the seasonal scale, winter has the lowest days of sultry and summer has the most days of sultry days. In term of classification of sultry days in seasonal scale, there are conditions as monthly scale. The interesting point in summer season is that sultry days on two stations of Zabul (35 days) and Iranshahr (51 days) are considered due to their Geographical locations. In Zabul station, the reason of these sultry days can be due to the neighborhood of this station with Hamoon Lake. But it should be mentioned about Iranshahr stationthat the reason of its sultry condition is entrance of monsoon low pressure and moisture transfer by the system on the south-east of Iran an especially Iranshahr. On an annual basis, it was also observed that always in south east of Iran (Especially Chabahar station), the number of sultry days is much more than south west of Iran, also occurring sultry days with eighth, seventh and sixth classes in this zone is so different from south-west of Iran. The reason of these differences in number of sultry days and sultry classes  related to the latitude of south east of Iran which is lower that south west and in other words, we can say that climate of south East of Iran is more similar to tropical climate than subtropical climate. 


Moosa Kamanroodi Kojuri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)
Abstract

Illegal sale of extra building density (footages) and building violations all are being considered as the most important measures regarding urban management rent issues in Tehran, between 1991-2001. This in turn, intensifies the occurrence of building violations and instability regarding to Tehran’s spatial organization during the mentioned decade. This study aims to investigate the type, rate and spatial distribution of building violations and spatial-physical changes in districts of Tehran metropolis. The objective of this paper is to identify and explain the types of urban management functions and their resulting consequences in Tehran metropolis. The distribution pattern of building violations and some of their impacts are the major outcome of this research. This research based on its objective, possesses applied nature at strategic level. This study is based on spatial-structural and analytical approach. The under study area are all constructions in 22 districts of Tehran metropolis. It further supports the application of documentation. Data analysis demands descriptive statistic as well as GIS technique. This study suggests that 59% of all the issued construction permissions are associated with zone 1-5 followed by 67% which pertains to zones 1-7 between 1993-2002. These northern zones possess large holdings, good location, comparative advantage and very beneficial vertical density. About 117028 building licenses contain extra building footage problems. Total area of these violations occurrences has been amounted up to 32710210 meters. The distribution of the extra building footages associated with different zones represents a sharp but regular gradient with north-south direction. Moreover, this study suggests most of the governmental institutions committed violations associated with illegal land possessions as well as construction of illegal land uses in the area of public lands during 1990 decade. In addition, 249 illegal constructions pertaining to public institutions were identified by 2002 out of which 137 (55%) were visited by Tehran's municipalities.

     The statistics associated with Tehran's building violations which referred to variance number 1 of 100 municipality law represents a high magnitude and level of violations occurrence during 2000 decade. The total area deal with these building violations inspected by these commissions has been amounted to be 2810559 and 1565644 square meters in 2001 and 2008 respectively. However, some of these types of violations informally resolved without ever referred to this corresponding municipality commissions. Most of these violations are associated with land use changes (56.98%). This is followed by violations pertaining to extra density footages. It is argued that 3.5 violation cases registered against each issued construction license between 1997-2008 in Tehran metropolis. Generally, the issuances of building permits and sale of extra construction density and footages were dealt with market demand and geared toward gaining its resulting rents. These measures and actions were contradicted with Tehran's master plan principles. These violations possess a sharp gradient with north-south directions in Tehran's south and north economic-social basins. These activities are harmful to public interests and simultaneously very beneficial to very small inclusive private group which possess capital and lands. This in turn, is associated with lack of a master plan and subsequent spatial equalization, imbalanced land uses per capita and services and cons equally. Tehran's unsustainable physical development, For instance, Tehran's residential per capita in 1991, 1996, and 2001 has been amounted to be 20.35, 22.51 and 23.88 square meters respectively. This amount is associated with 17.37% growth rate unit during 1990 decade. However, Tehran's residential per capita in 1996 and 2001 have been underestimated and amounted to be 17.8 and 12.8% respectively compared with 1995 estimation (27.39 square meters). Tehran's existing commercial per capita in 2001 (2.05 square meters) compared with previous estimation of 1996 (0.87 square meters) shows 136.44% growth. This has been resulted from change in existing residential unit in central part of Tehran. Tehran's military per capita land use in 2001 (7.50 square meters) compared with the previous estimation of 2006 (1.5 square meters) shows 400.87% growth as well.


Manuchehr Farajzadeh, Yosef Ghavidel Rahimi, Mehdi Ardeshirikalhor,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)
Abstract

Ultra violet radiation has some useful effects and some harmful effects on human health an d create many diseases. Nowadays not only declined but the usefulness of the therapeutic effects of the Sun in the treatment of diseases such as rickets, psoriasis and eczema have been proved. But prolonged exposure to radiation of the Sun is not always beneficial and may cause acute and chronic effects on the health of the skin, eyes and immune system. Ultraviolet radiation of the Sun is one of the most destructive waves for life on Earth. So Ultraviolet radiation index and predict its rate (1 to +11) as well as the analysis of this indicator will help people to protect themselves against the Sun

    Ozone station , global ozone measurement stations and only stratosphere in Isfahan, Iran, which is in the South and in the Northern geographical position latitude 32' 31 and 70 ' 51 is located over the East. The altitude of this station from sea is 1550 m. Also atmospheric parameters in this station which are measured daily include temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction and in the upper levels of the atmosphere at 12 GMT with the help of Joe's high temp radio instrument.

    The first step to do this research was gathering of climatic data and the statistical and quantitative analysis in order to study on the subject. Ultraviolet radiation data on the same basis of assessment, ozone station during the period January 2001-December 2010 has been collected. The second batch of data information gathered from meteorological station of Isfahan climatic elements from 2001 to 2010. This data is based on monthly averages for analysis of solar UV radiations from meteorological solidarity with the country.

Adjust the time series at the first step in the study and analysis of the data was done in order to equal intervals in these regular categories and methods of statistical analysis was carried out on them and the overall process of UV changes in the form of daily, monthly, quarterly and annually. Also part of the analysis that was carried out on the data, check how the sequence or they had over time; this way specify whether data periodically changes or trends have been or not. Once the data is based on the time of occurrence, sort and arrange the time series on them.

Annually analysis of UV index showed the general variation is a common feature of studied years but in the spring season have high variation in compared with other season. The main reason of this variation may be related to sunlight angle that can be showed atmosphere effect on received radiation. Descriptive statistic result indicated that the highest mean of UV index is 6.52 and minimum were 4.8 that have very high variations and may be it has different harmful effects. Also seasonal analysis showed highest UV index created in hot summer related to highest temperature in this season. The computational modeling of UV index against years in different season indicates there do not exist a linear relation between two factors. The correlation analysis of UV index and some climatic factors showed there are a significant relation between temperature  with 0.8570 coefficient that  can be said in relation to increase of temperature, UV rate increased and vice versa and with cloud cover correlation coefficient is  -0.393 that have significant negative relation.

    Results showed that the peak time period are output in the first half and the second half of the year, landing in the specified time series. As well as through a linear fit to all charts, increase or decrease of the radiation, changes the trend in recent years, showed that based on the ultraviolet radiation changes the average increase in the spring and summer and fall and winter shows a decline. Also according to the ultraviolet radiation in daily statistics review ozone assessment station in the studied period (2001-2011) maximum amounts of ultraviolet radiation index, (11.5) observed in the middle of the summer and the minimum amounts of radiation index (0.5) observed in mid-winter.


Ali Saei, Seyed Ali Badri, Nasrin Kazemi, Fayezh Tajik,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)
Abstract

Various community groups can play important role in disaster management. Countries with different segments of people directly participate in activities to reduce the risk. Therefore, regarding the role of women's participation in disaster management process and as a part of human society will have an important role in this process, identify and analyze the factors affecting women's presence is essential. However, the central role of women in families and communities remains unknown in most parts of the world specially in planning and managing the disaster. The purpose of this study is to identify and understand the different capabilities of women to participate actively in the cycle of disaster management and providing strategies for increasing women's participation in the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery of probable disasters.    This study is an original and practical research. According to the theoretical research, a questionnaire was designed in four parts and it was completed through sampling. The sample population is women living in 22 districts of Tehran. This study implies that there is the low participation rate of women in disaster management among citizens of Tehran. To complete the data, proportional sampling was used and data were analyzed using factor analysis. Using this method, the data and the variables were summarized and the most effective factors were set in the partnership. These factors include disaster management, cultural factors and gender, fatalism, a feeling of power and confidence that the results of the factor analysis was performed using four dimensions. Based on tradition of social research and the findings of previous empirical research on women's participation in disaster management and the factors influencing voluntary participation, contextual condition of social variables (including socio-economic condition, occupation, marital status, number of children and age), as well as religious and fatalistic attitude would studied and evaluated the factors influencing the motivation and willingness to participate as a volunteer in the field of disaster management.    The findings show that KMO value was equivalent to 0.74 in four factors of disaster management and the total values of the sector were defined 67.42% of total variance of  the variables. KMO value in the sense of power and confidence variables was 0.72 and 65.27% of this segment can be explained by four factors the variability of the variables. In fatalism variable the KMO value was 0.599 and 59.56% of the four factors could explain the variability of variables. Finally, the KMO of socio-cultural norms was 0.71 and 70.52% of the variability of the variables was explained by five factors in this sector. Women cooperation alongside men play a major role in the use and implementation of policies and programs related to accidents. Thus, participation as one of the arguments in crisis management requires people involved in all processes related to the crisis management cycle. Since public participation opportunities and fields are different in societies and in different groups, so, to attract the participation in each group, identifying effective components is essential.    Finally, after using factor analysis and extracting four factors, including knowledge of effective crisis management, cultural factors and gender, fatalism, a sense of power and self-confidence were classified. In general, most people do not do any activities in disaster management and their awareness and knowledge does not lead to disaster management needs. Thus, organizational barriers, structural, administrative and educational activities to promote social and cultural constraints are considering strategies promoting women's participation in disaster management cycle.


Amir Saffari,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)
Abstract

Today, urban and regional issues related to sustainable development is a key challenge for policy-makers, planners and specialists in various disciplines. Geomorphologic studies can be useful and effective in analyzing and deriving acceptable means to assess the growth and development of the city, and to set criteria to determine the directions of urban development.    Landslides range of motions not only affect the human structures such as roads, rail lines and residential areas, but also lead to casualties. Tehran metropolis mountainous basins, including Kan, Vesk, Farahzad, Darake, Velenjak, Darband, Golabdare, Darabad, Sorkheh-Hesar, and Sohanak due to the lithology, geologic structure, weathered sediments, steep slope, rainfall and poor urban development are considered as one of the places where landslides are a range of geomorphologic processes can be studied.    At this research, using Fuzzy and AHP methods and by the use 8 factor variables such as lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, annual rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, distance from fault and drainage system. the map of landslide zonation hazard in mountainous areas of the city is prepared to determine risky strips. After the standardization of the criteria for the occurrence of landslides and using frequency ratio method and fuzzy model and functions, Landslide hazard zonation maps was prepared for evaluating from the fuzzy sum, fuzzy product and fuzzy gamma operator 0.8 and 0.9. Then the final map of landslide zonation, obtained from the above-mentioned method matched with the map of urban regions in mountainous areas. In this way the constructed region have been distinguished from very high and very low hazard zonation.    Lithological studies showed that most of the basin areas covered by Karaj Formation. About 45/7 percent of units with sliding movement in areas with "rock crystal tuff and tuff lytic green, with the layers of limestone" (unit Et2) of the intermediate tuff formation occurred. Cross of faults distance map with landslide density map showed that about 33/1 percent of landslides occurred within 200 m of the fault lines and 78/4 percent of landslides occurred within 500 m of drainage network. Most sliding movements (60/2 percent) in the range of 1900 to 2500 meters altitude and about 35/3 percent of this type of range of motion in height of 1500 to 1900 meters occurred. This area is about 81/6 percent of sliding movements in slopes between 15 and 40 degrees (26/8 to 83/9 percent) and about 17/6 percent on slopes less than 15 degrees (26.8 percent) occurred. In the aspect, sliding movements of the basin, mainly in the south-western slopes (about 23/2 percent), the South (about 17/5 percent), West (about 16/6 percent) and Southeast (about 77/1 percent), northwest (about 33/1 percent) occurred. About 88/9 percent of sliding movements in areas with average annual rainfall of 244 to 280 mm occurred. According to the zoning map, 12 percent of mountainous basins area (approximately 10,057 acres) is in the zone of very high risk, 33 percent (approximately 27,723 acres) is in high risk areas, 20.5 percent (approximately 17,143 acres) in the moderate risk zone, 30/ 7 percent (approximately 25,672 acres) in area and 3.8 percent of the total area of the basin, low risk (approximately 3172 acres) located in low risk areas. The results showed that approximately 5.2 hectares (about 0/05 percent) of the urban in zones with a huge landslide, about 51/5 acre (approximately 1 percent) in zones with high landslide risk and about 821 acres (equivalent to 25/16 percent) in the medium risk landslide zones are located and developed.     The final results indicate that some mountainous regions of Tehran Metropolis are apt to landslide with middle to high risk. (Apart from strengthening the vulnerable area) avoiding these areas is an important solution to decrease damages caused by landslide.


Yosef Ghavidel Rahimi, Parasto Baghebanan, Manuchehr Farajzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)
Abstract

Thunderstorm is one of the most severe atmospheric disturbances in the world and also in Iran, which is characterized by rapid upward movements, abundant moisture, and climatic instability. Since this phenomenon is usually accompanied with hail, lightning, heavy rain, flood and severe winds, it can cause irreparable damage to the environment. Investigation of spring thunderstorms has a great significance regarding the irreparable damages can cause by them and also because of the higher frequency of this phenomenon in the spring and the necessity for preparedness and disaster mitigation actions. To identify the locations of the major thunderstorm risk areas, the entire country with an area of 1648195 square kilometers, which is located between the 25°-40° north latitude and 44°-63° east longitude is considered.     Spatial distribution of the occurrence of hazardous spring thunderstorms was analyzed using a series of monthly thunderstorm frequency data obtained from 25 synoptic stations over a 51-year-long period (1960-2010). Ward's hierarchical clustering and Kriging methods were used for statistical analysis. Initially, total number of thunderstorms in April, May and June were considered as the frequency of occurrence of thunderstorm in different stations in the spring. Measure of central tendency and dispersion which consists of the sum, minimum, maximum, range and coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and skewness were used to clarify the changes of thunderstorms and to determine the spatial and temporal climatic distribution of spring thunderstorms. An appropriate probability distribution function was chosen to determine the distributions of the data.  Due to the large volume of data and the uneven distribution of stations, cluster analysis and kriging methods were used to classify different regions into homogeneous groups for zoning and spatial analysis of spring thunderstorms, respectively. The statistical characteristics of spring thunderstorms were reviewed and fitted with a 3-parameter Weibull distribution. Regions considered for this study were classified in four separate clusters according to the simultaneity of thunderstorms in the spring. After zoning, it was found that the highest rates of thunderstorm took place in the northwest and west of country. The northeast of Iran has the second highest number of thunderstorm occurrence. The least number of thunderstorm event had happened in the central and southern half of the country.     According to the descriptive statistics parameters, maximum number of thunderstorms occurred in May.. Based on the results of the cluster analysis, there is a similar trend in the central and eastern regions, the rest of the country was clustered into five distinct homogeneous regions, including the northwestern, western, southern, northern, central northern and northeastern regions. Zoning results indicate that the highest number of the occurrence of this phenomenon in the country is concentrated in the northwestern and western regions. Higher frequency of occurrence of thunderstorms in the northwestern and western regions may be attributed to local topographic conditions like high mountains, orientation of the terrain, solar radiation on slopes and existence instability conditions, hillside convection, the presence of water resources and specific climatic conditions in these areas. In addition, as a result of a continuous surface obtained by the method of interpolation with the least amount of systematic error and also the use of correlation functions for recognizing the spatial structure of the data and estimating the model error when using the Kriging method, the weights are chosen in order to have a more optimized interpolation function. Also the cluster analysis may significantly reduce the volume of operation without affecting the results and will help in finding a real band due to more appropriate classification of different geographic areas with greater spatial homogeneity and minimal variance within the group. Based on the results of the spatial analysis, it is clear that Kriging and Ward cluster analysis methods are appropriate for thunderstorm zoning and classification of different regions according to occurrence of thunderstorm, respectively.


Omosalameh Babai Fini, Elahe Ghasemi, Ebrahim Fattahi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2014)
Abstract

Global changes in extremes of the climatic variables that have been observed in recent decades can only be accounted anthropogenic, as well as natural changes. Factors are considered, and under enhanced greenhouse gas forcing the frequency of some of these extreme events is likely to change (IPCC, 2007 Alexander et al., 2007). Folland et al. (2001) showed that in some regions both temperature and precipitation extremes have already shown amplified responses to changes in mean values. Extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, floods and droughts, can have strong impact on society and ecosystems and are thus important to study (Moberg and Jones, 2005). Climate change is characterized by variations of climatic variables both in mean and extremes values, as well as in the shape of their statistical distribution (Toreti and Desiato, 2008) and knowledge of climate extremes is important for everyday life and plays a critical role in the development and in the management of emergency situations. Studying climate change using climate extremes is rather complex, and can be tackled using a set of suitable indices describing the extremes of the climatic variables.    The Expert Team on climate change detection, monitoring and indices, sponsored by WMO (World Meteorological Organization) Commission for Climatology (CCL) and the Climate Variability and Predictability project (CLIVAR), an international research program started in 1995 in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme, has developed a set of indices (Peterson et al., 2001) that represents a common guideline for regional analysis of climate.    It is widely conceived that with the increase of temperature, the water cycling process will be accelerated, which will possibly result in the increase of precipitation amount and intensity. Wang et al. (2008), show that many outputs from Global Climate Models (GCMs) indicate the possibility of substantial increases in the frequency and magnitude of extreme daily precipitation.     eneral circulation models (GCMs) are three-dimensional mathematical models based on principles of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer. These are easily capable of simulating or forecasting present-future values of various climatic parameters. Output of GCMs can be used to analyze Extreme climate. For this study high quality time series data of key climate variables (daily rainfall totals and Maximum and minimum temperature) of 27 Synoptic stations were used across Iran from a network of meteorological stations in the country. In order to get a downscaled time series using a weather generator (LARS-WG), the daily precipitation output of HadCM3 GCM, SRES A2 and A1B scenario for 2011-2040 are estimated.     The Nine selected precipitation indices of ETCCDMI[1] core climate indices are used to assess changes in precipitation extremes and monitor their trends in Iran in the standard-normal period 1961–1990 and future (2011-2030).    Due to the purpose of this study, at first changes in extreme precipitation indices in the standard-normal period is evaluated and its results show annual maximum 1-day precipitation increased in many regions in the East of Iran. Simple measure of daily rainfall intensity (SDII), annual maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation, annual count of days with daily precipitation greater than 10mm (R10mm), annual count of days when rainfall is equal to or greater than 20 mm (R20mm) have increased in the central areas, regions in the north , north east and southern parts of Iran. Similar results are obtained for the R25mm index.    The consecutive dry days (CDD) index has generally increased across the west areas, southwest, north, northwest and southeast of Iran and indices of consecutive wet days (CWD) decreased in these areas.    Trends of extreme precipitation indices simulated by HadCM3 SRES A2 showing increases RX1Day in North West expect west Azerbaijan Province, central, southwest, north east and coasts of Caspian Sea. Similar results are obtained for the R5mm index expects northeast. There are mixed changes in R10mm across Iran, increasing in west, southwest, coasts of Caspian Sea, Hormozgan and Ardebil provinces, East Azerbaijan, Zanjan and Qazvin  provinces. Similar results are obtained for the R20, 25 mm index in northeast, south of Caspian Sea, and some parts in western and central areas. Same as HadCM3 SRES A2 pattern there are mixed changes in R10mm across the region. Positive trends are seen in part of the Isfahan, Markazi, Kuhkilue , Lorestan, Ilam, Chaharmahaland Khozestan provinces and some part of Hormozgan and Kerman and some areas in north west. Similar results are obtained for the R20mm and R25mm index and in west of Yazd to north of Khozestan provinces have increased.    Consecutive wet days (CWD) have increased over most of the west of Iran, Khorasn Razavi and Southern Khorasn provinces, In contrast consecutive dry days (CDD) index has generally increased in many parts of the region.  
[1]. Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Monitoring Indices


Amir Saffari, Amir Saffari, Ezatollah Ghanavati, Amir Karam,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)
Abstract

Tectonic geomorphology is part of Earth Sciences, which deal with study of the interaction of tectonic and geomorphology. In other words it studies the effective tectonic processes in forming and changing the landforms. Geomorphic and morphometric indicators are suitable tools to the morphotectonic analysis for different areas. These indicators are used as the base tool to identify and recognition of tectonic deformation or estimates of the relative instability of tectonic activity in a particular region. Some of geomorphic indicators has been widely used, then the results of research projects are used to obtain comprehensive information about active tectonics. Full assessment of contemporary tectonics and tectonic activities, especially the young tectonic and its hazards need to Full understanding of geomorphologic processes speed and made for this purpose, geomorphological methods play an important role in this context.

     This research uses a descriptive-analytical approach, using library studies and aims at determininge the activity of Neotectonic in 7 Watersheds of Tehran metropolis (from west to east: Kan, Vesk, Farahzad, Darakeh, Velenjak, Darband and Darabad). In the first step, using topographic and geological maps of  under the studied area, faults, drainage networks and watersheds are identified, then to evaluation  the indicators of Mountain Front sinuosity (Smf), the main river sinuosity (S), the drainage watershed asymmetry (Af), rivers density index (D), hypsometric integral (HI), the ratio of the watershed shape (BS), the ratio of valley floor width to valley height (Vf), river longitudinal gradient index (SL) and Index active Tectonic(IAT) have been determined. Survey of these indicators by topographic and geologic maps and Google Earth images of the under studied area using software of Google Earth, Arc GIS and Global Mapper are derived and calculated. In the following, parameters and how they are calculated are given:

-Mountain Front sinuosity is the result from equation (1):

Smf = Lmf / Ls     (1)

In the equation (1), Smf is index of sinuosity Mountain Front. Lmf is the front along the foothills and mountains of the specified slope failure and Ls: straight line along the front of the mountain.

- The main river sinuosity index is as follows: S = C / V.  In this formula, S is main river sinuosity.  C: along of the river. V: valley along of the straight line.

- Rivers density index, drainage density is obtained from the formula:

                            µ=  

Li is length in kilometers of drainage Watershed, A is area in square kilometers, μ is total drainage watershed in terms of kilometers per square kilometer.

- Hypsometric integral is an indicator which represents the distribution of surface heights variation from equation (2) is obtained:

HI= H - Hmin / H max – H min    (2)

In this equation Hi is hypsometric integral, Hmin and Hmax respectively are the minimum and maximum height and H is the height of watershed.

- The ratio of width to height of the valley floor is another geomorphologic parameters to investigate the tectonic forces in the region .This index is obtained from the equation (3):

VF =      (3)

VF, represents the relationship of the valley floor width to valley height, VFW: the valley, Eld and Erd to the height of the left and right and Esc is valley floor elevation valley.

- The ratio of the area ratio of the area and the equation (4) is obtained:

BS= Bl / BW      (4)

-BS; the shape of the watershed; Bl; length dividers watershed of water to the bottom of the watershed outlet and BW:  width of the flat portion of the watershed.

-The longitudinal gradient index (SL) for a range of drainage path is calculated and determined by the relationship: SL = (ΔH / Δ L) * L. In this regard, SL: the longitudinal gradient index, ΔH: height difference between two points measured, ΔL: during the interval and L: total length of the specified channel to assess where the index to the highest point of the canal.

The classification provided for indicators Sl, Smf, Vf, Bs, Af by Homduni et al (2008), this indicator is obtained based on the amount of 1, 2, 3 classified in three classes. Index of active tectonic (Iat) Geomorphic indicators by means of different classes Calculated based on the value of (S /n) is divided into four classes, That the division are characterized by class 1 with very high activity Neotectonic, Class 2 with high Neotectonic activity, Class 3 with medium Neotectonic activities and and Class 4 with low Neotectonic activity. In this classification of Class1 have the highest and Class 3 have the lowest Neotectonic activities (Table11).

On the basis of Iat indicator Neotectonic activities in the under studied area were assessment and results were is in table (13). Based on the data in Table (13) , watersheds of Kan and Darband hava a high Neotectonic activities and located in Class 2 and watersheds of Vesk, Frahzad, Darakeh, Velenjak and Darabad  have a medium Neotectonics activities and and located in Class 2, and Neotectonic activities are a high relative tectonic activity in all watersheds. Geomorphic indicators are reflecting activities in the metropolitan Tehran watersheds can say that tectonically active watershed has not yet reached stability and tectonic activity are relatively high. Geomorphologic indicators drainage watershed asymmetry, the main river sinuosity, the valley floor width to height ratio of density of rivers and valleys, structural geology and tectonic activity in the7watersheds of Tehran metropolis better show it.

The results show that Tehran metropolis Watersheds have a high relative tectonic activity in all watersheds, because of the proximity to the major faults (such as Mosha- Fasham and North Tehran faults) and minor faults, tectonic activity exists. Finally it can be stated that, due to the presence of multiple faults and background seismicity and tectonic activity in Tehran metropolis and its watersheds, occurrence of earthquakes in the study area is not unexpected and this issue requires serious consideration and management.


Mahdi Zare, Farnaz Kamran Zad,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (1-2015)
Abstract

The Iranian plateau formed by the active tectonics of the Alpine-Himalayan belt, is situated between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. The plateau is considered as one of the most seismically active regions in the world and is faced with different earthquakes each year. Active tectonic conditions, different faults and seismic sources and a large population in earthquake-prone areas makes it necessary to perform more considerations and scientific studies in order to analyze the seismic hazards and risks.

In this paper, different aspects and effects of the Iranian seismicity has been determined. In order to review the status of seismicity and distribution of earthquakes in Iran, we need first to consider the tectonic setting, structural environment and the active faults of the country. To date, there have been some different studies to divide the the seismotectonic setting of Iran into different seismic zones which are explained in this paper briefly. Moreover, the seismicity and most destructive past earthquakes in the Iranian plateau and distribution of earthquakes are shown.

    One of the most important tools in studying earthquakes is to perform continuous recording and monitoring of the seismic event and ground motions which is implemented using seismic and strong motion networks. The systematic networks have been set up within the country and are working and responsible for data collection and monitoring of seismic events permanently. These networks including the Iranian Seismological Center (IRSC), broadband seismic network of the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES) and strong motion network of the Road and Housing and Urban Development Research Center (BHRC) are also introduced in the current study.

Given the high seismicity rate in Iran and rapid development and growing of the populated cities and buildings on seismic hazard prone areas, attention to seismic hazard and risk assessments has been become as a particular issue that should be addressed carefully. Therefore, seismic hazard analysis and estimation for the constructions of human structures has become an enforcement for which several seismic regulations and codes have been defined. In this regard, deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard methods have been developed as the two most important techniques. The deterministic method is a conservative approach that is mostly used to determine the highest level of strong ground motion (acceleration) for a special site (such as dams and power plants). On the other hand, the probabilistic method provides probabilities of different strong ground motion levels considering different uncertainties and the useful life of a structure.

    In addition, considering the level of seismic hazard in a region and its population can lead to risk assessment, vulnerability and resiliency of the human societies. Thus, parallel to seismic hazard and risk analysis, it is so important to conduct crisis management, reduce efforts and a continuing assessment of the situation in the country. In the present study, problems and challenges facing the crisis management, as well as urban distressed areas are mentioned.

    Regarding the existence of constant threat of natural disasters, especially high risk of earthquakes, there is a serious need to conduct more scientific researches in various fields, including detailed research on various aspects of seismology in Iran, retrofitting of constructions, crisis management and disaster risk reduction. To achieve this purpose, we need a scientific network in Iran. There sould be several experts and organizations as the members of this network who are able to understand and control the earthquake effects on the society. Necessity of such a scientific network is due to that it is impossible to take efforts in order to reduce the earthquake risks without a holistic perspective and earthquake data completion.

In this regard, we need significant infrastructures in terms of human resources and technical cooperation to motivate a set of organizations, universities and research institutes. The responsible organizations such as geological survey of Iran, National Cartographic Center of Iran, meteorological organization, Institute of Geophysics of the University of Tehran, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Road and Housing and Urban Development Research Center, National Disaster Management Organization, Red Crescent Society of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as well as universities and NGOs must work together to make it possible to review and integrate the existence potentials and to share the information and data of the earthquakes in Iran and define various response scenarios faceing natural disasters, especially earthquakes.


Farimah Bakhshizadeh , Hani Rezayan, Mehry Akbary,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)
Abstract

Air pollution has become one of the main problems of cities. Among the sources of air pollution, vehicular traffic plays an important role. Planning for efficient management and control of the air pollution caused by vehicular traffic requires accurate information on spatio-temporal dispersion of the pollutions. This research studies 3D spatio-temporal dispersion of NOx pollution caused by vehicular traffic at Valieasr-Fatemi intersection resides in Tehran, Iran. It is selected for being crowded and having the required meteorological and pollution data sensed by the Air Quality Control Corp. of Tehran Municipality.

This study uses GRAL that is a local micro-scale air dispersion model defined based on Euleran-Lagrangian dispersion models. It investigates the level of spatio-temporal autocorrelation generated by GRAL simulations at both 2D and 3D modes and discusses how it adapts with the reality.

Adopting the GRAL air pollution dispersion model, streets are defined as the linear source of pollution of NOx caused by vehicular traffic. The traffic rate is estimated based on street areas and directions, the designed average traffic velocity, traffic volume and car passage counting at the intersection. The 3D geometry of the buildings is also added to the model. All the required data that were available for winter of 2007 are gathered and introduced into the model.

The model is executed at 9 heights vary from 1.7 m to 52.5 m. These heights are defined covering a range from an average human level height to average building height and above. These levels are considered both separately in 2D mode and integrated into a 3D mode. The formation of NOx clusters is investigated analyzing their autocorrelation using Moran Index at global and local scale.

The calculated Moran-I at global scale at each 9 levels of heights, varies from 0.7 to 0.9 that depicts the validity of the GRAL model adopted to simulate the expected autocorrelation of pollution density affected by spatial issues. The Moran-I increases at higher levels as less air turbulence happens. However the result show that the turbulence increases temporarily at about 10m to 15m which are the average building heights. At local scale, the Moran-I/Anselin shows that HH clusters dominate at lower levels, around streets central areas that are farther from the buildings, and around the intersections. At higher levels, esp. higher than buildings average height, the LL clusters dominate. However the HH clusters formed around intersections, while are shrank, are still visible at high levels. The turbulence caused by building fronts and their down wash effect is also shown in the result as no definite cluster is formed near the buildings front and back.

The autocorrelation analysis is also carried for an integrated 3D model consists of all the 9 levels of heights. Considering the weight matrix for a 20m 2D neighborhood and 1m/s dispersion of the pollution vertically, the global calculated Moran-I equals 0.229 which shows existence of a spatio-temporal autocorrelation of the results generated by GRAL. At local scale the results show that the HH clusters have higher temporal dispersion rate than LL clusters.


Fatemeh Sotodeh, Bohloul Alijani,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)
Abstract

Precipitation is one of the important aspects of the Earth’s climate that has both spatial and temporal variations. Understanding the behavior of this element and analyzing its spatial and temporal variation is importantwhich can lead to a comprehensive and detailed planning for water resource management and agriculture. Geostatistical techniques and spatial autocorrelation analysis are the most widely used techniques in the field of the spatial continuity. Spatial autocorrelation analysis is applied to help researchers understand the spatial patterns in the area.

      The purpose of this study is to identify the heavy precipitation spatial patterns in Guilan Province. For this purpose, the 6- hourly sea level pressure of the network from  0 to 120 Easter longitude and 0 to 80 Northern latitude with 2.5×2.5 degrees spatial resolution were obtained from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) for the period 1979-2010. The daily precipitation data of 21 stations were obtained from the Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization and Ministry of Energy.

      Guilan province is one of the most humid regions in the country. The heavy rain days were selected as days when more than 30 percent of the all stations had daily rain amount more the 95th percentile. As a result, 321 days were selected as heavy and widespread rainy days. By using principal component analysis these 321 days were reduced to 9 factors. These factors then were subject to cluster analysis with Ward method and resulted in three surface pressure patterns of heavy rainy days. Within the resulted pressure patterns by using local geostatistical techniques we identified the heavy rain spots and their spatial orientation. These spatial methods include Kriging,  Geostatistical Analysis, and Anselin local Moran index.

According to the results of this research, the first pattern was characterized with a high pressure over northern part of the Black Sea causing the highest Variance of heavy rainfalls. The second pattern is identified as a low pressure on the Black Sea. But the third pattern showed a precipitation distribution with low variation caused by the Siberian high-pressure. The results of Spatial Statistics techniques indicated that heavy rains were clustered in all there patterns. The clusters of heavy rains were localized mostly over the coastal areas and some over the central regions. The clusters of the western high-pressure patterns penetrated somewhat inside the province, while clusters of the Siberian high pressures was located on the shoreline of the province. The precipitation of western migratory high-pressures was heavier than of the Siberian high-pressure. The results of the standard deviation ellipse showed that heavy rain clusters were oriented in the east-west direction and were nonhomogeneous. While the ones oriented in the south east direction were more homogeneous and clustered. Because of this arrangement, the entry of moisture from the Caspian Sea is relatively concentrated on the East or North East. Because of the concentration of heavy rains in the central areas of the coast, the risks of floods and soil erosion is very high in these areas. This study showed that contrary to the popular belief, the heavy rains of Guilan were produced by western systems and the role of the Siberian high pressure is less important and is limited only to the coastline.


Ahmad Zanganeh, Hamidreza Talkhabi, Feredon Gazerani, Mohsen Yosefi Feshangi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)
Abstract

The extent of poverty, inequality and environmental differences patterns in large metropolises are the results of a dual economy with free market capitalism rule in these cities. Urban spatial structure expansion and incoherent, irrational focus on different parts of the city and its facilities and services, economic development, social inequality in them. Urban environments, complex systems with complex phenomena, relations and interactions between the components are different. Cities in the twenty-first century are undoubtedly one of the great challenges which are facing to them is their poverty focus. The physical differences reflect the existing inequalities in societies based on market economy. Undoubtedly, the developments in the past few decades have a large share in these settlements in the metropolises of the country. . Although the extent of urban poverty phenomenon is not new in urban planning literature, referred in ancient societies, such settlements are massive and complex phenomenon, which is entering its second phase of capitalism, the capitalist industrial and disturb Aboriginal settlement system is embodied in the geographic ranges. This astonishing growth in the South with the growth of the tertiary sector of the economy on the one hand and on the other hand, the recovery of the agricultural sector in rural areas occurred. Geographers look at the formation of the spatial extent of poverty regarding both humans and nature.

     Poverty is caused by humans in the absence of proper mechanisms in human society develops. Arak urban space reflects the socio-economic imbalances and the spatial extent of poverty in the Border areas of the city.

     This research aimed to identify and Rank urban poverty in the Arak city. According to recognition type of this problem, descriptive – analytical  methods are used in this research. The multiple components of economic, social and physical are studied.  ArcGIS is used to determine the Density factor () and the distribution of each indicator. Then, according to the purpose of the study, stratification between the known areas (including: the city center, 20-meter-Mighan, Davaran and Koshtargah, Roodaki and Bagh Khalaj, Footabal, Shahrake valiasr and Qanate Naseri) And the quantitative model and  AHP  & ELECTRE Regionalization are used. In this way ranking options instead of a new concept called "non-non Ranking” used. Multi-criteria problems to deal with a set of options, indices and values ​​expressed preference. In this way all options non-ordinal comparisons were evaluated using non-effective options and be removed from list. The results of this paper showed two spatial extent of urban poverty and Regionalization of the settlements with the use of multiple components classified. The results showed that due to the combination of multiple indicators of social, economic and physical, seven main ranges were identified that except for the central part, all extents located in the Border areas. According to the results, the central district (first), 20-meter-Mighan Street and Rudaki and Bagh Khalaj neighborhoods (second), Football neighborhood and Vali-e-Asr (third) and neighborhood of  Qanat-Naseri (fourth). Review the history of the formation and spatial differences in this field indicates the fact that different mechanisms are involved in creating them. These ranges are more vulnerable to poverty and poor economic conditions in the exodus of migrants entering and after industrialization city. It can be said that in order to identify the extent of poverty, systemic view of the external and internal mechanisms in terms of time - place is essential.


Manijeh Ghahroudi Tali, Khabat Derafshi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2015)
Abstract

Flood as a natural disaster follows certain erratic patterns which was made confounding factor. Flood risk is variable and complex that depends on very phenomena such as rainfall, runoff concentration and high exposure of the flooding downstream areas.

    This are changes over time and from regions due to natural conditions, human activities, and damage culture of the community at risk. Occurrence of chaos at flood risk changes the trend of predictable processes. In the other words, although flood is a disaster, the occurred irregularities in its patterns can reveal its complicated nature. Flood pattern irregularities are the incident evidence of chaos in the system which can be studied by fractal geometry. The occurred events in spatial variability of floods in the last 50 years show they can be occur as unusual urban flood in Tehran.

    Tehran city may experiences the difference life and property damages because the high varieties in the socio-economic and the life quality level in regions, also structural varieties in the city fabric??. Ignoring the natural factors in spatial planning, overrun and destruction of natural morphology as a result of urban activities and subsequently disturbing urban drainage system lead to unpredictable and destructive floods in Tehran.

    The Tehran precipitation layer was prepared based on 27 weather stations data in the period of 10 years (1998-2009) and Kriging model with a Gaussian function. The runoff is calculated by Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) and precipitation layer. The flood hazard potential map has been created by 8 variables and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This map as an index to define the said complexity was prepared in 5 categories of risk by combination of Tehran metropolis flood hazard and vulnerability maps. Then it was divided into hydrological basins and 12 basins were selected randomly. The Perimeter-Area Fractal and Number-Area Model were used to study the chaos and turbulence in the Tehran’s flood pattern.

     Explanation of locational changes of risk between the basins needs to calculate the weighted average risk and the independent variables in 12 basins that obtained by zonal statistics. Based on these average values the factor analysis used to determine the Varifactors or main components of the variability in flood risk between the basins. Finally, fractal geometry models (perimeter-area and cumulative number-area) were used to demonstrate the chaos of the flood risk value in 5 categories of risk.

    In this research the Tehran flood zoning map was calculated at 5 hazard categories. The fractal of sample basins had increased by increasing in the level of hazard map. Generally, the higher DAP values from 1 represented increasing in the chaos or irregularities of Tehran floodhazard. The obtained DAP from very low to very high risk levels are 1.206, 1.216, 1.23, 1.263 and 1.293 respectively. The increasing of DA indicated that turbulence hazard increases based on Perimeter-Area fractal model, thus, with the increase in hazard the DAP and DP values were greater. Also, the results of Number-Area Model showed turbulence floods in the five classes of hazard. The area cumulative number of risk levels are 0.74, 0.79, 0.85, 0.86 and 0.88 respectively; this trend showed the less size of flood risk polygons from very low to very high risk levels. In the other words, by increasing the risk level the polygons gets smaller and indicates the increase the flood risk chaos.

    The occurrence pattern of natural phenomena and even natural hazards have a regularity type in normally condition; if this regularity disrupts for any reason, irregularities or chaos happens. In present study, the results of fractal analysis in sample basins presented the chaos pattern in Tehran floods. Also the heavy rainfall can be predicted in Tehran but the prediction of the flooding distribution was not provided. According to the recorded floods in Tehran the flooding begins always in the northern valleys of Tehran, like Darband, Kan or Golabdareh basins,  are not similar to damage pattern. As a result, despite several studies and projects which have been implemented about flood phenomenon in Tehran, this is unpredictable and uncontrollable in the city.


Amir Karam, Amir Safari , Shila. Hajehforosh Nia,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2015)
Abstract

With the development of economy and social services, increased need to reduce risks, control risks and other important measures in order to provide program management and follow-up plans vulnerability, Having the right information and understanding the current situation in the field is essential for  prevention and planning measures, Therefore, research on risk reduction and knowledge of threats in the Arangeh region is essential, as one of the areas tourist attraction regions in Karaj's catchment area.

Geomorphology of River studies landforms and processes of river and predict changes using models and field studies and laboratory. And new analytical tools and techniques, growing and expanding with the help of river engineering.

    This eventually leads to gain new capabilities in the field of river management, landscape restoration, risks and geomorphological studies ancient river.

     In most cases geomorphological processes that are created by river systems, are causing environmental hazards of natural and human environments. In this paper, we have investigated the risks of geomorphic processes, especially risks of flooding and river flooding and is calculated for the maximum flood discharge for subarea also. In this article, it has been found that most of the flood will be calculated based on the map of the geomorphology of the area and the discharge sub basin. The purpose of this study, is  assessing damages caused by the flood risks in the area. It is obvious that the results of this study will enable the pre-crisis phase of the crisis management system and can help to tourism and physical planning in the area.

     Arangeh basin is an area of 10,090 hectares and a maximum height of 3665, at least 1637 m and average height of 2689 m. Arangeh area have an  annual precipitation about 785 mm. Arangeh watershed is located within the northern city of Karaj, 15 km Karaj Branch, Karaj Dam east side of the river and inferiors (Amir Kabir).

     In this study, to analyze the flood in the basin,  a variety of sources are used including surveys of library data and documents, topographic base map scale of 1: 25,000 geological map of 1: 100000 taken from the ground geological, climatic data obtained from meteorological Organization, hydrological data obtained from regional water Alborz Landsat satellite image.Also field visits, the use of GPS and GIS software Arc GIS Version 10 was main parts of the survey.

      The calculated concentration time by Krpych method to estimate the flood of data base, then estimate is based on a regional analysis of runoff and peak discharge of flood.

     According to Hydrogeomorphic properties basin unit (sub-21) has the maximum flood discharge which is mostly covered by alluvium and located on the ground impermeable siltstone, waterways due to morphological features steep, mountainous dominant morphology, concentration time low basin, poverty and lack of vegetation (about 15 and 50 cubic meters per second in the 50 and 100-year return period). Other sub-basin with high flood discharge of sub No. 3, 5,7,9,12,14 and 16 are in Central, East, North, East and South of the basin villages.

      Many parts of the Arangeh basin has slopes of more than 60%, which is an important factor in the effect of runoff, reducing the time of concentration, poor soil and vegetation and is an important factor aggravating flood risk and erosion. The presence of vegetation in these areas can have an important effect in obstructing runoff, reduce the rate of runoff, reducing flooding and consequently the reduction of soil erosion. We can largely control the flood basin watershed management practices and proper management range in the above units.


Mohamad Saligheh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)
Abstract

Tehran, in the south of Alborz Mountains, is faced with three types of weather risk, weather risk caused by geography, climatic risks caused by air resistance and weather risk due to global warming. The aim of this study is to examine the three types of risk in Tehran. The method of this study was to evaluate the changes of synoptic factors that affect global warming and urban development. In order to detect the height changes of 500 hPa two 5-year periods including 1948 to 1952 and 2010 to 2014, were studied.

     The results showed that changes in heights of 500 geopotential, there was an increased risk in the city of Tehran. The effect of climate change in recent decades,  increased the stability of  air in Tehran. Human factors in the formation of heat islands, increase LCL height and density of the air balance is transferred to a higher altitude. Changing urban wind field, atmospheric turbulence intensified, exacerbated thermodynamic gradient, fat and refugee cyclones, heat island effect of the city.

Thermal stability in the warm period will appear. The thermal stability of all levels of lower, middle and upper troposphere was intensified. Thermal stability couraged the  development of subtropical high pressure in the area. With the arrival of the atmospheric pressure during calm and humid days the stability and pollution were increased. Negative vorticity from early June  developed the intensive high pressure over the region. Compare the conditions of the two study periods  showed that  : the height of the high pressure was 100 meters higher than the second period. The number of days of intensified subtropical high increased during the second period.  The high pressure has moved to the northern areas during the second period. This change in the subtropical high pressure increased the dry periods motivating the loss of vegetation. Heat island effect was increased as well. More than 90% of the  temperature inversions occurred  at an altitude of less than 500 meters in both warm and cold periods of year. Wind direction at both stations has shown that the establishment of any pollutant source in the West of Tehran will increase the pollution.


Ali Shammaii, دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران , ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (10-2015)
Abstract

Human and social crisis and natural hazards are of great importance and urgency in urban development planning. As a result, in order to reduce the loss of life and financial damages, one of the necessities of urban planning and spatial analysis is identification of vulnerable areas. In Piranshahr city due to its sensitive geographical location and zoning the implementation of passive defense in urban planning is of utmost importance. The importance of this study is to examine vulnerabilities in order to operate an optimal crisis management. The main objectives of the study are:

- Identifying the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the city.

- Identification of vulnerable facilities and equipments.

The research method is descriptive - analytical and research space is Piranshahr city limits. In order to identify the characteristics and distribution of facilities and equipment in the border town Piranshahr library and field methods have been used. The results of the last census (1390) of Statistical Center of Iran, observation and interviews with local people and experts was used. The master plan and detailed studies of 1391 and relevant maps of the municipalities, the aggregation and dispersion of urban facilities and equipments were used. To value the passive defense importance in the city sixteen vulnerability variables were defined and measured according to opinions of people and experts. Then the data were analyised with the  Delphi software. The main variables include: Lifeline, crisis management centers, military bases, equipment and support centers. After determining the rating of each factor and sub-sectors, by using AHP and Expert Choice software vulnerability of each of the following criteria were calculated. For mapping the city Piranshahr fuzzy model is used.

The results showed that the variables of vital artery with coefficient of (0.469), crisis management centers and joint support centers with coefficient (0.201), municipal equipment by a factor of (0.086) and military centers coefficient (0.043) are among the most vulnerable facilities and equipments in Piranshahr city. The neighborhood of western, central and south-west of the city, including the Kohneh-Khaneh and Grow of a cultural1 neighborhoods, Ghods, Isargaran, Zrgtn and Mom-Khalil, were the most vulnerable neighborhoods in the city regarding the military attacks. Spatial analysis of vulnerability of the city resulted in three vulnerability regions. The neighborhoods of the West, Central and South West (Kohneh-Khaneh and Grove neighborhoods and part of a cultural1 neighborhoods, Ghods, Isargaran, Zrgtn and Mom-Khalil) are the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the city. The reason for this situation are the physical characteristics of the city such as texture, organic, fine texture and high density residential units, existence of urban infrastructure, core founding of the city (the Kohneh-Khaneh neighborhood) and the secondary core (Zrgtn neighborhood). whereas the neighborhood (Park City and part of Koy-e-Khayyam and new neighborhoods of Mohammadkhan in the north and the south and southeast of the city) due to the preparations made for the perfect skeletal indices as well as the extent of large open spaces are somewhat immune and safe regarding the passive defense.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, vulnerability, Passive defense, city of Piranshahr.


Amir Hossien Halabian, Fereshteh Hossienalipour Jazi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)
Abstract

We can identify the flood not only considering circulation pattern in occurring day but also by studying circulation pattern a few days before fresh event. This subject has mutual approach. In one hand, it indicates  that circulation patterns which were before flood event have important role in determining the conditions and moisture content of studied area and playing the fundamental role in few coefficient of region because it determines the previous moisture. On the other hand, it indicates that we should tracking the rain-genesis synoptic systems from source to end place of their activity for studying floods and their meteorology factors which have created them. By this way, we can acquire more comprehensive recognition about the relationship between circulation pattern and floods. In the other words, the identification of synoptic patterns that have created the flood reveals not only the mechanism of their emergence but also is useful for prognosis and encountering with them. The extensive researches have been accomplished about Inundation in the world and Iran, but Iran haven’t much antiquity about synoptic researches. For foreign researches, we can name researchers such as Hireschboeck (1987), Kutiel et al(1996), Komusce and et al (1998), Krichak  and et al (2000), Rohli and et al (2001), Kahana (2002), Teruyuki Kato(2004), Ziv and et al (2005), Carlalima and et al (2009). The numerous researchers have studied the Inundation climatology in internal of country such as Bagheri (1373), Ghayour (1373), Kaviani and Hojatizadeh (1380), Moradi (1380), moradi (1383), Mofidy (1383), Masoodian (1384), Masoodian (1384), Hejazizadeh et al(1386), Parandeh Khozani and Lashkari (1389). In this research, we considered the heavy precipitation of Azar 1391 in southwestern of Iran that resulted in flood phenomenon in the cause and effect manner so that can do necessary prevention actions before occurring the flood for preventing the probable damages and optimal use of precipitations by forecasting the patterns that have created the flood.

In this synoptic study, we need to two database: one group is variables and atmospheric data consisting of geopotential height of 500 hpa level (in meter geopotential), zonal wind and meridional wind (in m/s) and special humidity (in gr/kg) during this times 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 Greenwich in 0-80° northern and 0-120° eastern with local resolution of 2.5*2.5 Arc that have been borrowed from database of (NCEP/NCAR) dependent to National Atmosphere and Oceanography Institute of USA, and other group is daily precipitation data of region rain gauge stations during 4-8th Azar of 1391 (24th November – 28th November 2012). In continuation. By applying the environment- circulation approach, we took action to drawing circulation pattern maps of 500 hpa level, thickness of atmosphere patterns of 500-1000 hpa and moisture flux convergence function from 4-8th Azar of 1391 (that for calendar, conform with 48 hours before beginning the showery precipitation until ending the storm activity) by using data which obtained from database of NCEP/NCAR and the synoptic conditions of above flood have been studied and interpreted in the region.

Flood is one of the most destructive natural hazards that have imposed and impose many damages to people during the history. Hence, the final aim of this research is to explain the key interactions between atmosphere and surface environment and in other words exploration of the relationship between circulation patterns leading to the flood generating precipitation in the southwestern of Iran for forecasting the time and intensity of showers occurrence that lead to flood. For this purpose, by applying environmental-circulation approach, the circulation patterns identified and studied which resulted in flood generating precipitation. The result of this research indicated that torrential precipitations in the region have formed the deep trough in days 4-8 of Azar on the east of Mediterranean and the studied region placed in the east half of this trough that is the location of atmosphere instability. At same time, thickness patterns, indicate the flux of cold air from northern Europe to lower latitudes and spreading the warm air of north of Africa to latitude 50° northern. As a result we expected the frontal discontinuity in the encountering place of these two air mass. Analysis of the moisture flux convergence patterns also indicated that torrential precipitations were the result of moisture flux from Mediterranean and Persian Gulf; and Red Sea and Arab Sea taken into account as reinforced sources.



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