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Volume 8, Issue 4 (11-2010)

Due to high morphological similarity between Triticum turgidum L. and T. aestivum L., using 34 quantitative and nine qualitative spike morphological characters, the taxonomic status and the variations of spike morphology between 22 accessions of T. turgidum and 42 accessions of T. aestivum were studied. Consequently, the statistical coefficients such as Mean, Coefficient of Variation, Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis were applied. The results of this study show that these two species were differentiated by spike morphological characters, such as the length of spike and glume, and the awn length of lemma and glume. The diversity and variability of spike morphological characters among T. aestivum accessions are higher than those of T. turgidum accessions. It can be concluded that there would be a relatively high gene flow in T. aestivum accessions.

Volume 9, Issue 4 (10-2010)

Nickel is one of the essential elements (micronutrients) for plant growth. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of nickel, (0, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280&mu M) and some environmental factors such as pH and Ca2+ concentration on the growth of seedlings of four wheat cultivars (Sardari, Zarrin, Alamout and C-73-20) were investigated. Moreover, the impact of high concentration of Ni on root sugar secretion has been assessed using sulphuric-phenol method .The results indicated that Alamout was more resistant than the other cultivars regarding to nickel stress. On the other hand, root and shoot tissues showed different growth responses to Ni and radical growth was more sensitive than shoot growth. Decreased pH increased the impact effect of nickel on shoot and root growth. Our study showed that increasing Ca2+concentration decreases Ni toxicity. Finally, Ni inhibited the leakage of soluble sugars from root tissue.
P Abdolmaleki, B Nahidian, A Paeez, F Ghanati,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (11-2012)

There are many reports on the effects of magnetic fields on the plants, but the exact mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. In this study we compared the effects of different magnetic fields on the germination and early growth of wheat seeds. The seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in two groups, dry and imbibed, were treated with static magnetic field (SMF 30mT) and electromagnetic field (EMF 10KHz) for 4 days and 5 hour for a day. After treatment, seed water uptake, the percent and speed of germination, early growth characteristics and electrolyte leakage of seeds coat and seedlings root membrane were estimated. The results showed that treatment with SMF and EMF had not significant effect on the germination percent of imbibed wheat seeds, but accelerated the speed of germination, fresh and dry weight and vigor index II, compared to control groups. In dry wheat group only positive effect of magnetic field had seen on the length of seedlings. Magnetic field treatment decreased the electrolyte leakage of seeds coat and seedlings root membranes however had not increased the water uptake of seeds. So elevated speed of germination and growth of seedlings probably was due to increase of membrane integrity, content or activity of the germination enzymes or antioxidant enzymes. In general, effects of magnetic field on the imbibed seeds is better than dry seeds and SMF had better effect than EMF on the germination and early growth of wheat seedlings.
G Rabani, R Ezati,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (4-2015)

Acid rain, which is a wet form of gaseous air pollutants, is formed when air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, CO2 in atmosphere combine with water vapor of clouds. With the addition of concentration of these pollutants the amount of acid rain is increases. Acid rain that is the mixture of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and carbonic acid lead to change in the soil like the decrease in pH, nutrient liberation, the increase of releasing in toxic metals and the decline in fertility of soil that these cases results negative effects on plants. In present work wheat plants irrigated  and leaf spraied with  four treatments of acid rain which contain sulphuric acid and nitric acid with  pH= 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.6 for a period of 32 days, whereas, control plants irrigated and leaf spraied by normal water at  pH= 7.4 . According to the results control plants in whole of growth and physiological indexes were better than treatments of  acid rain at pH= 2.5 and 3.5, also plants of acid rain treatment at pH= 4.5 and 5.6, were lower in other factors except photosynthetic rate, pigment content and carbohydrate content than control plants. Also acid rain at pH= 2.5 and 3.5 causes white spot in both surface of  leaf and tip and border atrophy.

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