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Showing 141 results for Subject: Plant Biology

University Student Vajiheh Ganjeali, Dr Monireh Cheniany, Dr Parissa Taheri, Dr Maryam Mazaheri-Tirani,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (6-2023)
Abstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), as one of the most important cultivated crops in the world and Iran, is threatened every year by many diseases, including Fusarium diseases. Due to the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles show high antibacterial and antifungal properties. The purpose of this research was to comparatively investigate the antifungal effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and its bulk form on the suppression of Fusarium calmorum in wheat. For this purpose, a pot experiment was done with four levels (10, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L-1) of nanoparticles and bulk form of copper oxide treatments in wheat (Roshan cultivar). The results showed that the maximum inhibition of root pathogenicity was observed in a high concentration of nanoparticles as compared to bulk form. The 250 and 500 mg L-1 concentrations of copper oxide nanoparticles caused the highest stem and root length and the highest dry weight of the aerial part and root, respectively. Treatment with 10 and 250 mg L-1 nanoparticles also increased the content of chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, chlorophyll stability index, membrane stability coefficient, and relative leaf water content. While the content of chlorophyll b, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and proline increased with increasing concentration of both nanoparticle and bulk forms. The results of this research showed that the low and medium concentrations of nanoparticles were more successful in inhibiting the mentioned fungus than the bulk form.
Mrs Sarehi Ebrahimi, Dr Seyed Mehdi Razavi, Dr Mansour Afshar Mohammmadian,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (6-2023)
Abstract

The increase in the entry of industrial effluents containing various types of heavy metals into water and soil leads to the ever-increasing spread of environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to find less expensive solutions to reduce these pollutions. In this regard, in order to compare the removal of heavy elements and some morphological and physiological characteristics of C. alternifolius, C. zizanioides and Aloe vera plants, an experiment was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications for 14 months at the University of Guilan. The results showed that under the treatment of industrial wastewater, the metal accumulation index (MAI) of zinc, chromium, lead, copper, manganese, nickel, magnesium was higher in C. zizanioides and Aloe vera than in C. alternifolius. In all three studied plants, the indices of root length, shoot length, total biomass and tolerance index (TI) had a significant decrease compared to the control plant, and vetiver and Aloe vera plants had the lowest percentage of decrease. In addition, other investigated components including absorption index (UI), total soluble sugar, total phenol content, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin, total tannin, and DPPH free radical inhibition percentage increased in all three plants under industrial wastewater treatment. The highest percentage of increase in all investigated components, except DPPH free radical inhibition percentage, was observed in vetiver plant. In general, it can be said that in terms of MAI and morphological and physiological characteristics, C. zizanioides and Aloe vera plants were more successful than the C. alternifolius plant. Therefore, it is recommended to plant the studied plants in the order of priority (C. zizanioides ˃ Aloe vera ˃ C. alternifolius) in soils contaminated with industrial effluents, in order to remediate the soil.
 
Mahmoud Bidarlord, Mohamad Dehdar Dargahi, Adel Jalili,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (6-2023)
Abstract

Solanum chenopodioides, is introduced as a new record for the flora of Iran from the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea, Gilan province. This species grows in Bujagh National Land-Sea Park, on sand dunes, along with other psammophytes coastal plants. This species belongs to the Morelloid clade. It differs from related species S. nigrum, by its shrubby nature, perfect leaves margin, dull berries, bi-colored petals in the middle, and peduncle that bends a bit downwards in fruit. This plant is native to southern South America. It is introduced as a common weed all over the world, as well this species is considered an alien species for the flora of Iran. Exporting goods to different parts of the world, largely with the wool trade, is one of the ways of spreading this species in over the world. In addition to providing some pictures of the plant, some points about the distribution and ecology of this species are also provided in this paper. In recent years, the report of numerous alien species from Bujagh National Park is a warning for the native vegetation of the area and existing ecosystems. Which requires the efforts of those involved in the protection of protected areas, especially the four areas of the environment.
 
- Azarnoosh Jafari, - Ameneh Assadi Barbariha, - Fereshteh Ghasemzadeh,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (6-2023)
Abstract

   The present research is floristic study of Imamverdy, Dartum, Ghapagh, Garivan and Niestaneh villages located in 30 km south of Bojnourd (North Khorassan province) with 1442-1783 m altitude. The aim of study was to identify different species, medicinal plants, endemic, vulnerable and low risk species. For this the specimens were collected during March-November 2012 and identified using Flora of Iran and Flora Iranica. The results showed 133 species from 104 genera and 38 families that one of them belonged to Gymnosperms and 132 species were from Angiosperms. Among them, five families, 13 genera and 18 species were from monocotyledons while 32 families, 90 genera and 114 species were reported from dicotyledons.  Also, 40 medicinal plants were introduced from the studied region. Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae were the largest families and Astragalus, Poa, Vicia and euphorbia were reports as the largest genera. Erysimum koelzii, Astragalus khoshjailensis, Eryngium bungei, Acanthophyllum pachystegium, Sclerorachis platyrachis, Taraxacum hydrophyllum were endemic elements for Iran and Astragalus ackerbergensis was vulnerable species. Also, Rubia florida, Mentha longifolia, Fumaria vaillanti and Onopordum carmanicum were introduced as low risk species. The maximum and minimum percentage of chorotype were related to Irano-Turanian with 68.14% and Irano-Turanian, Sahra-Arabian regions with 0.7%. The maximum and minimum percentage of life form were reported for hemicryptophytes with 45.8% and cryptophytes with 3% which this result represented cold and arid climate and uncontrolled grazing in the studied region.
 
Mr. Ali Asghar Arjmandi, Dr. Hamid Ejtehadi, Dr. Farshid Memariani, Dr. Mansour Mesdaghi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (6-2023)
Abstract

Understanding the different patterns of plant diversity and distribution along the environmental gradients is essential for managing ecosystems, especially in fragmented habitats due to intensive human pressure. The Darkash area is located in the western Aladagh Mountains in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Floristic Province. The easternmost patches of the Hyrcanian montane forests grow in this area. The three main vegetation types in the area are shrublands/scrub forests, oak forests (Quercus castaneifolia), and subalpine vegetation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the plant diversity in the understory of plant communities along the elevational gradient. We sampled 187 vegetation plots (2m x 2m) along a 1300m elevational gradient (in 100-m classes) using the stratified-random method and estimated the abundance and canopy cover of the species. Floristic characteristics and different diversity indices were measured. In total, 252 plant species belonging to 161 genera and 44 families were identified. Of these, 41 species are endemic or semi-endemic. Hemicryptophytes and therophytes are the dominant life-forms in the study area. The Irano-Turanian elements (46.8%) make the major chorotype in the flora of the area, followed by Bi-regional (17.5%), Tri-regional (17.5%), Pluri-regional (11.5%), and Euro-Siberian (6.7%) elements. The shrubland understory has the highest Hill's and beta diversity indices, followed by the oak forest and the subalpine understory. The biodiversity changes sinusoidally along the elevation. In order to protect plant species, especially oak young seedlings, it is recommended to create a protective corridor along the elevational gradient in this area. This strategy is essential for protecting plant diversity in these habitats.
Hamzeh Amiri, Leila Moazzeni,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2016)
Abstract

In order to study the interaction effects of salinity and ascorbic acid on the photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugar, proline, and protein in Satureja khuzestanica plant, factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (salinity in 4 levels 0, 40, 80 and 120g in 100kg soil and ascorbic acid in 2 levels 0 and 2 mM ) with 6 replicates. The results showed that salt stress reduced photosynthetic pigments amount by increasing the soil salinity from 0 to 40g NaCl in 100kg soil and then increased by 80g NaCl in 100kg soil and again decreased by concentration of 120g NaCl in 100kg soil. The amount of solouble sugar, proline and protein by the soil salinity increased from 0 to 40g in 100kg soil and then decreased in concentration of 80g NaCl in 100kg soil, in 120g NaCl in 100 kg soil increased amount of characters. In present of ascorbic acid photosynthetic pigments amount of pigments increased by increase the soil salinity from 0 to 40g NaCl in 100kg soil and then decreased by 80g NaCl in 100kg soil and again increased by concentration of 120g NaCl in 100kg soil. But, amount of solouble sugar, proline and protein by the soil salinity decreased from 0 to 40g in 100kg soil and then increased in concentration of 80g NaCl in 100kg soil. Finally, in 120g NaCl in 100kg soil decreased amount of characters.


Farrokh Ghahremaninejad, Atiye Nejad Falatoury,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2016)
Abstract

The increasing influence of APG classification system necessitates an update on taxa recorded in most regional floras including Iran. Many changes in circumscriptions of families and orders have occurred in APG in comparison with other classification systems. However, here we only attempt to emphasize on changes in the Iranian flora, especially in comparison with “Flora Iranica” and “Flora of Iran”. Of the overall 132 family names which have been mentioned here, 22 families are not found in Flora Iranica. Based on the APG IV system, 21 families which had been mentioned in Flora Iranica for Iran should be merged with other families. Accordingly, the angiosperms of Iran comprise 8012 species, approximately 1234 genera and 132 families placed in 39 orders. Gymnosperms (17 spp.), ferns (60 spp.) and mosses (534 spp.) included, the number of plant species of Iran exceeds approximately 8628 species. The largest angiosperms families of Iran are Fabaceae (1401 spp.) and Asteraceae (1234 spp.) in terms of number of species, and Asteraceae, Poaceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae in terms of number of genera. The largest angiosperm order of Iran in terms of family number is Caryophyllales. The largest genera of Iran are Astragalus with about 830 species and Cousinia with about 280 species. In the two latest versions of APG a linear sequence of families is provided to be used by herbarium curators.


Samane Attaran Dovvom, Parvane Abrishamchi, Javad Assili,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

Salvia leriifolia Benth. from Lamiaceae family is a plant native to Iran and Afghanistan with significant applications in medical, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of current investigation was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils (EOs) of S. leriifolia growing naturally in Neyshabur and Bajestan (Northeast of Iran). The aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro-distillation and the EOs were analyzed with GC/MS. According to the results, 1,8-cineole (20.24%, 26.39 %), α-pinene (15.14%, 14.39 %) and β-pinene (24.33%, 26.01%) were the main constituents of the EOs of the plant populations in Bajestan and Neyshabur, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the EOs was measured by three different methods, 2,2´-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB). The total EO and three standards (α-pinene, β -pinene and 1,8-cineole) displayed a significant antioxidant effect in all assays. Antioxidant activities obtained by means of TBARS and BCB methods were higher than those measured by the DPPH assay. Moreover, BCB was proved to be the most appropriate method for measurement of antioxidant activity. The EOs of the plants grown in Neyshabur showed stronger antioxidant effects in comparison with those grown in Bajestan.


Mostafa Asadi, Mahin Janighorban,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

The genus Elaeagnus (Elaeagnaceae) has been introduced in Iran by one or two species, i. e. E. angustifolia and E. orientalis . The species are widely cultivated trees, but native in a few localities. They are extremely variable in shape of leaves and fruits. Fruits used to be eaten highly and as they have variable tastes, the preferred ones have been subject to selection in the course of time. Nowadays, several distinct cultivars are known in Iran. The species and cultivars were studied in the field and different herbaria in Iran. In this paper a single Shurei, are، Kolahi, and، Churuk,,، Khormai,,، Anabi,,، Shekari,,، species E. angustifolia and its six cultivars, i.e.introduced from Iran


Ehsan Hosseini, Mostafa Asadi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

Silene ghahremaninejadii (Caryophyllaceae) is described as a new species to science in this article based on critical differences in certain characters of both vegetative and reproductive organs, compared with its closely related taxa, i.e. S. marschallii and S. ruprechtii. The new species has compact caudex, glabrous leaves and pedicles, cylindrical calyx without indumentums on its inner surface, deeply bifid petals without coronal scales and glabrousfilaments. In addition, a hypothesis about the speciation process of the species is proposed.


Roya Karamian, Zahra Hajmoradi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

Trigonella L. is one of the important genera of the family Fabaceae, many species of which have nutritional and medicinal properties. In this investigation, morphological characters related to habit and pollen grain of three Trigonella species i.e., T. disperma, T. subenervis and T. aphanoneura were studied. Oils from the aerial parts of two species were investigated by GC and GC/MS methods and compared with T. disperma, which had been studied in advance. T. subenervis represented oils rich in spathulenol (15.1%). It also contained a small amount of germacrene D (0.6%). T. aphanoneura also represented oils rich in spathulenol (10.4%). The amount of four compounds in this species was ≤1%, and n-octyl acetate was the lowest component in quantity. According what we found out, phytochemical and morphological data could clarify the relationships among the Trigonellaspecies better than pollen morphological data


Saeede Sadat Mirzadeh Vaghefi, Mostafa Asadi, Masoud Sheidaee,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

 Specimens collected from the forest areas of Mazandaran Province (Iran), Kojour, between Lashkenareh

and Gandis-Kala village showed significant characteristics. At first glance, these specimens looked similar to A. szowitsianum, but with no indumentum on fruit. Further studies showed that those specimens belong to a new species, Alyssum mazandaranicum Mirzadeh & Assadi sp. nov., which was confined to the ecotone area between Euro-Siberian and Irano -Turanian regions. More populations of this new species were also found in other localities with similar ecological circumstances. Here, the new species is described, illustrated and compared with the closest taxon.


Maryam Khayati, Manijeh Pakravan, Ali Sonboli,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

Tripleurospermum transcaucasicum (Manden.) Pobed (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) is newly recorded from East Azarbayejan Provice, NW Iran. It is morphologically similar to T. caucasicum (Willd.) Hayek and T. monticolum (Boiss. & A.Huet) Bornm. The morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters of new record are compared with closely related species. The geographical distribution of new records and related species in Iran are presented.


Zahra Tavakkoli,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

During the taxonomic revision of the genus Glaucium, G. contortuplicatum var. hirsutum is described as a new variety. This taxon differs from the type variety by having dense and appressed trichomes all along ovary (or junior silique). Leaf epidermis micro-characters of these two taxa are also compared. G. leiocarpum and G. elegans var. integerrima are reduced to synonymy of G. flavum and G. elegans var. elegans, respectively. Additionally, morphological characters and geographical distribution of the taxa studied in the world and in Iran are presented.

                                                                                                                                                     


Manijeh Pakravan,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)
Abstract

The pollen grains of 34 populations, representing 16 species of Consolida (DC.) Gray, have been examined by LM and SEM. The polar axis (P), equatorial diameter (E), P/E ratio and exine patterns were measured. The pollen grains were found out to be 3-zonocolpate, euprolate to subprolate. The shortest polar axis to belong to C. tehranica (Boiss.) Rech.f. and the longest to belong to C. trigonelloides (Boiss.) Munz (28.15-37.3 µm); the shortest equatorial axis to belong to C. stocksiana (Boiss.) Nevski. and the longest to C. orientalis Schrödinger (17.5-25.2 µm). Based on exine ornamentation observed under SEM, two types of pollen grains were recognized. Type I, exine distinctly thickened at poles with broad colpi and stronglymicro-echinate sculpturing, and type II, with exine obtuse at poles, narrow colpi and weekly micro-echinate sculpturing. Pictures of all species and characteristics of pollen grain structure were presented. Our results showed that pollen shape and sculpturing were diagnostic characters for distinguishing the species. Although they did not suffice enough to resolve taxonomic conflicts in the genus, our results confirmed embed of Aconitella in Consolida due to the occurrence of Aconitella species in two pollen groups.

                                                                                                                                                             


Narges Vasefi, Shahriyar Saeidi Mehrvarz, Alireza Naqinezhad, Mokarram Ravanbakhsh,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2016)
Abstract

This paper concerns itself with the study of sand beaches of the Boujagh National Park with an area of 3477 ha. The purposes of this study include the determination of the plant species diversity and plant groups. In ad-dition, the determination of the impact of environmental and specific variables on the presence or absence of certain species and their communities is another aim that the study follows. In order to attain those purposes, 52 plots across 6 transects of the district were used. In each plot, the materials were identified and abundance-dominance of species by using Braun-Blanquet criteria were obtained and their life forms were determined according to Raunkiaer clas-sification. To determine the plant groups, a Two-way analysis of significant modified species (Modified TWINSP-AN) was utilized. Detrended Canonical Analysis (DCA) was used to determine factors affecting plant groups. The results showed that four plant groups exist in this district: Convolvulus persicus-Crepis foetida subsp. Foetida grou-p, Argusia sibirica group, Eryngium caucasicum-Juncus acutus group and Rubus sanctus group. The first and seco-nd groups consist of higher percentages of therophytes and spread in areas where the soil contains more sand. Plants in the third and fourth groups spread in areas with stabilized sand and high percentage of silt. DCA analysis results showed that soil factors (texture, OC, Na, K, N, Ca, Mg) have significant relation with plant groups were studied. Among the plant groups, the percentage of silt and sand, species richness and life forms of therophytes and geop-hytes show significant relations. Therefore it can be concluded that these factors affect on the separation and distri-bution of plant groups.


Abbas Gholipour, Masume Golshahi,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2016)
Abstract

In a revision of annual Silene species some interesting specimens were observed, which belonged to the sp-ecies that had not been previously reported in detail from Iran. In this paper S. nocturna from the section Scorpioideae was added to the checklist of the third important genus of the flora of Iran, i.e. Silene, and new localities for S. gallica from the section Lasiocalycinae were reported. The description, geographical distribution in Iran and photos of each sp-ecies were also presented


Nastaran Bayat, Farideh Attar,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2016)
Abstract

The peduncle anatomy in 35 populations, which belonged to 18 taxa of Scrophularia L., were studied. Am-ong 37 quantitative and qualitative characters related to peduncle anatomy, several traits showed more taxonomic value for taxa delimitation, including presence of palisade parenchyma and the number of its layers, the presence of phloem fiber, the presence of bundle sheath, the presence of lamellar collenchyma at ridge location and the number of its layers, the dimensions of cross section, thickness of vascular bundle, the dimensions of pith parenchyma, thickness of xylem, thickness of parenchymatous part and thickness of lamellar collenchyma at ridge location. Finally, in comparison with the results obtained by Grau (1981), in which 12 groups have been introduced, the current study confirms the validity of 3 groups. However, for the remaining groups, no noticeable concordance was found.


Sakineh Kaboli Kafshgiri , Kazem Parivar, Javad Baharara, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Mohammad Amin Kerachian,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)
Abstract

Chemical pesticides possess toxic and destructive impacts on the reproductive system and disrupt endocrine function. In this experimental study, the effect of movento, as a chemical pesticide, was investigated in comparison with chitosan, a biological pesticide, on the female reproductive system in vivo. In this study, 56 mice were randomly dived into 7 groups including control and experimental groups treated with movento and chitosan. After a 21-day treatment, mice were killed and their ovaries and blood being collected. In addition, the samples were fixed and stained with H & E method. The results exhibited that treatment with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg chitosan had no significant effect on the number and diameter of primary, secondary and antral follicles, while these items were significantly reduced in 10 mg/kg ch-itosan group and all movento-treated groups as well. In addition, the level of sexual hormones, such as estradiol, FSH and LH, was decreased in 10 mg/kg chitosan group and all movento-treated groups in comparison with the control gr-oup. The findings showed that movento affected the sexual hormone levels, ovary and ovarian follicle structure and in-duced abnormality in female reproductive system, while chitosan, as a biological pesticide, should be used due to its minimum effects on female reproductive system


Tayebeh Enayat Gholampour, Valiollah Jafari, Mohamad Reza Imanpour, Hamed Kolangi Miandare,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)
Abstract

In the research project performed, the effects of different levels of hydro-alcoholic extract Vitex agnus-castus were investigated as nutritional supplement on growth parameters of Danio rerio for 4 months. Since the beginning of the feeding phase up to the age of 4 months (average weight: 2.1±0.1g, length: 5.2±0.3 cm), larvae were fed with expe-rimental diets. Fish treated with diets containing plant extracts had higher growth and survival rate than the control gr-oup (p<0.05). Differences in the level of the extract had no significant effect on the survival rate (p<0.05). The results revealed that the diet containing 15 gr of the extract resulted in the best FCR significantly (p<0.05). By increasing the extract in the diet during the experiment, SGR increased. The highest and the lowest %BWG were observed in treatm-ents T3 and T0 respectively (p<0.05). The highest CF was observed in T3 and the lowest was obtained in T0. All in all, this study proposed that the addition of 15 gr of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus in the diet of zebrafish could improve the performance of the growth indices and increase the final biomass. In addition, this extract could be considered as a suitable supplement for Cyprinidae diet.



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