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Parisa Jonoubi, Ahmad Majd, Aref Marouf, Shahla Amini,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Pimpinella anisum L. belongs to Apiaceae family. The samples of vegetative and reproductive organs at different stages of development were gathered and investigated by cell-histology methods. The investigation of the anatomical structure of vegetative organs showed that the secretory ducts are arranged between the parenchymal tissues of the leaf. Section of flower buds revealed that anthers had 4 pollen sacs, the division of pollen mother cell was of the simultaneous type, microspore tetrads were of tetragonal type and the tapetum layer was secretory. The study of the ultrastructure of pollen grains with SEM showed that they had 3 pores. The ovary was found to be two-chambered and two-carpeled the ovule to be anatropous and to have one membrane. In embryogenic investigation it was found that the embryos were globular, cotyledonary and torpedo-shaped and the transition between globular embryos to cordate embryos was found. The vegetative organs were observed to have the general structure of dicotyledons. The development patterns of ovule and embryo sac follow the Polygonum type. Tetrahedral microspore tetrads were observed. The ultrastructure of pollens was found to be similar to those of Smyrnium, a genus of Apiaceae family. All stages of embryogenesis were covered in this study. 

Fateme Mousavi, Ahmad Majd,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2019)

Simaroubaceae is a monophyletic family in the order Sapindales with 22 genera and 109 species. Ailanthus altissima (Mill) Swingle, also known as the tree of heaven, is a highly invasive species, which systematically belongs to Simaroubaceae. Reproductive characteristics are essential for the deployment and maintenance of invasive species in new environments and examination of the reproductive system of these species is interesting. To date, no embryological investigations had been directed to A. altissima and our knowledge on the embryology of this species was very limited. A study was carried out on the embryology of A. altissima and the comparison of anther development in male and female flowers in order to gain insights into defining embryological features in this species. According to the results of histological analysis, male flowers have rudimentary gynoecia and anthers are tetrasporangiate. Cytokinesis in meiosis is simultaneous resulting in tetrahedral tetrads. Anther wall development follows the dicotyledonous type and the tapetum is secretory. Female flowers have staminodes and microspore mother cells are degraded too early before entering the course of meiosis. Ovules are anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellate. The development of the embryo sac follows the polygonum type. Embryos follow the Onagrad type. The endosperm development is nuclear type. A well-developed hypostase is present and a nucellar cap is formed. These observations will advance our understanding of embryology and embryo anatomy in A. altissima as an invasive species.
Akbar Forghani, Amir Hossein Forghani, Maryam Altafi, Kazem Hashemi Majd, Omid Sofalian,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2021)

Most of agricultural lands in Iran are located in arid and semi-arid regions and are considered as saline soils. In order to investigate the interaction of salinity as well as potassium and calcium on the growth and yield of tomato plants, a factorial experiment was perfected in the form of randomized complete blocks, in hydroponic conditions, with three replicates per treatment. Experimental factors include salinity at three levels (0, 20, and 40 mM NaCl), potassium content form chloride, nitrate (0 and 15 mM), and calcium from chloride, and nitrate (with 0 and 10 mM (. The studied growth factors, including plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, flowers and fruits and leaf chlorophyll decreased with increase NaCl. Treatment plants with Ca (NO3)2 at 40 mM NaCl, increased the shoot and root dry weight by 55% and 95%, respectively. In addition, application of Ca (NO3)2 in the medium with maximum salinity concentration resulted in an increase of 75% in chlorophyll content. The analysis of data showed that the increase of salinity was accompanied with increase sodium content level of tomato plants. However, the root potassium was observed to decrease. On the contrast to the root, potassium content showed no change in the organs from the root upwards. Also, the use of Ca (NO3)2 with 40 mM NaCl reduced Na+ content by 23% compared with plants treated only with 40 mM NaCl. According to the results, it seems that application of Ca (NO3)2 may improve chlorophyll content, dry weight, and modulate ion hemostasis and decreased the negative of salt stress in tomato plants.

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