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Shahin Esmaeilnezhad, Farhad Mashayekhi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2020)

Amniotic fluid (AF) is essential for fetal development and maturation during pregnancy. The levels of proteins in AF have been determined in many studies to screen for potential biomarkers of pregnancy-associated abnormalities. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a major AF and plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. APF serum concentrations are commonly used for screening of many syndromes. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were reported to change gene expression in the embryo and in adults. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of 50hertz/1millitesla EMFs on AFP expression in the AF in the mouse embryo. AF samples were obtained from pregnant mice in gestational days 16 and 18. AFP relative expression was studied by western blotting. The results of this study showed that AFP relative expression increases in the EMF-treated AF as compared with either SHAM or control groups. It is concluded that EMF increases the AFP relative expression in the AF. It is also suggested that EMF may change the AFP expression in the AF by altering the expression of genes, including AFP, and/or by affecting the permeability of blood barriers.

Farhad Mashayekhi, Somaye Shabani, Soheila Talesh Sasani, Prof Zivar Salehi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

Olig1 and Olig2, two transcription factors, play regulatory function in the differentiation and specification of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). In this study the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on total protein concentration ( TPC ) and Olig1 and Olig2 expression in the cerebral cortex of mouse was examined. Twenty-one Balb/c mice were separated into three groups: control, EMF and Sham groups (n=7 for each group). The mice were placed inside the solenoid for a daily EMF exposure of 50 Hz, 1 mT for 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 10 days. The Sham group was also located in the same coil with no exposure. Mice were anesthetized after the final exposure session and their cerebral cortex were collected. TPC and the expression of Olig 1 and Olig2 were studied by Bio-Rad protein assay and western blot, respectively. The cerebral cortex samples were removed for further analysis. There was no significant difference in TPC in the EMF treated cortical samples as compared with those from the SHAM and control groups. It was also shown that the expression of Olig1 and Olig2 was increased in the EMF treated cortical extracts as compared with those in controls and SHAM groups. Therefore, it could be concluded that EMF enhances Olig1 and Olig2 expression in the mice cerebral cortex. Moreover, as Olig1 and Olig2 plays important role in the development of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, it can be deduced that EMF may affect OPC differentiation by increasing the expression of Olig1 and Olig2. Further studies are needed to clarify the extent of EMF impact on oligodendrocyte differentiation.
Mahdis Meraji Masouleh Moghaddam, Farhad Mashayekhi, Ziba Zahiri, Akram Eidi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2022)

This study aimed to investigate the polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase -3 (MMP-3) gene and its expression in the serum of infertile female patients received in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). To do so, 100 women with unsuccessful IVF-ET (IVF) and 100 women with successful IVF-ET procedure and clinical pregnancy (IVF+) were included. Genetic polymorphism and serum concentration of MMP3 were investigated by ARMS-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The results showed no significant association between MMP-3 gene polymorphism and IVF-ET outcome among the two groups studied. However, a significant decrease in the concentration of MMP-3 serum in the IVF group was observed in comparison with the IVF+ group (P=0.000002). Moreover, we showed that the serum MMP-3 levels in CC, AC and AA genotypes in the IVF group were 33, 65.33 and 86 ng/ml, respectively. In conclusion, while there is no significant difference between MMP-3 promoter polymorphism and IVF-ET outcome between the IVF+ and IVF- groups, a significant decrease in MMP-3 serum levels in IVF- group was seen as compared with the IVF+ group. It could be also suggested that the CC genotype is associated with a decreased level of MMP-3 serum concentration and may be associated with IVF-ET failure.

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