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Seddighe Bagheri Ziari, Tahere Naji, Homayoun Hosseinzade Sahafi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2015)
Abstract

Origanum vulgare was used as an effective herbal for infertility treatment in traditional medicine. The present study compared the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the air branch of Origanum vulgare, LHRH-A2, and17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of oocyte and pituitary in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. For this purpose 60 pieces of Trichogaster trichopterus with average weight of 2.1±1gram were divided into 6 groups: saline, placebo, ethanol and 3 experimental groups (Origanum vulgare and 17β-estradiol at a dose of 50 mg/kg and LHRH-A2 at a dose of 0.005 mg/kg) (each group 10 fish). Fish were injected intra-muscularly, one dose every other day and seven doses in total. Ultrastructure of oocyte and anterior pituitary in the three treatments were measured and compared with control treatments. The results showed that the size of oocytes follicle and the mean diameter of Golgi vesicles in Origanum vulgare treatment was higher than that in LHRH-A2 treatment, but there were lesser than that in 17beta-estradiol treatment (p≤0.05). The results of the ultrastructural comparision of the anterior pituitary showed that in Origanum vulgare treatment the number of small cells increased and made a few large granules in gonadotroph cells. In fish treated with 17β-estradiol the number of large granules increased significantly, whereas in LHRH-A2 treatment large granules were lysed and stimulation was complete. The present results suggested that the Origanum vulgare affected Trichogaster trichopterus fertility.


Farrokh Ghahremaninejad, Najibe Ataei, Atiye Nejad Falatoury,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)
Abstract

Considering fundamental changes in the classification of angiosperms, based on phylogenetic studies, makes revising and updating Floras inevitable. Hence, in this paper, changes in the flora of Afghanistan have been listed and compared with the flora of Iran. As the latest studies indicate, according to APG IV system, the flora of Afghanistan comp-rises 40 orders, 130 families, about 1030 genera and 5065 species of angiosperms. In comparison the flora of Iran comprises 42 orders, 139 families, nearly 1252 genera and 8090 species of angiosperms. Moreover, the two countries share 39 orders, 124 families, 844 genera and about 1800 species. In Afghanistan the largest number of families belongs to Lamiales and in Iran to Caryophyllales. Asteraceae contains the largest number of genera in both countries. As far as the number of species in concerned, the largest angiosperms family in Afghanistan is Asteraceae, but in Iran it is Fabaceae. The most diverse ge-nera of both countries are Astragalus and Cousinia respectively. Gymnosperms have two orders, four families, seven genera and 22 species in Afghanistan, while in Iran they have two orders, three families, five genera and 17 species. By adding 58 species of pteridophytes and 311 species of bryophytes to Afghanistan’s flora and 60 species of pteridophytes and 534 spec-ies of bryophytes to Iran’s flora, in total, Embryophyta have approximately 5460 species in Afghanistan and 8700 species in Iran.



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