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Showing 8 results for Ahmadi

Elham Ahmadi, Nasim Aghaei Delche,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-2024)

       Continuous environmental monitoring is one of the important principles of management and is environmental assessment axis, and molluscs are one of the biological indicators of ecosystem quality. For this purpose, snails and slugs were collected and identified in the east of Tehran province which during it according to the availability, habitat diversity and geomorphological differences in more than 3251 samples from five microclimates were collected and identified. Specimens were gathered by hand, sweeping net and other techniques from aquatic plants, rotten underwood, shrubs and weeds, their geograical and regional properties were recorded and transfered to laboratory. Then through available morphological identification keys, specimens were identified as 19 species belonging to 13 genera and 10 families based on morphometric characteristics, including (shape and size of operculum, aperture, dextral or sinistral profile of their shell, pneumostome, keel, radula, renal ridge and reproduction system) and the comparison of photos and the identification key of these taxons were prepared and discussed:
Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), Physella acuta (Draparnaud,1805), Lymnaea truncatula (Müller, 1774), , Lymnaea palusris (Müller, 1774) , Lymnaea pereger (Müller, 1774) , Lymnaea gedrosiana (Annandale and Prashad, 1919), Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyraulus euphraticus(Mousson, 1874), Gyraulus convexiusculus (Hutton, 1849), Succinea putris (Linnaeus, 1758), Helicella krynickii (Krynicki, 1833), Helicella derbentina(Krynicki, 1836), Caucasotachea atrolabiata (Krynicki, 1833), * Monacha cartusiana (Müller, 1774), Oxychilus herzi (Boettger, 1889), Agriolimax agrestis=Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), *Theba pisana (Müller, 1774), Parmacella ibera Eichwald, 1841, Planorbis carinatus Müller, 1774.
Two species marked with an asterisk are new records for Iranian mollusc fauna. In this study, among the samples collected, the largest families in terms of species diversity are Planorbidae with four species (Planorbis planorbis, Gyraulus euphraticus, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Planorbis carinatus), Lymnaeidae with four species (Lymnaea truncatula, Lymnaea gedrosiana, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea pereger) and Helicidae with four species: Helicella krynickii, Helicella derbentina, Caucasotachea atrolabiata, Theba pisana. The highest and lowest species diversity among the identified species with 18 and 5 species are related to stations 4 and 5 of the investigated areas respectively. The whole collection will be kept permanently in the Zoology Museum of Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection.
Mansour Afsharmohammdian, Faezeh Ghanati, Sara Ahmadiani, Kamal Sadrzamani,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2016)

Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) from the Lamiaceae family is a medicinal plant which has great antioxidant properties. Environmental stresses such as drought can result in changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of some biochemical factors in plants. In this investigation, the effects of drought stress on the activity of supe-roxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde and soluble sugars content in pennyroyal shoots and roots were evaluated. To create the water deficit, 24-day seedlings of pennyroyal were placed in 1/2 strength Hoagland solution, containing PEG 6000 (0 and 5% (w/v)) for 24 hours. The results showed that drought stress incr-eased catalase activity and lipid peroxidation and decreased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity of the shoots. On the other hand, the activity of catalase and peroxidase increased in the roots. Ascorbate peroxidase activity showed no significant difference in the shoots and the roots. Moreover, drought stress significantly increased the amount of so-luble sugars of glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnosus in the shoots. Therefore, the increased activity in antioxidant enzymes as well as the amount of soluble sugars under drought stress might be a sign of tolerance of M. pulegium under low levels of drought.

Marzieh Beygom Faghir, Atefe Ahmadi Gorji, Mehdi Heydari,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Floral morphology of 24 species of the genus Alchemilla in Iran was studied by means of light and digital mi-croscopes. Flower samples were collected from different species and their morphological traits, including hypanthium, calyx, epicalyx, pedicels, ovaries and stamens, were measured. The most useful features for the separation of species were turned out to be the calyx shape and length, trichomes position on calyx and pedicle. Principal Component Anal-ysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were used to determine the potential contribution of floral morphological char-acters in the expression of species relationships. A total of 17 qualitative and quantitative characters were utilized in both analyses. The results of UPGMA and PCA methods were found to be consistent and in agreement with current classifications.
Karim Mahnam, Fatemeh Mirahmadi Babaheidari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

The XIAP protein is a member of apoptosis proteins family. The XIAP protein plays a central role in the inhibition of apoptosis and consists of three Baculoviral IAP Repeat domains. The BIR3 domain binds directly to the N-terminal of caspase-9 and therefore it inhibits apoptosis. N-terminal tetrapeptide region of SMAC protein can bind to BIR3, inhibit it and subsequently induce apoptosis. In this study, fifteen tetrapeptides were docked into the BIR3 domain and then 10 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed on each of the BIR3-peptide complex obtained from docking. MM/PBSA method was subsequently used to calculate the binding free energy of peptides to BIR3. The results of MM/PBSA method were in good coordination with docking and existing expermental results.  The results showed the most potent peptides with the lowest binding free energy for binding to BIR3 included ATPF, AKPW and ARPF peptides. Also, investigation of bonds between these peptides and BIR3 domain in the final structure of complexes showed that Leu 307, Thr 308, Glu 314 and Tyr 324 of the BIR3 domain were essential for binding of peptides. Energy decomposition results for binding these peptides to the BIR3 domain during MD simulation was inconsistent with previous results and approved the roles of the same residues. The higher affinity of these peptides relative to native peptide (AVPI) and comparing them with other peptides revealed that the existence of positive charge in the second position and the existence of the aromatic group in the fourth position led to more binding affinity.

Leila Karami, Mohammad Modarresi, Mohammad Amin Kohanmoo, Ms Fatemeh Zahabi Ahmadi, Dr Saeed Irian,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Polyploidy induction in German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by herbicide trifluralin
Leila Karami1, Mohammad Modarresi2, Mohammad Amin Kohanmoo2, Fatemeh Zahabi Ahmadi2 & Saeed Irian3
1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iran; 2Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iran; 3Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Correspondent author: Leila Karami,
Abstract. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a medicinal herb belonging to Asteraceae family. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of trifluralin on the induction of polyploidy in chamomile. Two independent full factorial experiments on seedlings and 2-leaf stage apical buds were performed.  Following morphological, biochemical and cytogenetic analysis, chromosome numbers of 18 and 36 were detected for diploid and tetraploid types, respectively. Morphological and biochemical examinations revealed that an increase in the number of full chromosome set results in a reduction in stomata number per unit area as well as an increase in stomata size, chloroplast number, and chlorophyll content. Induction of ploidy level increments also reduced plant height and increased the number of lateral branches, leaf size, and diameters of stems, flowers and receptacles. It is concluded that a concentration of 22.5 µM trifluralin in both methods is optimum for the production of tetraploid chamomile with the highest rate of polyploidy induction and the lowest percentage of abnormality.
Neda Tanbaccochi Moghadami, Homira Hatami Nemati, Gholamreza Dehghan, Seyyed Mehdi Banan Khojast, Hatam Ahmadi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2020)

Malathion is one of the commonest type of organophosphate insecticide whose toxicity in human body is mainly considered to result from the induction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, on the spatial memory and oxidative stress parameters during Malathion poisoning in male Wistar rats. This study was performed on nine groups, each of which consisted of eight male rats. Three days after intra-peritoneal injection of Quercetin, Malathion or a combination of these two drugs, the Moris Water-Maze apparatus was used to measure spatial memory parameters. The hippocampus was sampled and the oxidative stress parameters were measured in this area. Intra-peritoneal injection of Malathion (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly reduced spatial memory parameters (P<0.01) and induced oxidative stress (P<0.001), whereas intra-peritoneal injection of quercetin (50 mg/kg) improved spatial memory in Malathion-poisoned experimental rats (P<0.05). Also, oxidative stress parameters in Malathion-treated groups showed a significant reduction in quercetin treatment (P<0.01). Quercetin was observed to restore the function of spatial memory and the level of oxidative stress parameters of the treated groups with Malathion to the normal level.
Tahereh Sadat Mirahmadi, Farhad Valizadegan, Maryam Rahimi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Hippocampus is a key structure in anxiety processing and memory storage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between GABAergic systems in CA1 area of hippocampus with morphinergic system in modulating of these behaviors. In this study, male wistar rats were cannulated with stereotaxic surgery in CA1 site. After a recovery period, morphine (µ opioid receptor agonist) was injected intraperitoneal, muscimol and bicuculline (GABAA receptor agonist and antagonist) were injected into the CA1. Parameters such as percentage of Open arms time (%OAT) and entries (%OAE) were calculated by means of an EPM apparatus. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that intraperitoneal administration of morphine increased %OAT and %OAE, indicating the anxiolytic effect of morphine. Based on paired sample T-test, the rate of memory formation improved. Pre-test intra-CA1 infusion of muscimol and bicuculline induced anxiolytic-like and anxiogenic-like behaviors, respectively; meanwhile, both drugs improved memory. Systemic injections of an effective dose of morphine combined with triple doses of muscimol showed a synergistic effect on memory formation and anxiety reduction. Simultaneous injection of morphine and bicuculline altered the negative effects of the latter on anxiety and increased the memory formation. This finding showed that GABAergic and opioidergic systems have similar effects on memory and anxiety in CA1 area.
Mina Azhary, Elham Ahmadi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Molluscs are important pests of natural and agricultural ecosystems, by feeding on different parts of leaves, stems, flowers, buds, fruits and roots of different plant hosts, reducing the marketability of annual agricultural products and damage plant species in different habitats in the country. Moreover, they are intermediate hosts of human and cattle parasites, and therefore are of medicinal and veterinary importance. In this study, snails and slugs were sampled from nine designated stations located in the south and west regions of Tehran province, considering their natural condition, vegetation, location of gardens and fields, soil or subsoil types, from the beneath of rocks and trunks, water bodies and other areas related to the habitat of snails and slugs. Samples were made using sampling nets or gathered directly by hand from plants, shrubs and river banks. Overally, 17 species belonging to 12 genera from nine families were collected and identified. Identification was done according to morphometric characters including shape, size of shell, dextral and sinistral position of the shell, operculum, aperture, radula, mucus colour, respiratory pore, keel, renal ridge and reproduction system. The highest and lowest mollusc species diversity among the stations studied were turned to be 16 and 6 species belong to station 9 (west of Tehran province) and station 2 (south of Tehran province), respectively. The most commonly diversed family was Hellicidae with 5 species, i.e., Monacha cantiana, Euomphalia pisiformis, Helicella krynickii, Helicella derbentina, Caucasotachea atrolabiata. Also, Lymnaea truncatula is identified as the most frequent species, which has medical importance. Monacha cantiana was identified in the present study and reported for the first time from Iran. All the samples and their respective spatial and temporal information were made available in the museum of the Agricultural Zoology Research Department in Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection.

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