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Parisa Mohammadi, Habibian Mahsa , Mohammad Reza Soudi Soudi , Asgarani Ezat ,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)

Microbial analysis of ground water, as the sole supplying water source in many areas, must be evaluated. Because the treatment of water cannot remove all pathogenic bacteria leaked from domestic wastewater, bacterial analysis of Bojnourd groundwater sources was performed. For this reason, membrane filter (MF) technique and Most Probable Number (MPN) method were used to evaluate the microbial quality of the water. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enteroccocus faecalis (E. faecalis) were traced as excremental indices. E. coli was detected from three out of six stations and E. faecalis was only isolated from one station. Although molecular techniques are very rapid and exact methods for detection of microbial community and can identify ‘Viable But Not Cultivable’ (VBNC) bacteria, they are unable to make a distinction between living and non-living microorganisms. By means of a standard technique, it is possible to study living and metabolically active microorganisms. Due to the detection of E.coli and E.feacalis in some stations the sanitization of groundwater must be revised to lessen the microbial population in this groundwater.

Samaneh Mahdiyani, Ali Sattarian, Meisam Habibi, Tayebeh Amini,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2016)

Rhamnus L. is the genus of Rhamnaceae in Iran with nearly eight species. These species are used as valuable shrubs. This research was carried out in order to investigate the anatomical leaf. Samples from nine populations of Rhamnus pallasii and Rhamnus cathartica were taken. Treatment specimen cover various habitats from north of Iran, moreover herbarium samples were taken into account. The results presented two forms of epidermal cells such as Polygonal and irregular cells in addition, waved and straight anti-clinical walls were observed in R. pallasii subsp. pallasii and R. pallasii subsp. sintensii. Two types of stomata were demonstrated like anemositic and parasitic in two main species. Some characters e.g. thrichome, parenchyma, collenchyma layers were determined to finding some similarity among treatment specimen.

Razieh Kasalkheh, Eisa Jorjani, Hossein Sabouri, Meisam Habibi, Ali Sattarian,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Pollen grains of 7 species of the genus Rubus L. were investigated using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 14 different pollen characters were described, illustrated and compared in the present st-udy. All pollen grains were monad, tricolporate, radially symmetrical, isopolar, and medium in size. As for pollen sh-ape, 3 forms were recognized in the same specimens: prolate, perprolate and prolate-spheroidal. Endopore was located in the middle of colpi. The sculpture of the grains was confirmed to have striate pattern. The size of perforation and the orientation of the muri were compared and appeared to indicate the differences between the species. R.caesius, R. disc-olor, R. dolichocarpus and R. hirtus appear to have steriate-scabrate sculpture; in contrast, R. hyrcanus Juz., R. persicus Boiss. and R. sanctus Schreber. appear to have meandrical and fingerprint-like sculpture. Perforations are of two types. They are either large or often extending to tectal ridges or minute holes. Characters of pollen grains were proved their usefulness for separating taxa at the specific level. It seems that there is a link between the diversity of pollens and the vegetation habitats.

Babak Hassan Khan, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Kazem Parivar, Azadeh Ebrahim Habibi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2022)

Irisin is a myokine secreted mostly by muscles after exercise, and its secretion level changes in metabolic disorders. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of metformin on changes in the levels of plasma irisin, blood glucose and insulin resistance in male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a high-fat emulsion diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into a normal control group (n = 8) and a high-fat diet group (n = 16). Then, high-fat diet group was divided into two subgroups, including high-fat diet control group (n = 8) and metformin group (n = 8). The normal control group received a standard diet. The high-fat diet control group received a high-fat emulsion diet containing corn oil by gavage on a daily basis for six weeks, and the metformin group received a high-fat emulsion diet with metformin (250 mg/kg/daily). At the end of the six-week period, factors such as glucose, insulin, irisin, Adiponectin, insulin resistance, liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), serum lipid profile, lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in liver were measured and PGC-1α gene expression were examined in adipose tissue by Real-time PCR method. Liver histological tests with hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed to evaluate fat accumulation in liver tissue. Blood glucose level, insulin resistance, adiponectin, serum irisin level and liver lipid profile in the group receiving high-fat diet compared to the normal control group increased significantly (P <0. 05). Treatment with metformin caused a significant decrease in the level of these parameters compared to the high-fat diet group (P <0. 05) and an increase in the expression of PGC-1α gene in adipose tissue was observed in this group. As insulin resistance increased in rats receiving the high-fat diet, serum irisin level also increased, and with improving blood glucose and insulin resistance by metformin, serum irisin level was decreased. These results suggested that the elevated irisin levels may be a compensatory response to insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism. Hence, irisin could be considered as a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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