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Massoud Ranjbar, Azam Pakatchi, Tayebeh Radjabian,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)

In this research, plant morphology and pollen micromorphology of 14 populations of 3 species belonging to two sections Plethiosphace and Hemisphace of Salvia genus in Iran were studied. In the morphological study 25 quantitative and qualitative characters were investigated and the results clearly separated the species into two groups. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 4 quantitative characters were examined by light microscopy. Data was processed by principal component analysis method. Results indicated that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous and all of them were 6-colpate with reticulate ornamentation, a considerable variation in the quantitative characters studied turned out to exist. However among the characters studied, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant and based on these characters the members of these sections can be divided into two groups.

Abdolkarim Chehregani Rad, Fariba Mohsenzadeh , Soulmaz Ekhtari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)

Although there is extensive literature on different aspects of floral structure and embryology in Ranunculaceae, the distribution of developmental studies on the family is inharmonic. Studies on some genera are extensive, but others have been less extensively investigated or some may have remained unstudied. This research is an attempt to study the developmental stages of ovule in Consolida orientalis. The flowers and buds in different developmental stages were sectioned at 7-10 μm with a microtome. Staining was performed with hematoxylin and eusine. The sections were studied by means of a light microscope. Results indicated that ovules are anatropous, bitegumic and crassinucellate. The megaspore tetrads are linear or nonlinear. The development of embryo sac belongs to the Polygonum type, but the presence of Allium type was also abundant in other species of this family. On the contrary to the common Polygonum type, the antipodal cells are large, persistent, and highly polyploid and remain uninucleate. They penetrate the embryo sac under the pressure provided by postament degenerate in the cellular stage of endosperm

Roya Karamian, Zahra Hajmoradi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)

Trigonella L. is one of the important genera of the family Fabaceae, many species of which have nutritional and medicinal properties. In this investigation, morphological characters related to habit and pollen grain of three Trigonella species i.e., T. disperma, T. subenervis and T. aphanoneura were studied. Oils from the aerial parts of two species were investigated by GC and GC/MS methods and compared with T. disperma, which had been studied in advance. T. subenervis represented oils rich in spathulenol (15.1%). It also contained a small amount of germacrene D (0.6%). T. aphanoneura also represented oils rich in spathulenol (10.4%). The amount of four compounds in this species was ≤1%, and n-octyl acetate was the lowest component in quantity. According what we found out, phytochemical and morphological data could clarify the relationships among the Trigonellaspecies better than pollen morphological data

Seyyedeh Madjideh Mohammadnejad Ganji, Hossein Moradi, Ali Ghanbari, Mohammad Akbarzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Secondary metabolites have great pharmaceutical value in medicine. This study evaluates the effect of alti-tude on the amount and variety of secondary metabolites in lavender plant from two sites located in Mazandaran prov-ince. Sampling was performed in a randomized design with three replications. After the plants were dried, essential oil was extracted by distillation. Isolation and identification of constituents of the oil were performed by gas chromato-graphy and gas chromatography connected to mass spectroscopy. The results of this research led to the identification of 22 (99.96% of the total constituents) and 24 (97.01% of the total constituents) constituents in Baladeh and Behshahr sa-mples, respectively. Characteristics constituents included Andoyorneol (22.36%), 1, 8 cineole (20.7%), camphor (8.69%), α-Cadinol (7.60%), Caryophyllene oxide (5.09%) and Propanol (18.4%) in Behshahr population samples and Borneol (26.78%), 1, 8 cineole (20.19%), camphor (9.59%), α-Cadinol (5.80%), caryophyllene oxide (4.99%) and pr-opanol (3.41%) in Baladeh population samples. The differences in the output and combination of the essential oils in-dicated that the environmental as well as genetic factors can affect the production and amounts of the chemical comp-ounds in medical plants. Therefore, medicinal plants should be cultured in proper areas based on the aim of cultivation and the desired type of active materials.
Ghazanfar Vaisi, Ahmad Mohtadi, Ali Moradi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

In order to investigate different treatment effects on germination in Gundelia tournefortii, three factorial experiments were carried out in the completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was stratification at 4oC in three levels including 0, 3 and 6 weeks, the second factor was mechanical scarification in two levels including seeds with/without scarification and the third factor was chemical treatments of seed dormancy breaking in three levels including distilled water and gibberellic acid at concentrations of 1000 and 1500 mg/l and Thiourea 0.1%. The results showed that the effects of stratification, scarification and chemical treatments of dormancy breaking and their interactions were significant on all studied parameters (p<0.01). Mean comparison values were significant for the effects of spate treatments together with mechanical scarification for the improvement of all traits. The results also revealed that treatment of mechanical scarification treatment together with gibberellic acid 1000 mg/l in six weeks stratification, due to maximum germination speed, seedling dry weight, seedling length, large-scale germination percentage and seedling vigor index and modest average germination period, was the most influential treatment for seed dormancy breaking of this plant. Correlation between germination percentage with germination rate, dry weight and seedling length was significant. It seems that seed dormancy type in Gundelia tournefortii is physiological and physical, as eliminating physiological and physical factors leads to its germination improvement.
Maryam Rafieirad, Zeinab Eydipour, Shahrbanoo Alami Rostami,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

In patients with cerebral ischemia, both during hospitalization and in the community, the prevalence of major depression is evident. Since the depression has a negative impact on recovery, its timely diagnosis and treatment is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the oral administration of Chevilan extract (Ferulago angulata hydroalcoholic extract; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on brain oxidative stress indices and depression after permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion or ischemia/hypoperfusion in male adult rats. A number of 35 rats were divided into a control group, an ischemic group and ischemic groups receiving doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of Chevilan extracts for 14 days by gavage. To make animal models of permanent cerebral hypo perfusion/ischemia, right common carotid artery was ligatured first and the left one ligatured with an interval of one week. To evaluate depression, immobility in the forced swimming time of each rat was measured and then the rat’s brain tissues were extracted to separate hippocampus and measure malondialdehyde. The results showed that ischemia/hypoperfusion increased brain oxidants such as lipid per oxidation (LPO) and immobility. Also, ischemic rats treated with all three doses of the Chevilan show significant reduction in the concentration of MDA hippocampus and in immobility time at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 / 400mg, respectively. Increased swimming time was observed in all three groups of extract recipients. It was found that Chevilan extract with antioxidant effect can reduce the side effects of ischemia such as depression.
Azra Saboora, Maryam Amiri Rad, Ezat Asgarani, Tayebeh Radjabian,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

DNA extraction from plant tissues often causes most problems. For example, unsuccessful removal secondary metabolites during extraction, such as phenolic compounds in aromatic and medicinal plants, cause to some mistakes in result of molecular experiments by using of the extracted DNA. Achillea wilhelmsii is a medicinal plant belong to Asteraceae family and native to Iran, there is little information about genomic data in this plant. Therefore, optimizing of the DNA extraction methods for obtaining suitable quality and quantity yield is necessary. In this study, two traditional DNA extraction methods (using fresh and herbarium leaf samples) and commercial DNA kit MAGNANTM in Yarrow have been compared. Results showed that DNA extracted from fresh leaves of yarrow according to Khanuja et al. (1999) was better than the other methods which mentioned in this research, because of the increased amount of extracted DNA and reduced harmful compounds such as RNA, polysaccharides, protein and secondary metabolites. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA from herbarium specimens showed that, in spite of the high yielding DNA (10-50 fold ratio to the other methods), quality of this extract was low on agarose gel because of smear and broken down the molecules. It can be considered as a limitation of the extract in molecular experiments. Procedure of MAGNANTM DNA kit was appropriate for reducing time and cost of the extraction as well as low contamination to protein and RNA, but the process needs some modifications for yarrow to increase the amount of extracted DNA.
Maneezheh Pakravan, Sahar Moradpoor, Azizollah Jafari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Vegetation is one of the most important parts of natural ecosystems that in addition to express of the growth conditions, it also shows the influence of ecological factors on the environmental condition. Investigations of plant diversity of a country are necessary for studyingthe ecosystem, pasture, plant gene bank, agriculture and medicine. On the one hand, identification of plant species of different regions provide feasibility of doing of next studies in the different fields of biological science. In this research the flora of Tang sorkh region in the Kohgiloyeh county from Kohgiloyeh-va boyerahmad province has been investigated. The area of mentioned region is 5000 hectares and it is located in 30 kilometers from the east of Yasuj. Maximum altitude of the area was between 1800-2800 m. Our research has started by collecting the essential information of the region. The plants of region have been collected and prepared for studying. several floras were used for identification the specimens and they are preserved in Alzahra University herbarium (ALUH). This investigation showed that in the Tang sorkh region, there are 46 families, 145genera, 172 species that include 6/97% of phanerophytes, 5/23% chamephyts, 43/60%hemicryptophytes, 13/95% geophytes, 28/48% therophytes. Analyses shows that most of species of region belongs to the Iran-o-Turanian region which contanins 5/69% of region’s flora. 23 species are endemic to Iran, 20 of which are rare species, 30 species are medicinal plant, 22 of which are poison. Totaly about 172 species has identified. 20 species are recorded for the first time from this province.

Fereshteh Heidargholinejad, Hossein Moradi, Mahnaz Karimi, Vahid Akbarpour,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2019)

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) contains valuable secondary metabolites such as Dopamin, Noradrenaline and Omega-3. This plant is used in various medicinal, food and hygienic industries as well as the treatment of different diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and pain relief. Callus induced from medicinal plants are used to increase the production of secondary metabolities in cell suspension culture and gene transfer. The purpose of this experiment was the study of different concentrations of BAP and 2,4-D of two explants from leaf and shoot tips to produce callus. Leaf and shoot tip explants were used in MS with different concentrations of BAP at three levels (0, 1 and 2 mg/L) with 2,4-D at three levels (0, 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L). Results showed that interactions between hormones and explants were significant in the percentage of callus induction, fresh weight and callus diameter at 1% level. The best result which was the leaf explant with 100% callus induction, 121 mg fresh weight and 5.106 mm callus diameter was obtained by the combination of BAP 2 mg/L and 2,4-D 0.5 mg/L. Shoot tip explants with 75% callus induction, 106 mg fresh weight and 3.03 mm diameter was obtained by the application of 1 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D.
َamjad Saedi, Hossein Moradi, Mahnaz Karimi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (1-2020)

Aloe vera L. is one of the most valuable plants in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, sanitary and food industries. In vitro culture is used for commercial production and due to the abundant application of this plant, extensive research has been performed on the in vitro culture of Aloe vera. For this purpose, the present study was conducted at two stages. At the first stage, the best method of sterilization of explants derived from Aloe vera offshoots was investigated. At the second stage, the effect of the type of explants, the light condition (dark and bright) and the effect of BAP (Benzyl Amino Purine) and NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid)) growth regulators on regeneration and the amount of phenolic compounds were studied. A factorial experiment was executed on the basis of a completely randomized design with three replications. The best sterilization protocol was 0.1% mercuric chloride (for 2 minutes), 70% ethanol (for 30 seconds) and 15% sodium hypochlorite (for 5 minutes). The little white explant derived from the base of leaves, with the lowest percentage of phenol and the highest survival rate (67.5%) in darkness, was found to be the best candidate. MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg / L BAP and 0.25 mg / L NAA resulted in the highest stem number (2.5) and stem length (42.107 mm), establishment percentage (73%), leaf number (6.33), leaf diameter (4.8 mm), chlorophyll b (9.216 mg/g) and carotenoids (4.81 mg/g). The highest content of chlorophyll a (56.07 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (61.35 mg/g) were found in samples treated with hormonal medium, supplemented with 1.5 mg / L of BAP with 0.5 mg / L of NAA. The maximum number (3) and average length (33.3 mm) of roots were observed in samples treated with the hormone-free medium.

Salimeh Raeisi, Dr Ahmad Molaei Rad, Mino Sadri, Hamideh Rouhani Nejad,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2021)

Tetanus is caused by the toxin secreted by Clostridium tetani. Due to the rapid infection with this bacterium, it is so important to investigate the tetanus immunity of people. Therefore, electrochemical biosensors, as one of the most effective tools in this regard, have demanded characteristics such as being fast, simple, cost-effective and portable. However, their detection sensitivity is not sufficient. Hereon, silver enhancement of gold-nanoparticles was proposed for the improvement of detection. Hence, the current study applied gold-nanoparticles as label, following with silver enhancement, to investigate the yes/no electrochemical detection of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies in the indirect immunoassay utilizing glassy-carbon electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes. The analytical procedure consists of the reactions of the tetanus toxoid with the antibody at electrode, so that followed by the interaction of gold-labeled secondary antibody and then silver enhancement process. In this study, the cyclic-voltammeter variation and difference of gold to silver signal based on silver ions fluctuations were also investigated. The results indicated that ∆Ep increased from 0.24 V before silver enhancement reaction to 0.57 V after the silver enhancement. The results also demonstrated that after silver enhancement, current significantly increased and current plot at Ecp transferred to positive potentials and at Eap moved to negative potentials. In conclusion, this method increases the detection sensitivity and can simply use to other bio-molecules detection.

Alireza Amini Hajiabadi, Asghar Mosleh Arani, Someh Ghasemi, Mohammad Hadi Rad, Shima Shabazi, Hassan Etesami,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2021)

Salinity stress is an important challenge for wheat production in the world. Plant growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria, isolated from halophytic plants, can increase the tolerance of crop plants to salinity by direct and indirect mechanisms. In this study, plant growth-promoting traits of bacterial strains (Bacillus safensis, Bacillus pumilus and Zhihengliuella halotolerans), isolated from the rhizosphere of several halophyte plants, were deterimined and their effects on some vegetative traits and ionic content of wheat plant irrigated with saline water ( 0.2, as control,  4, 8 and 16 dS/m) were measured. Result showed that all three bacteria were able to produce auxin, hydrogen cyanide, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and soluble phosphate. The increase in salinity levels caused increase in the concentration of sodium and decrease in the concentration of potassium, calcium and phosphorus in wheat leaves, as well as decrease in stem length, shoot and root dry weight, root to shoot dry weight ratio and total biomass. In wheat plants irrigated with saline water and inoculated with the bacterial strains, sodium concentration decreased up to 17.7% and concentrations of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium to sodium ratio increased up to 33, 25.7, 200.4 and 41%, respectively. The most efficient bacterium was found to be Z. halotolerans. All bacterial isolates also increased stem length, shoot and root dry weight, root to shoot dry weight ratio and total biomass by 17, 58.6, 137, 88 and 66 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that the plant growth-promoting bacteria of rangeland halophytic plants potentionally improve the growth indices of wheat plants in saline conditions. These results also showed that the rhizosphere of halophytic plants in rangelands can be a good source for the isolation of salinity-resistant bacteria to improve the resistance of wheat plants to salinity.
Ali Reza Radkhah, Soheil Eagderi, Hadi Poorbagher, Hashem Nowferesti,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Gambusia holbrooki Girard, 1859 is considered as one of the non-native and invasive species in the inland waters of Iran. This species occurs in most inland basins and aquatic bodies of Iran and has even been found in brackish waters. Extensive adaptations of this species to its different habitats caused numerous changes in its biological characteristics and morphological traits. The present study was performed to investigate the sexual dimorphism of G. holbrooki in the Gamasiab River, Kermanshah Province, Iran. 59 fish specimens were collected from the river in September 2017. After taxonomic confirmation and sex determination, 29 morphological traits were measured in fish samples using a caliper and their meristic traits were recorded. In total, 37 characters (including 8 meristic traits and 29 morphometric traits) were examined. After obtaining morphological data, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) were utilized to compare morphological traits between male and female individuals. The results showed that the 59 specimens were comprised of 30 malea and 29 femalea. On the basis of the results, all morphological traits, except the caudal peduncle length, dorsal fin base length and a post-anal length, showed significant sexual dimorphism (p <0.05). The results of DFA and PCA analysis showed that males and females were completely different from each other in terms of morphometric traits. These findings indicate that there is a sexual dimorphism in G. holbrooki of the Gamasiab River. The sexual dimorphism observed in this fish species is due to the sexual selection and increase of reproductive success.

Hadigheh Saebmehr, Farnaz Rafiee, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Golaleh Mostafavi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

In the present study, two regulatory phytohormones, abscisic acid and auxin, were extracted from two different macroalgae, Sargassum muticum and Gracilaria corticata, for the first time. Sampling was performed each month with three replicates, from Bushehr Province shores located in the north region of Persian Gulf for six alternative months. The alteration of seaweeds biomass and the probable impacts of some environmental factors were measured. The extracted phytohormones were isolated employing HPLC method and identified by injection of standards. The highest amount of ABA phytohormone in the two species, occurred in November. Also, the highest amount of Auxin in Sargassum muticum was reported in May, while the highest amount of this hormone in Gracilaria corticata was observed in January. In January, the maximum mean biomass in Sargassum muticum was 679gr/m2, while the minimum mean of 20.66gr/m2 was observed in September. Moreover, the highest average biomass in Gracilaria corticata was 423/33gr/m2 in March and the lowest mean of 158g/m2 was reported in November. ANOVA and Chi-squared test results showed a significant difference in all samples. These phytohormones could be applied in preparing algae liquid fertilizer in future studies.
Mahdi Alijanianzadeh, Alireza Jalalvand, Rasoul Khalilzadeh, Maryam Abdolirad,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2023)

S-layer proteins of Deinococcus radiodurans are the best self-assemble systems among other proteins that have an essential role in the fabrication of nanowires. Therefore, the purification of these proteins is necessary. The purpose of this research was to optimize the purification of s-layer protein from D. radiodurans with the response surface method. The three factors of SDS concentration, incubation time and mass percent in five levels were considered, and 20 runs were designed by Design-Expert software with a central composite method. Each run includes microbe culture, mass cell preparation, microbe incubation in specific SDS concentration and time and mass percent, separation of the bacteria from detergent with a centrifuge at 5000g, sedimentation of s-layer proteins from detergent solution with a centrifuge at 20000g, determination of protein concentration, and protein purity by Bradford and SDS-PAGE methods, respectively. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed.  Analysis of the results demonstrated that at the 95% confidence level, the effect of the detergent concentration factor on the purified protein percent was more than other factors. The optimization results of factors are 5.64% SDS concentration, 7.33% mass percent, and 3 hours incubation time. At optimized conditions the protein concentration and purity percent were obtained 0.584 mg/ml and 47.61% respectively.


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