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Neda Rezazadeh, Javad Baharara, Khadijeh Nejad Shahrokhabadi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2023)

Cisplatin, as a chemotherapy drug, causes serious side effects in the advanced stages of the cancer. Recently, Artemisia has been considered for its bioactive compounds, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer and anti-metastatic effects of the methanolic extract of aerial organs of Artemisia and cisplatin, either alone or in combination, in human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. The viability of A2780 cells after treatment with Artemisia extract, cisplatin and their combination was evaluated by MTT assay and the alterations in the morphology of the cell nuclei were examined by DAPI staining. The induction of apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V test, cell migration and changes in expression levels of apoptotic genes (Bax and P53) and metastasis (MMP2 and MMP9) using real-time PCR. MTT test data showed that Artemisia extract, cisplatin and their combination decreased the viability of ovarian cancer cells. DAPI and Annexin V indicated the DNA fragmentation and increased percentage of cellular apoptosis in comparison with the control group. The migration and real-time PCR data showed a decline in thr cell invasion and expression of genes involved in metastasis (MMP2 and MMP9) in cancer cells while the expression of apoptotic genes (Bax and P53) was increased in the treated groups. The results of this study showed that while both Artemisia extract and cisplatin posses anti-proliferative effect, apoptotic and suitable anti-metastatic effects on their own in A2780 cell line, their combination have synergic effects and posses those desired properties in lower concentration of cisplatin, which can reduce the side effects of cisplatin in cancer treatment.

Narjes Rezazadeh Moghadam, Asghar Zamani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (3-2024)

The family Verbenaceae, currently consists of Verbena and Phyla genera in different parts of Iran, especially northern provinces. The frame of this family has undergone significant changes in comparison with the previous references. For example, Vitex and Clerodendrum have been defined as the genera of this family in previous references. Accordingly, in this study, the relationship among these four genera has been evaluated using morphological and leaf anatomical characters of 20 samples. For this purpose, 67 qualitative and quantitative morphological and anatomical traits were used. The analysis of data was performed using R software ver. 4.3.1. For simultaneous analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, Factor Analysis of Mixed Data (FAMD) method was applied. The results of this study indicate the high value of some quantitative traits such as main vein xylem length, seed width, style length and blade width and some qualitative traits such as blade epidermal cells shape, stomata position, two arms of blade position in relation to each other, indumentum type, main vein epidermal cells shape, petal color, blade vascular bundles number, density of indumentum, leaf margin shape and stem branches length in the clustering of the genera. Totally, Analysis of data led to the separation of these genera. In accordance with the phylogenetic studies, Vitex and Clerodendrum show more affinity to each other and are separated from the currently native members of Verbenaceae in Iran, i.e. Verbena and Phyla.

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