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Sakineh Kaboli Kafshgiri , Kazem Parivar, Javad Baharara, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Mohammad Amin Kerachian,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)

Chemical pesticides possess toxic and destructive impacts on the reproductive system and disrupt endocrine function. In this experimental study, the effect of movento, as a chemical pesticide, was investigated in comparison with chitosan, a biological pesticide, on the female reproductive system in vivo. In this study, 56 mice were randomly dived into 7 groups including control and experimental groups treated with movento and chitosan. After a 21-day treatment, mice were killed and their ovaries and blood being collected. In addition, the samples were fixed and stained with H & E method. The results exhibited that treatment with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg chitosan had no significant effect on the number and diameter of primary, secondary and antral follicles, while these items were significantly reduced in 10 mg/kg ch-itosan group and all movento-treated groups as well. In addition, the level of sexual hormones, such as estradiol, FSH and LH, was decreased in 10 mg/kg chitosan group and all movento-treated groups in comparison with the control gr-oup. The findings showed that movento affected the sexual hormone levels, ovary and ovarian follicle structure and in-duced abnormality in female reproductive system, while chitosan, as a biological pesticide, should be used due to its minimum effects on female reproductive system

Masoud Nazarizadeh, Mohammad Kaboli, Hamidreza Rezai, Jalil Imani, Alireza Mohammadi, Saeid Khaki,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Abstract. Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea), with 18 subspecies, has a wide distribution in deciduous forests of Eurasia. The subspecies S.e.persica is a resident bird in the Zagros Mountains, from north-west to south-west of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of this subspecies to European, Asian, as well as Caucasian clades. For this purpose, 10 individuals of two populations from Zagros forests in Kermansha and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces were captured and blood samples were collected. Furthermore, we used ND2 sequence data (1041 bp) for 136 sequnces from GenBank. were used from Then genetic variations and Genealogical analysis was calculated using complete ND2 gene sequence (1041bp) and TRN+G model, Bayesian trees and maximum likelihood, respectively. Also, median joining algorithm showed the relationships among haplotypes. We found four new haplotypes for the Zagros populations. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genetic distance between Zagros population and Caucasian clade was significantly small, demonstrating Zagros populations are part of the Caucasian clade. FST statistical values, resulted from Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA), represented significant variations in genetic structure among Eurasian Nuthatch populations. Moreover, FCT revealed significant variation among European, Asian, and Caucasian clades. Overall our result suggests that Eurasian Nuthatch populations in Eurasia comprise three phylogenetic species, and likely biological species. Hoewever, the previous nomenclatured subspecies, S.e.caucasian and S.e.persica, can be considered as a common phylogenetic species.

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