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Showing 11 results for Diversity

Ebrahim H. Najdegerami,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2015)

Recently, concern over environmental and health effects of massive use of antibiotics has led to the growth of bio-control agent application. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a natural polymer that can be depolymerized into water-soluble short-chain fatty acid monomers and acts as a microbial control agent. In this study, the effects of the addition of PHB to the diet of Siberian sturgeon fingerlings by 2% and 5% were investigated. Community Level Physiological Profile (CLPP) was used to analyze anaerobic bacterial metabolic diversity in Siberian sturgeon fingerlings hindgut by using Biolog™ Ecoplate microplates. The results indicated that PHB increased metabolic activity in anaerobic bacteria in sturgeon hindgut. Also Lorenz curve and the Shannon index of Biolog™ Ecoplate data revealed that anaerobic metabolic potential of the bacterial community was different in the PHB-treated fishes compared with the control situation. 

Farrokh Ghahremaninejad, Najibe Ataei, Atiye Nejad Falatoury,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Considering fundamental changes in the classification of angiosperms, based on phylogenetic studies, makes revising and updating Floras inevitable. Hence, in this paper, changes in the flora of Afghanistan have been listed and compared with the flora of Iran. As the latest studies indicate, according to APG IV system, the flora of Afghanistan comp-rises 40 orders, 130 families, about 1030 genera and 5065 species of angiosperms. In comparison the flora of Iran comprises 42 orders, 139 families, nearly 1252 genera and 8090 species of angiosperms. Moreover, the two countries share 39 orders, 124 families, 844 genera and about 1800 species. In Afghanistan the largest number of families belongs to Lamiales and in Iran to Caryophyllales. Asteraceae contains the largest number of genera in both countries. As far as the number of species in concerned, the largest angiosperms family in Afghanistan is Asteraceae, but in Iran it is Fabaceae. The most diverse ge-nera of both countries are Astragalus and Cousinia respectively. Gymnosperms have two orders, four families, seven genera and 22 species in Afghanistan, while in Iran they have two orders, three families, five genera and 17 species. By adding 58 species of pteridophytes and 311 species of bryophytes to Afghanistan’s flora and 60 species of pteridophytes and 534 spec-ies of bryophytes to Iran’s flora, in total, Embryophyta have approximately 5460 species in Afghanistan and 8700 species in Iran.

Maryam Abdoli Nasab, Mehdi Rahimi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (12-2017)

Thirty eight ecotypes of watermelon were collected from different parts of Iran. After the preparation of the field, these eotypes were cultivated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. In order to invest-igate genetic diversity, genomic DNA samples were extracted from leaves and Polymerase chain reactions were optimized using 14 SRAP primer pairs. One hundred thirty six polymorphic bands were detected, of which the EM10-Me4 was the most abundant primer pair with 19 bands and EM16-Me4 and EM16-Me14 were the least primer pairs with 7 bands. PIC index varied from 0.20 to 0.32 and genetic diversity was 0.17 to 0.28 on the basis of Nei index. Fisher's Linear Detection Analysis showed that the UPGMA method and the grouping accuracy of about 90% are more appropriate than other cluster analysis methods. Cluster analysis, using Jakard method, was performed and the ecotypes studied were classified into five distinct groups. Based on the PCA, the first and second components included 92.5% of the variation, which represents the proper distribution of the markers on the whole genome.
Zahra Noormohammadi, Mahnoosh Mohammadzadeh-Shahir, Donya Fahmi, Seyed Mohammad Atyabi, Farah Farahani,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Catharanthus roseus is widely cultivated around the world.  Cold atmosphere plasma (CAP) has been used to improve crop plants seed germination, and plant growth. In the present study, three different times of CAP (40, 50 and 60s) were used for the treatment of C. roseus seeds, and the changes in morphological traits, antioxidant enzymes and the genetic content of the treated plants were examined. Cold plasma (50s) markedly raised the seed germination, length of the leaves and the stem length of the plants in comparison with those in the control group. The catalase and peroxidase enzyme activities had the highest value in 60 and 40 s CAP treated plants, respectively. The sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers showed the highest degree of genetic diversity in 50s cold plasma treated plants (Ne = 1.388, I = 0.316, He = 0.217, uHe = 0.237 and P % = 50.08). Based on Neighbor Joining, principle coordination analysis (PCoA) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test, four significantly distant groups were formed. The 40s and 50s cold plasma treated plants stand far from the control plants due to genetic difference. The results indicate that cold atmosphere plasma could be used as an economic and environmentally safe tool in increasing C. roseus growth characteristics in addition to inducing genetic variations.


Iraj Hashemzadeh, Seyedeh Narjes Tabatabaei, Nabiallah Ghaed Rahmati, Mohsen Amiri , Louis Bernatchez,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2020)

The cave barb habitat is located in a Karst formation along the Sezar River. The springs on the walls of the Sezar River valley may provide a means for fish in surface waters to penetrate into the underground waters. These observations propose the probability for a migratory relationship between Garra gymnothorax in the Sezar River and the cave barbs (Garra typhlops and Garra lorestanensis). In addition, a variety of different body shapes including fusiform and slender body forms are observed among the cave fish. This phenotypical variation may be a sign of an unknown genetic diversity or could be attributed to the variable environmental conditions in different parts of the subterranean habitat. To clarify the situation, we used the sequences of mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I and next generation sequencing method. The results showed that the fusiform and slender body shapes of G. typhlops and G. lorestanensis were not different with regard to their mtDNA and genomic compositions. Moreover, the analysis of the genomic their mtDNA and genomic compositions. Moreover, the analysis of the genomic showed that a limited level of gene flow (less than 3%) from G. gymnothorax probably existed in G. thyphlops. The low level of gene flow may be related to the lower fitness and adaptability of the surface dwelling fish to the subterranean life conditions.
Vida Hojati, Mojtaba Deymekar,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

Taloo and Shirband hunting Prohibited area is located 12 kilometers North-East of Damghan in Semnan Province, south of the Alborz Mountain Chains. It has a cold and dry climate in the winter and warm and dry in the summer. This area has a rich biodiversity, especially in its reptilian fauna. 22 snake species were reported so far from Semnan Province. However, no comprehensice study was executed on the snake flora in Taloo and Shirband hunting prohibited area before the present study. Therfore, the present research was carried out in order to identify the snake fauna by collecting relevant specimens from March to late November of 2014. Sampling was done manually (with safety precautions) by sticking and hooking. The live specimens were identified and photographed and transferred to the laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch. Six metric and meristic traits were measured and analyzed using SPSS17 and Excel softwares. A total number of 45 snake specimens were collected which were belong to 10 species, 8 genera and 4 families, including: Platyceps karelini karelini (Brandt 1838), Platyceps rhodorachis rhodorachis, Platyceps ventrimaculatus ventrimaculatus (Spotted Flat-headed Snake); Hemorrhois ravergieri (Ravergier’s Snake), Telescopus fallax iberus (Iberian Tiger-Snake), Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii (Clifford’s Diadem Snake), Psammophis schokari (Schokari Sand Racer), Eryx miliaris (Dwarf Sand Boa), Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (Blunt Viper) and Pseudocarastes persicus (Persian False Horned Viper). The highest frequency belonged to Spalerosophis diadema cliffordii and the lowest frequency belonged to Telescopus fallax iberus. All species were reported for the first time from the studied area and Eryx miliaris was reported for the Semnan Province faunafor the first time. Out of 8 endemic species of snakes in Iran, only Pseudocarastes persicus was observed in the area.

Sarmad Mahdi Kadhum, Hamid Ejtehadi, Farshid Memariani, Mohammad Bagher Erfanian,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

Overgrazing affects plant communities, and is a significant disturbance factor in arid and semi-arid regions. The immediate changes of plant communities after overgrazing in the disturbed arid ecosystems of Iran have been poorly studied. We recorded data from 100 random samples before and after overgrazing in the Golbahar plain located in the northeastern Iran to determine the changes in the plant physiognomic, species composition, and diversity after overgrazing. We compared life-forms spectra, change in the RIVI of the recorded plant species, species composition, and species diversity before and after the grazing. Our results showed that therophytes were the dominant life-form in the area, and decreased after overgrazing. The community composition of the area remained unchanged after overgrazing. Species diversity at the level of rare and frequent species reduced after overgrazing. Our findings implied that overgrazing could not immediately affect the community structure of degraded arid areas. However, it causes changes that might reduce ecosystem services in them. It is not possible to completely exclude grazers in such areas, fencing or reducing the number of the livestock entries should be applied to restore the vegetation in the area.
Masoumeh Khanhasani, Adel Jalili, Yahya Khodakarami, Nastaran Jalilian,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2021)

Distribution of rivers, pools and grasslands, being large or small and perennial or temporary, have created conditions suitable for the establishment of wetlands, especially in the highland regions of the Country. These habitats are highly important for the preservation of biodiversity and other ecological aspects. The present study aimed to identify wetlands in the Kermanshah Province, Iran, and map their distribution. The investigation was carried out on the basis of the conventional taxonomic studies of the region by doing field observation in 31 aqueous habitats in Kermanshah Province. The flora of each habitats and the life form and geographical distribution of the species were investigated. In total, 617 plant specimens, belonging to 288 species, 218 genera and 62 families, were collected identified and stored in the herbarium of the research center of agriculture and natural resources of Kermanshah Province (RANK). Asteraceae with 41 species, Poaceae with 31 species, Fabaceae with 31 species and Brassicaceae with 24 species were found to be the most important families of the wetlands studied.  Trifolium with 11 species and Bromus with 6 species were the most important genera, in terms of species richness. Detection of the biological forms showed that 40.3% of the species were trophytes, 35/5% were hemicryptophyts, 6/1% were phanerophytes, 14/23% were cryptophytes and 3/72% were chamaephytes. The chorology of species showed that 93 species belonged to more than two elements (32%), 92 species (31%) to the Irano-Touranin elements, 32 species to Irano-Touranin- Mediterranean (11%), 9 species to Irano-Touranin- Euro-Siberian with (3%) and 23 species were found to be cosmopolitan elements (8%).
Elham Ebrahimi, Faraham Ahmadzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Climate change is currently considered a serious threat for many species and recognized as one of the most important factors in the global biodiversity loss. Among animal groups, amphibians are known to be among the most sensitive groups of vertebrates to climate change due to their inability to travel long distances, and mountain habitat species are more exposed to climate change pressures than other species. Therefore, in this study, the current distribution potential of five species of amphibians living in the Zagros Mountains was assesed and their response to climate change in 2070 was predicted. To do so, a group approach for modeling the distribution of species (SDMs) was utilized to estimate the risks of losing the desired habitat potential in the event of climate change. Also, to estimate the desired habitat area in the context of climate change, calculations related to habitat area changes for each species were performed. Predictions showed that two out of five species studied, i.e., Azarbaijan Mountain Newt (Neurergus crocatus) and Yellow Spotted Newt (Neurergus derjugini) negatively reaction to climate change and their distribution range was predicted to be decreased and contracted. Habitat displacement behavior in the face of new changes is predictable for two species, i.e., Lorestan Toad (Bufotes luristanicus) and Fire Salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi). Considering the speed of climate change in the Zagros Mountains, the present study is a step towards identifying the dynamics of habitat changes affecting amphibians of Zasgros region to cope with the impacts of climate change.

Farshid Memariani, Hamid Ejtehadi, Ali Asghar Arjmandi, Mohammad Reza Joharchi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

 Piptatherum ferganense is recorded as a new grass species for the flora of Iran collected from Ghorkhod Protected Area and Aladagh Mountains in North Khorassan province. The core distribution range of the species is Eastern Irano-Turanian with a disjunction in northeastern Iran. The morphological characters of P. ferganense are illustrated and compared with the closely related P. latifolium. It can be distinguished from P. latifolium by its evenly arranged spikelets in the panicle, lanceolate fertile lemma, and shorter lemma awns. Notes on taxonomy, ecology, phytogeography, and conservation status of the recorded species are provided.

Ali Asghar Arjmandi, Hamid Ejtehadi, Farshid Memariani, Mansour Mesdaghi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (6-2023)

Understanding the different patterns of plant diversity and distribution along the environmental gradients is essential for managing ecosystems, especially in fragmented habitats due to intensive human pressure. The Darkash area is located in the western Aladagh Mountains in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Floristic Province. The easternmost patches of the Hyrcanian montane forests grow in this area. The three main vegetation types in the area are shrublands/scrub forests, oak forests (Quercus castaneifolia), and subalpine vegetation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the plant diversity in the understory of plant communities along the elevational gradient. We sampled 187 vegetation plots (2m x  2m) along a 1300m elevational gradient (in 100-m classes) using the stratified-random method and estimated the abundance and canopy cover of the species. Floristic characteristics and different diversity indices were measured. In total, 252 plant species belonging to 161 genera and 44 families were identified. Of these, 41 species were found to be endemic or semi-endemic. Hemicryptophytes and therophytes are the dominant life-forms in the study area. The Irano-Turanian elements (46.8%) make the major chorotype in the flora of the area, followed by Bi-regional (17.5%), Tri-regional (17.5%), Pluri-regional (11.5%), and Euro-Siberian (6.7%) elements. The shrubland understory has the highest Hill's and beta diversity indices, followed by the oak forest and the subalpine understory. The biodiversity changes sinusoidally along the elevation. In order to protect plant species, especially young oak seedlings, it is recommended to create a protective corridor along the elevational gradient in this area. This strategy is essential to protect plant diversity in these habitats.


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