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Showing 4 results for Drought Stress

Roya Ghaffarri, Fariba Meighani, Homeira Salimi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2014)

Mesquite is an invasive and problematic weed in warm and dry areas and so its management is very important. In order to study the effective factors on mesquite seed germination, the following studies were conducted to investigate: 1- seed viability; 2- the effect of constant temperatures on seed germination including 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C independent dark and independent light conditions; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination including 10/0, 20/10 and 30/20°C; 4- the effect of scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid and physiacal scarification on seed germination; 5- the effect of planting depth seed on seedling emergence; 6- the effect of drought stress including 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 Mm PEG on seed germination; and finally 7- the effect of salt stress including 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 mM NaCl on seed germination. All experiments were performed as completely randomized designs with 4 replications. The results showed that seed viability of mesquite was 81%. The optimum temperature for seed germination was a constant temperature- 30°C. In general, constant temperature was more suitable than temperature fluctuations for seed germination. The best seed planting depth for seedling emergence was 2 cm. The most seed germination was observed under the effect of 20 min scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid. Physical scarification had no significant effect on seed germination. While the study of salt and drought stresses effect showed that the most seed germination (after control without NaCl and PEG), was due to concentrations of 100 and 200 mM, seed germination decreased with the increase of NaCl and PEG concentrations. Based on the present results, light did not play a crucial role on seed germination. Therefore, mesquite seeds were not photoblastic. These characteristics are very important in making mesquite an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits, enables us to have a better control over the management of this troublesome weed.

Akbar Norastehnia, Maliheh Farjadi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2016)

In this study, water stress was applied by polyethylene glycol at a concentration of 20 perecentage. To improve the resistance of the plants, the samples were treated by potassium nitrate at concentrations 5, 10, and 15 mM within 9 days. Changes in proline, total protein, photosynthetic pigments, carotene, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, phenols, flavonols, flavonoids, soluble sugars and potassium ion were examined. The results showed that tobacco plants which had been exposed to drought used the accumulation of osmolytes such as proline, soluble sugars and potassium in order to balance their osmotic pressure. Drought stress also caused oxidative stress and increased the production of active forms of oxygen. As a result, non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system of tobacco plants including anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols and beta-carotene increased, which could be considered to be a major step for resistance to drought. The results also showed that the concentration of 15 mM potassium nitrate in particular, could significantly improve some of the harmful effects of stress and reduced photosynthetic pigments and proteins. Potassium nitrate could also bring down the MDA and beta-carotene levels to equivalent levels in control plants. As a result, it seems that using potassium can affect plant resistance to drought and plays an important role to reduce some harmful effects of stress.

Tahereh Naeemi, , Baratali Fakheri,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2019)

Plant growth is greatly influenced by environmental stresses including water deficit, salinity and extreme temperatures. Therefore, the identification of genes, especially regulatory ones whose expression enables plants to adapt to or to tolerate these abiotic stresses, is very essential. MYB proteins, a superfamily of transcription factors, play regulatory roles in developmental processes and in defense responses in plants. Members are characterized by a structurally conserved DNA-binding domain, i.e., the MYB domain. Thus, a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of drought stress on the relative expression of TaMYB73 transcription factor gene using Real Time PCR method at Biotechnology Research Institute of Zabol University. The experimental treatments included durum wheat genotypes (Shabrang, Behrang, Karkheh, Aria and Dena) and drought levels (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of field capacity). Seedlings of genotypes
were cultured in pots and drought stress was exerted after 45 days (four to five leaves). Data analysis was performed using Ratio =2 -ΔΔCT and SAS software version 9.1. The results of the 2-way ANOVA for the effect of genotype, drought stress and cross-effects of drought stress on the relative expression of TaMYB73 gene and the amount of osmotic regulators (Proline and Carbohydrate) at different stress levels (20, 15, and 5% of field capacity) were significant in comparison with the normal condition (25% of field capacity) at 1% probability level. With the increase of drought stress level from 5 to 20% of crop capacity, relative to the normal level (25% crop capacity), the relative expression of TaMYB73 gene and osmotic regulators of proline and carbohydrates increased in Beharang, Karkheh and Dena genotypes. Therefore, Karkheh and Dena genotypes showed greater resistance to drought stress among the 5 genotypes studied.

َabolfazl Baghbani-Arani, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavi, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, Zohrab Adavi, Hamid Dehghanzade-Jezi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2019)

In order to determine the effects of water deficit stress, nitrogen fertilization and zeolite on chlorophyll fluorescence, pigments, trigonelline content and seed yield in, a split factorial experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Five irrigation regimes were randomly applied to the main plots. Subplots included six treatments and consisted of a factorial combination of three nitrogen fertilization (untreated plots, vermicompost at a rate of 2.7 ton ha-1 and nitrogen chemical fertilizer at a rate of 11 kg.ha-1) and two zeolite rates (0 and 9 ton.ha-1). The results demonstrated that (Fm), (Fv), (Fv/Fm), chl a, b, total chl content and also seed yield were significantly reduced by water deficit stress, wheras minimum fluorescence (F0), carotenoid and trigonelline concentrations were increased. In addition, the highest Fv/Fm, chl a+b content and the lowest F0 and carotenoids were observed when irrigation was done after unloading 40% of ASW. In most treatments vermicompost increased the yield (by 25.51% and 98.32% in 2014 and 2015, respectively) and grain trigonelline concentration (7.46% in 2014) in Fenugreek. Mild water stress with vermicompost treatment is recommended for the production of trigoneline from Fenugreek seeds.

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