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Ramin Ezzati, Gelareh Rabbani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2014)

Acid rain, which is a wet form of gaseous air pollutants, is formed when air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, CO2 in the atmosphere combine with water vapor of clouds. With the increase of concentration of these pollutants, the amount of acid rain increases. Acid rain, which is the mixture of sulphuric, nitric and carbonic acids, results in some changes in the soil such as decrease in pH, uncommon nutrient liberation, increase of release of toxic metals and the decline in the fertility of soil. These impacts have negative effects on plants. In the present work wheat plants were irrigated and leaf sprayed with four treatments of acid rain which contain sulphuric and nitrics acids with the pH of 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.6 for a period of 32 days, whereas, control plants were irrigated and leaf sprayed by normal water with a pH of 7.4. According to the results we have obtained, control plants in whole growth and physiological indexes were better than those plants treated by acid rains with the pH of 2.5 and 3.5. Moreover, the plants treated by acid rain with the pH of 4.5 and 5.6, were lower in other factors except photosynthetic rate, pigment content and carbohydrate content than control plants. Also acid rains with the pH of  2.5 and 3.5 caused white spots in both surfaces of  leaf and tip and border atrophy.

Mohammadreza Imanpour, Zahra Roohi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2015)

This study was carried out to show the effects of herbal supplement of Sangrovit on the growth parameters, blood biochemical factors, survival and resistance to salinity of the Caspian kutum fry. Fish (1±0.003 g) were divided into four groups fed on diets containing sangrovit at different levels: 0 (control), 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 % for 45 days. The results showed that there was a significant increase in the final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed on sangrovit diets (p<0.05). In addition, food conversion rate of fish fed on sangrovit diet was found to be significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the condition factor, glucose and total protein levels of the experimental groups and the control group (p>0.05). On the other hand, blood cholesterol of the Caspian kutum was significantly increased in the control group (190.17±0.013 mg dl-1) in comparison to treatments sangrovit (p<0.05). Survival and resistance to salinity stress remained unaffected by dietary supplementation of sangrovit (p>0.05). The results of the present study also indicated that dietary Primalac beneficially affected the growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of the Caspian kutum fry. The findings of the present study indicated that the herbal supplement of sangrovit could improve the growth rate, feed utilization and blood biochemical parameters of the Caspian kutum fry.

Majid Beiranvand, Mansooreh Ghaeni, Mohammad Velayatzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Danio rerio Hamilton, 1822 is one of the commercial ornamental fresh water fishes and living in tropical zones, of considerable economic value in our country. This study aimed at investigating the impact of Spirulina sp. on index color in Danio rerio. 360 individuals were randomly divided in 12 aquariums with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The dietary treatments included treatment 1 or control (commercial food with no supplement of Spirulina sp.), treatment 2 (commercial food with 0.5% supplement of Spirulina sp.), treatment 3 (commercial food with 1% supplement of Spirulina sp.) and treatment 4 (commercial food with 1.5% supplement of Spirulina sp.). In general, the use of Spirulina sp. in the diet of Danio rerio caused increase in body weight and specific growth rate, but increasing the amount of dietary of Spirulina sp. powder in the diet of Danio rerio during the breeding period of 60 days had no impact on the feed conversion ratio. There being no significant difference between treatments 1% and 1.5 %, treatment 1% of supplement Spirulina sp. was found to be the best treatment for growth in Danio rerio.

Rezvan Ghannad, Forough Akbari , Maryam Madadkar Haghjou,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)

The effects of some pretreatments including blue-green and green algae and minerals on the induction of me-tabolic and biochemical process of germination were studied in Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. seeds. The seeds were pretreated with green algae Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella bardawil or D. IR-1 (Isolated from Gave-Khooni-salt marsh) and modified Johnson nutrient medium. Dunaliella species belong to salt marshs and waters, hence their medium was prepared by means of 0.6 % NaCl. Spirulina's nutrient medium (NM) included 0.1% NaCl. The activities of α-amylase, ß-amylase, dehydrogenase, content of total sugar, reducing sugars and total protein (all we-re measured after priming) increased in comarsion with control. Treatment without NaCl and the treatment with 0.1 % NaCl caused the highest amount of the parameters mentioned. In the presence of salt (often at 0.6 % NaCl), algae could not improve and increase the parameters. In contrast, in the absence of salt, the positive effects of algae increased. Ge-rmination indices and length of shoots and roots which were measured after sowing the seeds into Petri-dishes, showed some positive effects regarding the pretreatments. Spirulina cells filteration with or without NM (including 0.1% NaCl) caused the highest activities in α-amylase and ß-amylase and the highest amount of total sugar and FGP. Chlorella filt-eration led to the increment of dehydrogenase activity and also the root's lenght. Dunaliella cells filteration in NM (without salt) increased α-amylase and ß-amylase activities and the reducing sugars.

Mehrdad Rasouli, Abdollah Hatamzadeh, Mahmood Ghasemnezhad, Habibollah Samizadeh Lahiji,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

In most parts of Iran, the presence of water and soil salinity in urban area results in problems for grass growth. One way to solve this problem is the use of plant growth retardant, such as trinexapac-ethyl (TE), which is common and routine in turf management. This study was performed to investigate the response of Agrostis stolonifera L., Agropyron desertorum L. and Festuca ovina L., grown in sandy loam soil, to TE and irrigation water salinity. Resu-lts showed that spraying turf grass with TE increased most of the vegetative growth characteristics and content of chlo-rophylls, carotenoids and proline in clipping leaves, whereas increasing the NaCl concentration in irrigation water resu-lted in steady reduction in the values of these parameters, except carotenoids and proline content, compared with the co-ntrol group. Both TE and salinity treatments decreased the plant heights, as well as the fresh and dry weight of clip-pings. In the species which were studied, Agrostis stolonifera turned out to be the most tolerant turfgrass. Results also indicated that the application of TE enhances salinity resistance by improving the percentage of green leaf, chlorophyll concentration and proline content and reduce clipping in the species studied

Sasan Ghobadian, Hossein Ganjidoust, Bita Ayati, Neda Soltani,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Special properties and various applications of Spirulina species have led to the growing focus of biotechnology to the cost effective cultivation. Open ponds used in the most commercial cultivation have many deficiencies such as risk of contamination, lack of light penetration, inefficient mixing and low productivity. In this study, an innovative reactor was designed and manufactured. By adding a control area, it was possible to control some environmental conditions for a limited amount of open pond volume. The conventional pumping system was replaced by a new elevator system to reduce the damage of to the fragile cells. The baffles structure and aeration from bottom, contributed to better mixing system. The effect of tree factors (Circulation Cycle (Cir. Cyc.), Control Volume (Con.Vol.) and Irradiance Intensity (Irr. Int.) in units of hours, percentage and Lux respectively) on the quantity of biomass (Specific Growth Rate (SGR, day-1) and fifth and seventh day dry weight (g/L)) were evaluated using RSM-CCD. The maximum biomass dry weight (0.915 g/L) was achieved in longest circulation cycle (12 hours), 30% Con. Vol. and 7000 Lux light intensity. The optimal irradiance intensity to achieve the highest biomass was 8700 Lux. According to the results, due to the great influence of Con. Vol. and Cir. Cyc., it is possible to increase the productivity and enhance the culture dry weight by controlling a limited amount of ponds volume (20%), subject to economic considerations. These successful results can provide the context using a control zone for several open ponds to improve the overall efficiency.

Mohammadreza Imanpour, Mahrokh Nemati, Hadiseh Afshar, Zahra Roohi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Feeding frequency and stocking density are important factors affecting growth and maturation of cultured fishes. The aims of this investigation were to determine the effects of stocking density (10, 20, 30 and 40 fish per aquarium) and feeding frequency (2, 3 and 4 times per day) on growth parameters and hematocrit of the Rutilus rutilus caspicus. The experiment was continued for 45 days in two replicates. The results of this study showed that growth parameters, including weigh gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were affected significantly by stocking density (P<0.05), but not significantly affected by feeding frequency (P>0.05). The highest WG and SGR were recorded with the lowest stocking density (10 fish / aquarium). The least FCR was obtained in density of 10 fish/aquarium, FCR value was significantly higher with high stocking density (P<0.05). Also, interactions between stocking density and feeding frequency were no significant on growth parameters (P>0.05). Density and feeding frequency hand no significant effect of hematocrit concentration (P>0.05). On the other hand, interactions between stocking density and feeding frequency significantly affected hematocrit levels (P<0.05). The lowest level of hematocrit was observed in density of 10 fish/aquarium at two times / day feeding frequency. The results of this study indicated that density is significantly affected the growth, but increasing of feeding frequency there is not effect on growth in the Rutilus rutilus caspicus.
Seyedeh Mahdieh Sadadt, Zahra Hajihassan, Mohammad Barshan-Tashnizi, Mehri Abdi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that is functional in the survival, maintenance and differentiation of nervous system cells. This protein has three subunits, of which the beta subunit has the main activity. Its structure consists of a cysteine knot motif made up of beta strands linked by disulfide bonds. It can be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. As NGF extracted from natural sources is unsuitable for therapeutic goals, many studies have attempted to produce recombinant β-NGF. In this study, Trigger Factor (TF) chaperone was expressed simultaneously with β-NGF in E. coli in order to obtain increased yield of soluble recombinant human β-NGF.  For this purpose, pET39b (+)::β-NGF and chaperone plasmid pTf16 were transferred to E.coli (DE3 strain). After the induction of each promoter, the total proteins and periplasmic proteins were extracted. To confirm the effects of TF on total protein and soluble β-NGF expression level, Bradford and Dot blot techniques and ImageJ software were used. Then, β-NGF was purified using affinity chromatography column (Ni+2-NTA). Also, the PC12 cells were treated with the protein for one week in order to study the function of purified NGF. Our data indicated that co-expression of TF could increase the soluble and periplasmic production of β-NGF but not total proteins. Also, the treatment of PC12 cell line with purified β-NGF, co-expressed with TF chaperone, showed differentiation of these cells to nerve cells. This indicated that the purified NGF is fully functional. Our data suggest that the co-expression of cytoplasmic chaperone (TF) with recombinant nerve growth factor might be an efficient approach to produce a proper quantity of soluble and active rhNGF.

Kobra Gholipoor, Parto Roshandel,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

In order to study the diverse effects of seed priming with 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (0, 0.1, 1 mg/l) to increase tolerance of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to salinity (0, 70 and 140 mM NaCl), the experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design at greenhouse condition. Results showed that salt stress significantly decreased the growth of tomato plants. However, priming with EBL (1 mg/l) significantly decreased the negative effects of NaCl (particularly at 140 mM). At this case, EBL increased the fresh and dry weights (<2 folds), total chlorophyll (+72%), carotenoids (+ 2 folds), free proline (+3 folds), electrolyte leakage (-18.6%), Na+/K+ in the roots (-57.5%) and shoots (-62%) compared to salinity control. Generally, it could be concluded that priming with epibrassinolide resulted in enhanced salt tolerance in tomato plants via increment in free proline, photosynthetic pigments and decrease in electrolyte leakage and Na+/K+ ratio in the tissues.

Hamed Paknejad, Tayebeh Enayat Gholampour, Roghayeh Safari, Seyed Hossein Hossenifar,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2019)

Zebra fish is an important species in genetics and considering the proximity of its genome to the human genome, investigating the expression of some of the growth and appetite genes during its larvae development is essential. Genes coding growth and appetite (GH and ghrelin) hormones are involved in the synthesis and release of growth hormone, which can be considered to be economic genes in pisciculture. Given the importance of these genes during the early larvae development stages, this study was performed to assess their activity. Samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, 15, 30 and 45 post-hatching days. Samples were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree centigrade) and then stored in a freezer at -80 degree centigrade until RNA extraction (using RNX-Plus kit). To analyze normal expression of target genes, reference gene β-actin was used by 2-∆∆Ct method. The expression of genes associated with the growth and appetite was significantly different at various stages of the development of zebra fish, as the gene expression of GH on day 4 and ghrelin gene on day 10 after hatching were significantly higher compared with other samples (P<0.05). Overall, the expression of GH and ghrelin genes at the early stages of growth is higher than other fish developmental stages due to their great importance in the survival of larvae at these stages of life.
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Hasan Deldar, Jina Khayatzadeh, Maryam Tehranipour,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2020)

Nowadays, the entrance of nanoparticles into high seas has led to toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Copper oxide nanoparticles is among the most widely used nanoparticles. The presence of these nanoparticles in the aquatic environments cause new environmental problems, which indicate the necessity of the examination of the effects of these nanoparticles on the aquatic organisms. The alfalfa plant has antioxidantive and regenerative effects due to its rich content of proteins, vitamin C and flavonoids. In this study, 6 (5 experimental and a control) groups were designed. Koi fish larvae were fed with biomar combined with various percentages of hay (0%, 10% and 20%) and were exposed to copper oxide nanoparticles with two concentrations (0 mg and 200 mg) for 14 days. The average initial length of larvae was 30.4 ± 0.01 mm, their average initial weight was 0.31 ± 0.05 and their age was around 20 dph. The specific growth rate, weight gain, length gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were calculated for each group. The results showed a significant higher growth rate in the groupstreated with 10% and 20% of alfalfa, as compared with the control group. In addition, the Cu NPs-treated group with 0% alfalfa rations showed the lowest rate of growth, as compared with the control group. Groups which were exposed to copper nanoparticles while receiving alfalfa-containing rations had growth indices better than the group exposed to copper nanoparticles and fed with 0% alfalfa ration, which indicated the antioxidant properties and growth-promoting effects of alfalfa.

Alireza Iranbakhsh, Alireza Ghaderi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2020)

The aim of this research was to study the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs) on the growth, differentiation, anatomy, and physiology of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on the basis of a completely randomized design in vitro condition. Seedlings were cultured in MS medium containing four concentrations of FeO NPs (0, 1, 10, and 20 mgl-1). Also, the effect of the different concentrations of FeO NPs on callus formation under two various hormone conditions (0.5mgl-1 2,4D+0.5 mgl-1 BAP or 0.5 mgl-1 BAP+1 mgl-1 Kin) were assessed. The results showed that the application of FeO NPs significantly increased biomass accumulation in both roots and shoots. Moreover, FeO NPs enhanced the concentrations of photosynthesis pigments (chllrophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids). The presence of FeO NPs in culture medium affected callus formation in a hormone-dependent manner. Different concentration of FeO NPs induced the callus formation under 2, 4-D and BAP treatments. However, it did not significantly increase callus formation under the kinitin and 2,4-D. The findings of this research indicated that the application of FeO NPs at optimized doses may improve plant production, especially in vitro condition.

Roghayeh Heydari, Ramin Ezzati, Mohammadali Zahed,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Damavand volcanic ash on the morphological and physiological characteristics of beans as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. The results showed that the highest dry leaf weight was observed in 100 mg/L treatment per liter of volcanic ash (0.0099 g). The results also showed that the optimal sugar content of the soluble sugar at 100 mg/L of volcanic ash was 0.650 (mg/g D.W.). The highest protein content and optimal peroxidase activity were observed with 0.68 (mg/g F.W.) and 0.082 (A470/mg/protein), respectively. Therefore, it can be argued that volcanic ash may increase plant growth and biosynthesis of organic compounds such as iron and aluminum.

Akbar Forghani, Amir Hossein Forghani, Maryam Altafi, Kazem Hashemi Majd, Omid Sofalian,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2021)

Most of agricultural lands in Iran are located in arid and semi-arid regions and are considered as saline soils. In order to investigate the interaction of salinity as well as potassium and calcium on the growth and yield of tomato plants, a factorial experiment was perfected in the form of randomized complete blocks, in hydroponic conditions, with three replicates per treatment. Experimental factors include salinity at three levels (0, 20, and 40 mM NaCl), potassium content form chloride, nitrate (0 and 15 mM), and calcium from chloride, and nitrate (with 0 and 10 mM (. The studied growth factors, including plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, flowers and fruits and leaf chlorophyll decreased with increase NaCl. Treatment plants with Ca (NO3)2 at 40 mM NaCl, increased the shoot and root dry weight by 55% and 95%, respectively. In addition, application of Ca (NO3)2 in the medium with maximum salinity concentration resulted in an increase of 75% in chlorophyll content. The analysis of data showed that the increase of salinity was accompanied with increase sodium content level of tomato plants. However, the root potassium was observed to decrease. On the contrast to the root, potassium content showed no change in the organs from the root upwards. Also, the use of Ca (NO3)2 with 40 mM NaCl reduced Na+ content by 23% compared with plants treated only with 40 mM NaCl. According to the results, it seems that application of Ca (NO3)2 may improve chlorophyll content, dry weight, and modulate ion hemostasis and decreased the negative of salt stress in tomato plants.

Mohsen Alizadeh, Nezam Armand, Maryam Rahimi, Shokoufeh Haji Hashemi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Seaweed extract can improve the physicochemical properties of the soil and has a favorable effect on the plant growth and development due to having high nutrient content, high water holding capacity, plant growth regulators and beneficial microorganisms. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Ascophyllum nodosum extract, a brown alga, on the morphophysiological characteristics of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) under water stress. The experiment was performed in a Completely Randomized Factorial Design with three replications. Experimental treatments included 4 concentrations of foliar application of seaweed extract (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%) and 3 levels of water stress including no stress, mild stress and severe stress (irrigation at 75, 50 and 25% of field capacity, respectively). The results showed that the interaction effects of stress and algal extract on the evaluated traits were not significant. However, the seaweed extract significantly increased the leaf area, number of the leaves, leaf length, surface and length of the roots, root dry weight, the content of chlorophyll a and b and the total chlorophyll content. Application of algal extract at levels of 0.2 and 0.4% caused a significant increase in the evaluated parameters as compared with the control plants. The evaluation of water scarcity stress effects showed a significant reduction in the all studied characteristics in accordance with increasing water stress level from 75% to 25% of field capacity. The results of this study showed that foliar application of seaweed extract significantly increased some morphological and photosynthetic properties, while water stress significantly reduced the investigated parameters.


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