Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)                   Serd 2021, 10(35): 237-263 | Back to browse issues page

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Karami Dehkordi M, Miani A. Identifying and designing a complementary sustainable livelihood approach in rural areas of Afghanistan Case: Andar district in Ghazni province. Serd. 2021; 10 (35) :237-263
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3677-en.html
1- Assistant professor Rural Development, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran , Karami596@yahoo.com
2- , Master student of Rural Development, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Abstract:   (1260 Views)
Introduction
The world’s population has been growing rapidly in recent decades, and statistics show that most of the added population belongs to development countries. The majority of this population live in rural areas which has an unfavorable standard of living and livelihood compared to international standard. The basis of human and economic development is based on livelihood; livelihoods include all the things that people do to make a living. In addition, livelihoods are sustainable when they can adapt to pressures and shocks, improve and strengthen or maintain capabilities and assets in the present and future, while not destroying natural resources. Sustainable livelihood is a way to think about rural development, which for rural people it leads to higher incomes, increased welfare, reduced vulnerability, improved food security and more sustainable use of basic natural resources. According to statistics, 71% of Afghanistan’s population lives in rural areas and the livelihood of rural households in this country depends on agriculture, livestock and handicrafts. A large part of the country’s economy depends on rural products, and the products of farmers and ranchers make up most of the country’s export. It is worth noting that in rural areas of Afghanistan, few studies have been conducted on sustainable rural livelihoods, and accordingly the present study is one of the most innovative and leading researchers for this area.
 
Research Methodology
This is a qualitative study of the grounded theory type with the approach of Strauss and Corbin. The grounded theory method is commonly used to achieve theory, but it also has the ability to use its techniques in the form of other qualitative methods. Methods used to collect data include observation, Interviews, field notes and written and audio recordings made during the interviews. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to collect data. The current research integrated purposive and snowball samplings were used to collect data. Purposive sampling (also known as judgment, selective or subjective sampling) is a sampling technique in which researchers rely on their own judgment when choosing members of population to participate in the study. Snowball sampling method, initial subjects with the desired characteristics are identified using purposeful sampling technique. In this study, data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection and the researcher reached the theoretical saturation stage with 23 interviews.
 
Results and discussion
Based on the analysis, 220 codes were extracted from 23 interviews in three stages of open coding, axial coding and selective coding. Code analysis led to the identification of 27 subcategories. Finally, 19 main categories were extracted from their classification. Showed relationships between categories formed in the data that the pattern formed corresponds to the original shape of the paradigm pattern (Pattern or model) of Strauss and Corbin, that is the core category (access to sustainable livelihood) is affected by causal conditions and it influences the strategies themselves. Strategies in turn shape the consequences of the phenomenon under the influence of contextual and interventionist condition.
The causal categories of the paradigm are more dependent on agriculture, war and security challenges and the poor performance of the livestock and poultry sectors. According to the causal categories of the paradigm designed in the studied area, rural industries, rural services, livestock and poultry are very backward compared to the agriculture sector. This does not mean that the agriculture of the northern villages of Andar district is in a good condition. Rather, the monoculture of the rural economy (the majority of vineyards) with low productivity and efficiency in a traditional way has led the villages to an unfavorable living situation. In addition, due to various natural factors the risk of agricultural products is very high and has forced families to multiply their sources of incomes. But unfortunately, the increase in income depends on a particular sector (traditional agriculture). Therefore, in order to meet the economic needs of rural residents through the diversification of activities and income-generating methods, and to provide various job opportunities in this area, further encouragement should be provided.
The war and security challenges in Afghanistan have overshadowed every manufacturing and service sector and prevent any progress and it has caused the villagers to have no connection with the government and rural development department and to live in more deprivation. Rural areas have been severely damaged by war and security challenges, which have weakened the agricultural sector, demolished homes, disabled rural people and lacked investment. The population of the villages has multiplied compared to previous years, but no attention is paid to creating new job opportunities, which has led to rising unemployment, poverty and many livelihood challenges. One of the way to create new job opportunities in the studied villages is the multi-functional approach and abandoning single-function approach.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/06/15 | Accepted: 2021/04/30

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