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Aaij Azmi, Hadi Almasi,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

New rural management and Islamic Councils are being considered as people-oriented institutions during last years with regard to rural economic development. This in turn, demands extra efforts for improvement of this institution status. The major objective of this study is to analyze the influential factors upon strengthening the economic role of these councils in rural area of Harsin (Kermanshah). The research method of this study is descriptive – analytical using questionnaire survey. The sample size is determined to be 50. The sampling techniques were based on simple random sample out of which 32 villages were selected. This is followed by application of Cronbach's for determination of research viability of the research data. K.M.O coefficient (o.7 and 0.71) as well as Bartlett’s test were used. Data analyses were done via utilization of descriptive methods including median, frequency, principle component analysis and Wilcoxon. This study suggests that there exist significant variation regarding economic service provision prior and after the foundation of these rural councils. Moreover, 6 preventive components with respect to economic rural development were identified. They include the legal deficiencies of the councils, their in capabilities related to passing economic rules, peoples cooperation with the councils, the community’s lack of familiarity with the council’s rules, the people’s lack of confidence regarding the council’s performance and their low financial and administrative authorization level. This is followed by identification of four other corresponding factor including community participation, better council membership selection procedure, high acquaintance of council’s members regarding rural economic problems, drawing governmental, public and private financial supports regarding rural projects and high intimacy of council members performance.

Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidari, Hamid Shayan, Zahra Nurbakhsh Razmi,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (9-2015)

Rural areas face various challenges in Iran; one of the most important challenges isb economic weakness. Since entrepreneurship can remove many major challenges (such as unemployment, low level of income, lack of economic diversification) in rural areas and it can affect other aspects of rural life positively, entrepreneurship and job creation are the most important plans and strategies for rural improvement to resolve economic challenges. Entrepreneurship in village leads to job creation, increase in income, wealth creation, improvement of quality of life and it is also helpful for local people participating in economic activities. The agriculture section in most third world countries cannot provide enough job opportunities and income to meet the needs of rural areas with high population density as a result of low level of productivity of land and labor, so non-farm entrepreneurship is considered as the suitable strategy to improve job creation and increase rural income. Promoting diversification of economic activities in rural areas especially in non-farm section leads to a profound impact on the creation of entrepreneurial thinking in rural areas; Since for landless people or those who own a small size of land, earning farming income and this amount of income does not meet their needs, non-farm entrepreneurship and as a result diversification of non-farm economy (or related to farm economy) can create job and income for them. Undoubtedly, job creation in non-farm section prevents labor force as the major economic capital from exiting the villages which is the main reason of rural-to-urban migration growth and many socio-economic problems. Based on this fact, this study aims to analyze the importance of non-farm entrepreneurshipb in improving the quality of life in villages of Shandiz area and also to determine that in which dimensions and aspects of rural life considered by entrepreneurs in their plans, the farm based entrepreneurship activities have the most impacts. The research questions include "how much farm based entrepreneurship activities could improve the quality of life in the villages in economic, social and environmental dimensions?" and "in which dimensions do entrepreneurship activities have the most impacts?"
According to its aim, this is a practical and developmental study and regarding its methodology it is descriptive-analytic one. For theoretical modeling, descriptive and documentary methods have been used by reviewing theoretical literature related to rural development, quality of life, entrepreneurship and non-farm entrepreneurship studies. So, the criteria and indicators have been chosen according to theoretical frameworks and works done by other researches and also on the basis of its aim. The analytic unit in this study is the non-farmer householder who participates in creative non-farming activities in studied villages. Residents of villages in Shandiz area, Binaloud County, including Shandiz and Abardeh villages with population of 19667 in 1390 are the study population. According to the conducted field study, among 18 villages which their populations are more than 20 households, 6 villages with the population of 13217 are considered as study samples and in these villages non-farm entrepreneurship activities have been done more than other villages. To study the impacts of non-farm entrepreneurship activities in the studied area, samples should be chosen according to the number of households in the region; regarding the total number of households, sample households in the sample villages are 3776 households and as a result, according to Cochran Formula (using 0.06 margin of error) 249 households have been chosen to complete the questionnaires regarding the householder's point of view. The first level of sample selection among householders in the studied area is according to an analogy between villages and the second level is random selection. Eventually, information extracted from the questionnaires has been analyzed using statistical methods (Pearson, Spearman and Chi-square correlation tests to the case with independent group and step by step regression analysis) performed in SPSS.
Discussion and Conclusion
It was found that, non-farm activities have various impacts on economic, social and environmental dimensions. Chi-square test to the case with independent group was performed to analyze villager's point of view regarding non-farm entrepreneurship activities; for most indicators, a meaningful level of significance less than 0.05 and the relationship has been proven. For assessment of economic impacts of entrepreneurship on quality of life, indicators such as income, employment status and economic justice have been used. The relative distribution for answering question suggests that the average value of economic changes is 3.46. This average is defined in the range from 1 to 5 and it shows that the economic status is higher than the average level. For assessment of social impacts, indicators such as social capital, social participation, population stability, satisfaction of access and personal welfare have been used. The average of social changes is 3.06 and it shows that social status is higher than the average level. The average value of environmental changes is 3.38 and it shows that the environmental status is higher than the average level. It has to be mentioned that for assessment of non-farm entrepreneurship activities, some indicators have been used including good job opportunities, government investment, product quality, education, availability and changeability of land use. The average value of non-farm entrepreneurship activities is 3.41 which show this status is higher than the average. In conclusion, it can be said that non-farm entrepreneurship activities improve the quality of life in economic, social and environmental dimensions.

Kebria Moradi, Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidary, Hamid Shayan, Omid Ali Kharazmi,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (winter 2022 2022)

In recent decades, the international growth of agricultural tourism in rural economies has raised a number of important policy-related topics for local development planning, the most important of which is the development of production and support for entrepreneurship in agricultural tourism. Given that entrepreneurship in all areas, including agricultural tourism, is a complex phenomenon, agricultural tourism as a complex system encompasses a large range of interactions between economic, environmental, social, technical and financial elements. Therefore, the development of entrepreneurial businesses for agricultural tourism is based on the framework of the factors that make up the environment of a system. Therefore, all these factors must be investigated. Because these factors are interrelated and interact directly and indirectly. In this regard, identifying key factors and factors in the development of entrepreneurial businesses as a complex system can help to revitalize rural areas of the region and is effective in realizing the goals of entrepreneurship in rural areas. Therefore, in this research, it will be tried to identify the proposed dimensions and components for the development of entrepreneurial businesses in the field of agricultural tourism, and the model of development of entrepreneurial businesses in agricultural tourism will be provided based on the causality model.

The current research is an applied research and regarding the results, it is an exploratory research. In this regard, the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurial businesses in agricultural tourism were identified and classified in four socio-cultural, individual skills, tourism facilities and policies. This research also focuses on the rural areas of Mahallat town due to its potential and its ability to develop agricultural tourism. According to field studies of 40 villages in the studied area in two districts of Khorheh and Bagherabad, 21 villages with agricultural tourism capability were identified and selected. In order to investigate the effect of each variable in the causal factors model, 30 questionnaires were designed and delivered to the executive and academic elites. Vensim software was used to draw the causal diagram based on systematic thinking, and to analyze the collected data, descriptive and inferential statistics (single sample and Friedman) were used in SPSS software.

Discussions and Results
The results of t test indicate that the factor of policy making and its related variables are the highest mean and then the factor of facilities and services of tourism with 4.02, the factor of individual skills with 3.8, socio-cultural factor with 3.7 and the factor of local capacity with 3.6 are placed in the next ranks respectively. Regarding the fact that in recent years, entrepreneurship is considered as one of the important components of job creation and economic development in societies, so in the last few decades, policymakers in different societies have tried to develop entrepreneurial policies for economic growth. Also, given that the rural development plays a very important role in national development, the development of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas can be considered as a tool for national development. The results of the research on the basis of the t test show that the impact of the policy making factor on the development of entrepreneurial businesses in agricultural tourism is ranked first, and the factor of tourism facilities and services, socio-cultural factors, individual skills and local agricultural capacities are the next ranks respectively. The results of the Friedman test also indicate that the factor of policy making is ranked first by the experts, so the findings of this study indicate that the government as the most influential factor through policies and policies related to the development of entrepreneurial entrepreneurship in the field of agricultural tourism and supportive policies can enhance the motivation and the fields of entrepreneurship development in the villages. On the other hand, it has a direct impact on other factors as well. Also, the cultural and social factor and policy will have a significant impact on the individual skills factor as there are positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship in the community as well as policy makers support entrepreneurial activities in rural areas, the desire for entrepreneurial activities in agricultural tourism grows in local communities. It also boosts social and communication skills, entrepreneurship creativity and innovation, and high-quality services, resulting in tourists coming to the region more frequently and defining their good experience everywhere. Also, the factors of policy making and individual skills will directly affect the factors of the facilities and services of the tourism because when qualified human resources are trained in local communities, especially experienced tour guides and thus creating interaction between tourists and residents of the region and awareness of tourists' needs can serve as a stimulating factor for satisfaction and safety of tourists. Local capacity factor is also an important factor in the development of entrepreneurial businesses in rural areas, because there is no potential and developmental capacity for this type of tourism in many areas.

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