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Maryam Allahpanah, Seyed Ali Badri, Alireza Darban Astaneh,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Cooperative firms after government and private sectors are being considered as a third dimension of any economy. The numbers of this type of firms are increasing. This in turn has let to great revenues which would well justify their value and importance. Nowadays, there are many cooperative firms with different names but all have one goal in common, that is the achievement of development. Women cooperative firm in Turkey, municipality cooperative firm of European countries, specialized agricultural cooperative firms in China, rural cooperative firm as well as housing and service cooperative firms in Iran are among some of this type of firms. Iran has another type that is village cooperative firms. This type of firm established in 1387. Their major objective is to help village council institution regarding handling their executive affairs, development of the villages and rendering of better services to the rural settlers. There exist 733 of this type of firm in the country capable of providing services to the rural people. This study aims to assess the degree of rural settlers’ satisfaction regarding services rendered by Dashtesar (Amol) cooperative. It further tries to individually investigate the degree of rural settlers’ satisfaction regarding provision of physical and cultural services.
Research Method:
This study based on its objectives has applied nature. It demands descriptive as well as analytical method. Data gathering is composed of both documentary and field works including observation, interviews and filling out questionnaires. The selection of the targetvillages out of 31 villages was based on number of population, distance from the city as well as from the major road. As such 9 villages were selected using clustering stratified sampling technique. The composition of these 9 indicate 3 villages out of those with high, medium and low population located close to the city and major roads, 3 villages out of those with low, medium and high with medium distance from the city and major roads, and 3 villages out of those with high, medium and low population located far from the city and major roads. The statistical society composed of 135 rural households resides in Dashtesar which were chosen via simple random sampling method. The analysis of data demands application of Chi square test, and one way analysis of variation (ANOVA). 
Discussion and Conclusion:
According to chi square test regarding provision of physical services such as rendering services in the area of supervision on construction activities (to some extent) and issuing building licenses (little), those cooperative were able to satisfy the rural settlers. This is followed by environmental services rendered by these cooperatives including waste disposal and creation of sanitary field. However, regarding the provision of other environmental services, these cooperatives were not successful. With respect to provision of social – cultural rendered services they were fairly active in the area of renovating historical and religious places and to some extent holding cultural – religious ceremonies and sport events. However, these cooperatives were not successful in other cultural contexts. Results pertaining to T-test indicate that rural settlers were unsatisfied regarding the provision of environmental, social, cultural and physical dimensions. Based on one way analysis of variation, social and environmental services possess the least average. However, the physical dimension possesses the highest average. That means, these rural cooperatives through rendering physical services were able to satisfy the rural settlers. The results associated with F-test indicate the rural settlers are more satisfied with provision of physical services. This study suggests that settlers of Booran and Nezamabad possess more positive attitudes toward services rendered by these cooperatives as opposed to Ghalian Kola, Noabad, Shadmahal, Mzres, Zvark o Pashakla.

Hassanali Faraji Sabokbar, Alireza Darban Astaneh, Kourosh Akhavan Heydari, Masoud Modanlou Jouybari, Helia Khatami,
Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)

Good governance is one of the most important and recent concepts that has been addressed in the development literature since the 1980s. A good rural governance is one of the basic requirements for achieving sustainable development. Rural entrepreneurship seeks to find the right combination of resources for economic activities to maximize profits. Moreover, rural entrepreneurs seek innovation and creativity in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, land use and optimal, diverse and innovative resource utilization for rural development. However, the development of businesses and rural entrepreneurship will not be possible without the entrepreneurial support of rural governance. Good rural governance is the implementation of rural policies in line with the people's interest and compatible with national, regional and local interests. It plays an important role in shaping regulation, and promoting and facilitating entrepreneurship for entrepreneurs. Efforts by public and private institutions at the societal level can reduce the constraints of entrepreneurship by reducing opportunity costs for new businesses. The word entrepreneurship comes from a French word meaning commitment and implies the process of creating value through the formation of a unique set of resources in order to take advantage of opportunities.

The present research is applied and developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Data collection has been done in both filed study and desk research.  The statistical population of this study is households living in rural areas of Gomishan County which consists of 5111 households. The unit of analysis is divided in three groups of households in the northern and eastern and western zones of Gomishan. In this study, 263 samples are taken in a systematic random sampling method using Cochran's formula. This study analyzed data in a multidisciplinary decision-making approach using WASPAS method and Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), which identifies and determines the relationships between 31 factors. These are extracted from interviews with experts as well as previous studies on good governance and entrepreneurship.

Discussion and conclusion
In the ISM graph, the factor of participation and legitimacy is at the lowest level of the good governance indicator in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities, so these variables should be prioritized. The factor of efficiency and effectiveness also acts as a basis in the second level. The factors of consensus oriented, equity and inclusiveness are in the third level, and the factors of transparency and responsiveness are in the fourth level, and the factors of accountability are in the fifth level. In examining the impact and dependency of the variables of effectiveness and efficiency, consensus oriented and legitimacy are more influenced by other factors and from a systemic dependent element. In other words, many factors are involved in creating these elements and they can be less likely to cause the other variables. The variables of equity and inclusiveness are in the group of independent (autonomous) variables that have weak drive and dependence. These variables are relatively unconnected to the system and have high drive and low dependence. Transparency, accountability and participation are among the major effective variables of good governance in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities. Basically, variables that have high impact power are called major variables. These variables fall into one of two groups of independent or linkage variables. Accountability is one of the linkage variables and has a high drive power and dependence. On the solution of the linear model in the best-worst method, participation variable with a weight of 0.401 were ranked first, as the most important index and accountability variable with a weight of 0.024 ranked eight, the least important indicator of good governance in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities. The adaptability rate is at an acceptable level of 0.013. Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment is a new technique with high effectiveness and efficiency in the decision-making process. This technique is a combination of weighted sum model and weighted linear combination that make the output of the model very accurate. The findings show that in Gomishan County in terms of the effect of good governance factor facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities, the first, second and third ranks are the villages of the eastern area with a value of 3.365, the villages of the western area with a value of 3.229, and the villages of the northern area with a value of 3.117, respectively.

Ghadir Firouznia, Ismail Ziarati Nasrabadi, Mustafa Taleshi, Alireza Darban Astaneh,
Volume 11, Issue 40 (summer 2022)

The role of villages in the economic, social and political development at the local, regional and international scale has been the main focus of rural development and rural management. Rural management in Iran went through a lot of changes after the approval of the Law on Councils and the formation of Islamic Councils in settlements with more than 20 households, and eventually, the approval of the Establishment of Self-Sufficient Rural Municipalities Act on July 5, 1998. Based on this Act, several duties are recognized for rural municipalities, including rural planning, construction service, rural health, social services, cultural services, planning for disasters, improvement of rural environmental conditions and supervision of physical development plans. These duties are similar in all villages with councils. Despite the fact that rural management services are necessary for all kinds of villages, it is not possible to provide these services; even if it is possible, the cost is not viable. In other words, we currently have expensive and costly management of rural settlements. Therefore, after two decades of new rural management, a study needs to analyze the geographical, social, cultural and economic conditions. The purpose of this study is for the new rural management to cover services as much as possible with economic efficiency, promotion of public participation and private sector, the spatial connection of settlements, applying distributed network services and reduction of functional differences, reformation in different dimensions; environmental-physical, structural-institutional, social-cultural, economic and human aspects of rural management. Thus, we can provide a suitable model for providing integrated rural management that all the rural population will be provided services according to their right.
The current research is an applied study, and the results can be used in planning and decision-making. The research method is a survey, so with social sampling techniques can be generalized to other rural areas. The data collection tool is a questionnaire, which was used for four units of analysis, including the members of the Islamic village council, the village mayors, villagers and experts. The survey is of a descriptive and explanatory type because it aims to objectively and precisely explain the process of the activities of rural municipalities and examine the relationships between variables and structures to explain and interpret the influencing factors in improving performance. This will be used for rearranging the current model of rural management with the aim of providing maximum coverage of services. The statistical population of the research includes all the cities of Qazvin province (six cities). The target counties, districts and rural districts have been selected as clusters. A total of 427 questionnaires have been completed by residents of 40 selected villages in Qazvin province. The criteria are population, distance, number and population of villages. First, nine districts were selected and accordingly, 22 rural districts and finally, 40 villages were selected.
Discussion and conclusion
In this paper, the factors affecting the reorganization of the rural service management model in five dimensions of environmental-physical, structural-institutional, social-cultural, economic and human aspects. The findings indicated the effectiveness of the described dimensions. Based on the findings, the followings are the most important components: in the environmental-physical dimension, components such as adopting an area instead of a point-based approach, spatial link and geographical features of the region and maximum coverage of services, in the structural-institutional dimension, the components of amending laws and regulations, creating joint construction and service organizations, increasing villager activity hours and providing services to neighboring villages, in the socio-cultural dimension, the components of fair distribution of services, accountability, performance transparency, increasing interactions and attention to vulnerable groups, in the economic dimension, the components of compliance with economic efficiency, reducing service costs, increasing productivity, sustainable sources of income, shared services, and finally, in the human dimension, components of people's participation, private and cooperative sector, reforming the selection process of village mayors and citizenship education. These components can be used for rearranging the rural management for rural service. 


Mojgan Ghalami Cheragh Tapeh, Alireza Darban Astaneh, Mohammad Amin Khorasani,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Rural tourism is a sustainable form of rural development that utilizes the resources available in rural areas. However, due to geographical isolation and lack of benefits, these areas often have untapped potential. This lack of development prevents strengthening of social and economic foundations within local communities. Regarding tourism planning in certain areas, previous research has focused on identifying important factors and drivers. However, there is a lack of certainty surrounding regional development in the planning process. To address this, planners and scenario writers can use these factors as a control mechanism to map and manage the desired future.

The purpose of this research is to create scenarios that will help determine the factors that impact the growth of rural tourism in Urmia County. The study will use the Wizard scenario to identify key variables that contribute to sustainable tourism in the villages within the county. Ultimately, the goal is to develop scenarios that will enhance the feasibility of sustainable rural tourism development. The purpose, application, and type of research method used in this study are descriptive-analytical. The nature of the data collected is qualitative, and the method of data collection is through field research. The questionnaire tool was implemented in two stages, and data analysis was conducted using future research techniques and the Mick Mac software, along with interaction analysis. In general, the working method has been done in two main stages in this research. Twenty professionals with expertise in the subject were selected for a statistical sample. They were provided with a questionnaire to complete. After careful consideration of the experts' opinions and research, it was determined that there are 36 significant indicators in 5 different components: economic (9 indicators), socio-cultural (8 indicators), managerial (7 indicators), natural (8 indicators), and infrastructure (4 indicators). During this study, it was found that out of the 36 indicators examined, several key factors drive tourism development in the rural regions of Urmia County.

Discussion and Conclusion
In this study, we created scenarios by considering critical uncertainties, predetermined drivers, and the impact of key obstacles. The result of this process was three scenarios. One scenario depicts a promising and favorable situation, another is static and intermediate, and the third portrays a critical and undesirable situation. Out of the three scenarios, scenario number two has the most favorable conditions for tourism in the villages of Urmia County. This scenario is considered the best because all possible situations are desirable. Out of the 36 possible situations, 16.6% are critical, 11.11% are relatively critical or on the brink of a crisis, 13.88% are relatively favorable, and 58.33% are very good. 27.77% faced unfavorable circumstances, while 72.23% had favorable ones. The second scenario is the most optimal, as all the crucial factors are at their best. This scenario comprises seven highly desirable situations, two moderately desirable ones, one on the brink of crisis, and two critical situations. In Scenario No. 1, there are several possible states. Seven of these states are ideal, one is good, one is risky, and two are critical. The factors in this scenario are stable. Five situations are entirely positive, three that are somewhat positive, one that is risky, and three that are critical. In these critical situations, the key factors are likely unfavorable compared to their desired state.
After analyzing the potential outcomes in three categories - favorable, static, and undesirable -, it is clear that the strong research scenarios lead to more favorable conditions than any other category. These scenarios provide a promising future for tourism in the villages of Urmia. By acknowledging the strengths and limitations present, better planning for rural tourism in Urmia can be achieved. Improving this trend will have a direct and indirect positive impact on the future development of tourism in the region

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