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Showing 4 results for Faraji Sabokbar

Mojtba Ghadiri Masoum, Mohammad Salmani, Seyed Ali Badri, Hassan Ali Faraji Sabokbar, Ali Ghanbari Nasab,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Rural regions have experienced varied changes and social and economic reconstruction during last three decades. There exists great tendency toward functional integration between villages and cities due to increase in mobility, improvement in communication information as well as rural services. This in turn, resulted in the expansion of urban function including construction mass housing units, production, services, recreations and tourism activities in these regions. These functional changes case conversion in the nature of rural areas based on agricultural production, into consumption-orientation center. This new entities are non-homogeneous. This situation is influenced by many factors including physical conditions such as geographic location, isolation, and characteristics, climatic and sometimes human differences responsible for rural economic and social variations. Taking into account these variations and nonhomogeneities in rural area, efficient and optimum development plans are nonexistence. Increase in urban-ruralization around Tehran metropolitan has led to major physical, economic, social and cultural consequences. Lack of identification of the major relevant roots and sources has led to expansion of these negative consequences to other identical places. This in turn, demands the identification of the responsible factors and its change processes and mechanisms. Thus, the identification, explanations, exploration of those laws and frame works pertaining to urban ruralization as a major topical-spatial phenomenon is highly recommended. The first step in this regard is the determination, definition and assessment of ruralization and more specifically urbanruralization. The study area is Roobat Karim located in the vicinity of Tehran metropolitan. It is followed by determination of degree of ruralization as well as majorresponsible relevant factors.
Taking into account the nature and the objective of the study, descriptive-analytical method was chosen. Based on theoretical foundation of the study, there exist different methods and indices regarding the identification and classification of ruralization. This study concentrates on two dimensions including village’s functions and population and its growth during 1976-2011. It is followed by application of PROMETHEE multi indices decision making method in order to determine village’s functional status through emphasis on agricultural activities. This study further demands hierarchical clustering technique for classification of the villages. Finally, Clack ruralization indices as well as field survey were applied for determination of the village type in this regard. Furthermore, with respect to those villages which urban ruralization occurred, qualitative method of base theory that is Grounded theory was applied in order to identify the responsible factors. At first step interview with rural key official persons and with those with long history of residency (31) was implemented in order to find the casual conditions pertaining to formation and expansion of urban ruralization phenomena. In the second step, taking into account the methodology of the base theory, open coding was done. Regarding this step those relevant raw data were both labeled and conceptualized. Following, the second and third steps sub-classes are divided into broad concepts and those were divided into nodal concepts.
This study concludes that based on application of base theory in 8 villages, many factors including life desirability comparing with place of birth and adjacent settlements, lack of special costs, inexpensive business, lack of cultural barriers, variation in job opportunities, existence of different rents, economic and political structures are among some of the influential factors regarding urban-ruralization phenomena. It is furtherargued that income and saving level, the nature of center-periphery theory, capital accumulation system, discrimination with respect to poverty issue, imbalanced distribution of power, wealth, income and access to job opportunities are other determinant factors as well. Incapacity with respect to attraction of external capitals for creation of job opportunities, shortage of complementary jobs to combat seasoned unemployment, lack of potential for absorbing educated and well equipped social capital, lack of technical and vocational training related to appropriate agricultural technology, shortages of ample suitable agricultural lands and lack of knowledge of environmental conservation are among other responsible variables in this regard. Moreover, lack of appropriate and efficient agricultural market systems as well as cooperation’s and ware houses, need for government and other institutions supports, incapability in formation of industrial clusters, lack of tendency regarding economic background good for villages, management, the formation of two different construction types, land price and its relevant speculation, property rent, lack of effective control upon rural physical development, economic household participation and lack of social responsibility and self-reliance and easy accessibility to Tehran metropolitan all are responsible regarding degree of ruralization of Roobat Karim.

Hasanali Faraji Sabokbar, Nader Molaee, Bahram Hajari,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

The employment problem and the manpower in general, is a matter of great importance in economic issues. In the economy of Iran, employment is one of the main concerns of the economic policy makers. The analysis of the employment situations and its structure all over the country requires at thorough knowledge of the capacities and potential power of the regions and its combination in the areas, for an equal and balanced planning and employment in every region and areas. In order to plan and achieve the rural economic development, population is most important and even the main factor to consider, because the quantitative and qualitative changes in population has significant effects on this procedure and furthermore one of the most important issues about the population which should be considered is the employment for the provision of manpower employment can be so effective towards achievement of every countries’ development, thus the employment issue is a key and strategic issue in every economic society. Employment is the factor that gets all the mental and physical abilities of man to be applied that result in relaxation and obedience between people due to the disappearance of unemployment, preventing the migration, the use and development of exceptional talents and rise in the national gross income. The villages of the country having a lot of active force which can play an important role in the economic development, studying the spatial distribution of employment in the rural regions and planning based on that can be a way of economic development of the villages and results in the economic prosperity of the country. Since the economic activities (agriculture, industry, services) in general, and particularly the resources and facilities, have an undesirable concentration from the spatial distribution aspect, in Iran, every region requires especial programs according to its characteristics, in this regard we should identify the situation of different regions based on the suitable scientific methods, before any actions. Therefore, this paper is developed to evaluate the employment status of the major departments and groups of activity and their spatial distribution in the country. To this aim, basic parts which were exporting their workforce are identified divided into counties, using the locative quotient (LQ) index.
Research method:
The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions of the regions and the major groups of economic activity (agriculture, industry and services) in the rural parts of the country. The statistical sample for this study includes 394 counties which statistics were gathered during the 2011 general census of people and housing. Using the locative quotient (LQ), the basic areas or the exporters of the working force were identified in the country and the state, and the GIS software has been used to prepare the map of major activity groups.
Discussion and conclusion:
The results show that in agriculture, 55% of the counties of the country (215 counties) belong to the basic and the workforce exporting regions that mainly are in the West, North West and South East of the country. Since the suitable climate and soil in these regions, we can see most employment in the agricultural part in a way that they can send agricultural workforce to other regions. These regions have also an important role in the national economic development and by guiding the investments towards their agricultural part; we can help it to be more efficient in the economy of the country. In the industrial part, 26% of the counties of the country (103counties) are more than one which can be counted as basic and workforce exporting regions and are mainly is located in the states of Tehran, Mazandaran, Qom, Qazvin and the central and south parts of the country. These states have the potential to send industrial workforce to other regions, and because of the proximity to the capital, the existence of agricultural transformative industries and in some regions possession of the mines, these states have the most industrial employment in the country. These areas have a great part in the economy of the country and by financing this part and creation of employment opportunities and industrialization of the villages, their industry will prosper, that results in an industrial growth in the national economy. In the services part, 49 percent of the counties of the country (195 counties) have a locative quotient greater than one and are categorized as workforce exporter regions that are mainly located in the central, east north, west north and the south parts of the country. The reasons for the tendency of these areas of service activities include proximity to the borders and unsuitable natural conditions in some regions.

Hassanali Faraji Sabokbar, Alireza Darban Astaneh, Kourosh Akhavan Heydari, Masoud Modanlou Jouybari, Helia Khatami,
Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)

Good governance is one of the most important and recent concepts that has been addressed in the development literature since the 1980s. A good rural governance is one of the basic requirements for achieving sustainable development. Rural entrepreneurship seeks to find the right combination of resources for economic activities to maximize profits. Moreover, rural entrepreneurs seek innovation and creativity in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, land use and optimal, diverse and innovative resource utilization for rural development. However, the development of businesses and rural entrepreneurship will not be possible without the entrepreneurial support of rural governance. Good rural governance is the implementation of rural policies in line with the people's interest and compatible with national, regional and local interests. It plays an important role in shaping regulation, and promoting and facilitating entrepreneurship for entrepreneurs. Efforts by public and private institutions at the societal level can reduce the constraints of entrepreneurship by reducing opportunity costs for new businesses. The word entrepreneurship comes from a French word meaning commitment and implies the process of creating value through the formation of a unique set of resources in order to take advantage of opportunities.

The present research is applied and developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Data collection has been done in both filed study and desk research.  The statistical population of this study is households living in rural areas of Gomishan County which consists of 5111 households. The unit of analysis is divided in three groups of households in the northern and eastern and western zones of Gomishan. In this study, 263 samples are taken in a systematic random sampling method using Cochran's formula. This study analyzed data in a multidisciplinary decision-making approach using WASPAS method and Interpretive structural modeling (ISM), which identifies and determines the relationships between 31 factors. These are extracted from interviews with experts as well as previous studies on good governance and entrepreneurship.

Discussion and conclusion
In the ISM graph, the factor of participation and legitimacy is at the lowest level of the good governance indicator in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities, so these variables should be prioritized. The factor of efficiency and effectiveness also acts as a basis in the second level. The factors of consensus oriented, equity and inclusiveness are in the third level, and the factors of transparency and responsiveness are in the fourth level, and the factors of accountability are in the fifth level. In examining the impact and dependency of the variables of effectiveness and efficiency, consensus oriented and legitimacy are more influenced by other factors and from a systemic dependent element. In other words, many factors are involved in creating these elements and they can be less likely to cause the other variables. The variables of equity and inclusiveness are in the group of independent (autonomous) variables that have weak drive and dependence. These variables are relatively unconnected to the system and have high drive and low dependence. Transparency, accountability and participation are among the major effective variables of good governance in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities. Basically, variables that have high impact power are called major variables. These variables fall into one of two groups of independent or linkage variables. Accountability is one of the linkage variables and has a high drive power and dependence. On the solution of the linear model in the best-worst method, participation variable with a weight of 0.401 were ranked first, as the most important index and accountability variable with a weight of 0.024 ranked eight, the least important indicator of good governance in facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities. The adaptability rate is at an acceptable level of 0.013. Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment is a new technique with high effectiveness and efficiency in the decision-making process. This technique is a combination of weighted sum model and weighted linear combination that make the output of the model very accurate. The findings show that in Gomishan County in terms of the effect of good governance factor facilitating entrepreneurial opportunities, the first, second and third ranks are the villages of the eastern area with a value of 3.365, the villages of the western area with a value of 3.229, and the villages of the northern area with a value of 3.117, respectively.

Zahra Torkashvand, Amir Heidarian, Hasan Ali Faraji Sabokbar,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Migration is a behavior driven by various motives, including education, job search, welfare, and escape from war. In recent decades, there has been an increase in the international migration of Afghan people to neighboring countries, particularly Iran. The impact of migration on a country's development is significant, and skilled and unskilled migration significantly impacts the economy of countries.
Many villages in Iran are currently experiencing slow development and require a strong driving force to bridge the gap. Entrepreneurship is a valuable tool for innovation, changing the primary force behind economic growth and development and a solution for the economic and social advancement of villages in numerous countries. Additionally, Afghan immigrants have been an integral part of the workforce in rural areas for years, whether willingly or unwillingly. They typically reside in regions where labor demand is relatively high and have been able to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in villages near the country's capital. This study addresses the factors that Afghan immigrants consider when identifying entrepreneurial opportunities.
Varamin County is located in Tehran Province. In the past two decades, due to the creation of various jobs in the agricultural and service sectors, it has become one of the most suitable places for Afghan immigrants to immigrate. This research examines rural entrepreneurship opportunities from Afghan immigrants' perspective.

For this study, we utilized an applied and developmental approach with a descriptive-analytical methodology and conducted a survey. To gather data, we administered a questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale. The sample size was determined using Cochran's formula, resulting in 374 Afghan immigrants residing in rural areas. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation statistics for description and inferential statistics for analysis. In order to check if the data was normal, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was utilized.
Additionally, to examine the correlation between the research variables, the one-sample t-test was implemented. The study focused on identifying opportunities for rural entrepreneurship as perceived by Afghan immigrants. The evaluation was conducted from four dimensions: economic-financial, cultural-social, personality-individual, and political-administrative. Each dimension was assessed based on multiple indicators.
The study is performed in Varamin County with eight sections, four towns, and 216 villages. It is one of Tehran province's industrial and agricultural hubs, with rural and urban populations of 14130 and 34062 people, respectively. In addition, 48192 Afghan immigrants live in this county.

Discussion and conclusion
According to the Afghan women immigrants' viewpoint, the total direct effects amount to 1.931. Regarding indirect communications, the indicators with the highest and lowest levels of influence are personality-individual (1.951) and political-administrative (0.371), respectively. As for the direct relationship intensity, the indicators with the highest and lowest values are personality-individual (0.622) and political-administrative (0.371).
According to Afghan male immigrants, the total direct effect is 1.394. Regarding indirect communication, personality-individual indicators have the highest impact at 1.887, while economic-financial indicators have the lowest impact at 0.424. Based on Figure 4, the highest and lowest impact intensities of direct relationships are caused by personality-individual indicators at 0.682 and economic-financial indicators at 0.424, respectively.


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