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Hamed Ghadermarzi, Davood Jomeini, Alireza Jamshidi, Ramin Cheraghi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2013)

Optimum housing situation in both rural and urban areas is being considered as one of the social-economic indicators. Application of comprehensive and descent housing planning requires the identification and determination of different relevant dimensions and aspects. Using housing indicators and indices helps to evaluate the housing status which regional planning demands. These indices, which indicate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of housing, would be an effective guide regarding housing planning. This study aims to evaluate and investigate the rural housing status in Kermanshah using housing indicators .The research method is based on documentary as well as analytical one .Relevant data obtained from 1385- population survey. This study supports the application of 34 indicators and indices. The analysis of this study further requires the application of spss and topsis techniques .It further demands clustering technique as well as Arc-Gis. This study suggests that there exist three homogeneous clusters. Kangavar and Harseen stand at the top as opposed to Dalahoo, Eslamabade- Qarb, Paveh, Ravansar, Gilan-e- Qarb and Javanrood which rank the lowest accordingly.

Hamed Ghadermarzi,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Many scholars believe that the creation of job opportunities is being considered as an important prerequisite for development and growth namely in developing countries. Lack of attention to this make societies step in eroding phase rather than thriving one. This in turn will lead to expansion of poverty. It is argued that achievement of sustainable development could be done through creation of employment in different sectors more specifically industrial and service ones. Based on corresponding statistics Javanrood with unemployment rate of 42.8%, 49.3% and 46.9% in 1375, 1385 and 1390 respectively rank the highest compared with 14 cities located in Kermanshah. This study aims to identify deprived rural areas using combination of different criteria and yardsticks. The authors believe that taking into consideration economic, social and environmental capabilities of the study area; one could propose an appropriate and applied strategy with regard to employment.
Research method:
This study based on its nature and objectives possesses applied, descriptive and analytical characters. It deals with documentary as well as survey technique regarding data gathering. The study area is basically composed of 89 villages out of which 57 over 20 households were studied. At first, these villages were prioritized based on chosen indicators and yardsticks corresponding to employment, using TOPSIS technique. Weighing of seven indicators was done by Shannon entropy based on data reference computation. Second phase followed by clustering and grouping the villages into different levels from prosperous to very deprived ones. Clustering analysis and TOPSIS technique led to creation of four groups. Identification of villages based on the level of deprivation and consideration of their capabilities demand preparation of expert questionnaire. This was based on liker five spectrum with level very high (5), high (4), medium (3), low (2) and very low (1). As such 30 questionnaires were compiled. SWOT was applied for proposing appropriate strategy regarding creation of employment in deprived villages.
Discussion and Concluding:
Provision of appropriate job opportunities in accordance with active population’s interests and potentials is being considered as the prime element and component of development. However, many of this active group did not get a chance to have any job or appropriate one. There exists noticeable difference in terms of unemployment rate in the regions. According to the statistics ,Kermanshah ranks among top five in terms of unemployment rate between 1375 90 .Javanrood possesses the highest rate compared with 14 other cities in Kermanshah. This well justified the degree of discrimination level of Javanrood against job offers during past decades. This demands extra attention regarding employment status. This study suggests that there exist a drastic gap with respect to employment indicators among different villages. As such employment coefficient corresponding to Khil-Fataki-Kan village as the most prosperous village is 10 times bigger than Bita-shush village as the most deprived one. One could conclude that some of the villages compared with the others experience some degree of depravation in terms of employment. Based on clustering analysis, Chaman-zar Olya, Dehtout Sofla, Sarab Barhed Zanjir Olya, Guyleh, Chaman-zar Sofla, Bioleh, Kalash Hush, Kulese, Duleta, Ziran, Saroukhan, Kalash ghoo, Kani Gohar, Mazrae Kachal abad, Aliabad Kohne, Sarabs, Ghalaji, Bivand olya, Bivand Sofla, Mele rush, Zilan, Shurineh, Bani Lavan, Sarrood Sofla and Biashush are considered as very deprived villages in terms of employment coefficient. From job opportunities standpoint they are in critical stage. This study further suggests that despite of existence of 25 deprived villages, there exist some opportunities and strengths. These opportunities and strengths well override some existing threats and weaknesses. Based on SWOT analysis competitive – aggressive strategy (so) in which prime emphasis is on internal strengths as well as external threats would be considered as the most appropriate strategy regarding employment in deprived villages of Javanrood. In order to create Job opportunities taking into consideration geographic, economic, social and environmental conditions, the following suggestions are recommended:
- To maintain good relationship with Iraq as a prime destination for exporting food and livestock products.
- Expansion of border markets and makes them accessible for rural settlers.
- Developing ranching livestock activates in the region taking into account appropriate physical condition, ample water resources as well as rich pasture.
- The development of labor – oriented activities including processing and complementary industries and mining activates.
- Encouraging both private and government sectors to invest in rural areas more specifically those located next to border.
- Improvement of roads and routes conditions in order to increase the accessibility of rural settlers to border markets.
Hamed Ghadermarzi, Davood Jomeyni, Alireza Jamshidi,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Tourism can be a tool for rural development; because it can be considered as a new financial resource, it can improve the economic status of local people and it can be considered as a resource that removes poverty and creates more jobs. Tourism and rural development are also two interrelated factors which have positive impacts on each other when tourism development or rural development take place. As a region that is one of the top fifty tourist attractions in Kermanshah Province, Ghoori-Ghale village is one of the most important destinations of tourists to the west of the country; annually, this region receives thousands of tourists from other parts of the country and from neighboring countries especially Iraqi tourists. Studies show that the number of tourists in this village increased considerably during the past years; so that the number of visitors has increased from 116000 people in 1381 to 418000 people in 1386 and more than 500000 people in 1391. More than natural attractions of the village and cultural values in Ghoori-Ghale, the most important tourist attraction in Ravansar County is Ghoori-Ghale Cave as a natural phenomenon and it is the second tourist attraction of the Oramanat region. Construction of more than 30 shops and stores and full-time employment of more than 30 individuals around the cave, is just one of the advantages of Ghoori-Ghale Cave for inhabitants of Ghoori-Ghale village. Base on this, some questions are raised including that "which indicators of rural development have been mostly effected by tourists' arrivals?", "at what level are the impacts of tourism on rural development of Ghoori-Ghale?" and "how many factors are defined as the impacts of tourism in rural development of Ghoori-Ghale village and what are the important ones?"
This study is practical one which used analytical-descriptive researches method. For data collection documentary method and field study are used. The study population includes all heads of householder in Ghoori-Ghale village (240 people). Because of limitation of population and their availability, the sample study was chosen by complete enumeration method. The basic research tool was self-constructed questionnaire in which, after necessary modification, its validity was confirmed by university professors and other tourism experts. To examine the reliability of the constructed questionnaire, a guide study was performed out of the studied region with 30 questionnaires. Cronbach's Alfa Coefficient was obtained by using SPSS, version 0.861 and it showed the high level of reliability in using of research tool. The five-point Likert scale has been the indicators' scale for this case (very little: point 1, little: point 2, average: point 3, great: point 4, very great: point 5) and for statistical analysis descriptive statistics (average, standard deviation and coefficient of variables) and one sample T-test have been used and also for recognizing the impacts of tourists' arrivals on inhabitants of Ghoori Ghale, regarding some limited and important factors, factor analysis technique has been applied.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Because of profitability and high level of job creation for host communities, today, rural tourism can be considered as one of the most important tools for developing and following that for sustainable development of rural inhabitants especially in regions with high potential in attracting tourist. This study findings showed that most of rural inhabitants in the studied area are completely satisfied with tourists' arrival and they are ready to attract more tourists. Moreover, the results showed that tourists' arrival to Ghoori Ghale village mostly have impact on many indicators including development of employment, increase of inhabitants' income, diversity of economic activities, constructing or developing local markets, infrastructure development, increase of land value and housing, increase of purchase power and improvement of living status, decrease of rural immigration and return of immigrants to the village, increase of the constructions and diversification of domestic products. The results of studying the overall level of the impacts of tourism showed that most respondents believe that tourism has considerable impacts (average of 3.4) on development of Ghoori Ghale village. The results showed that the impacts of tourism on inhabitants of Ghori Ghale village are summarized in six main factors which on the whole, determined 82.6% of total variance of impacts of tourism regarding the target village. The recognized factors in order of their importance are as follow: economic factor, infrastructurephysical factor, social-cultural factor, health-environmental factor, involvement factor and safety factor. Regarding the high potentiality of Ghoori Ghale village and other neighboring villages, by proper management and villagers' participation, it is possible to create a tourism hub in the region in which Ghoori Ghale village is the central part and consequently, this matter can be a good prospective for development of neighboring villages to Ghoori Ghale.

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