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Abdolreza Rokneddin Eftekhari, Samira Mahmoodi, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Social capital is being considered as way to achieve sustainable rural development as far asthe development experts are concerned. It is argued that social capital make the achievement of sustainable development possible taking into consideration provided opportunities and major societies constants at different levels including micro and macro level. In other word, social capital not only affects development process but also it is affected by as well. It is argued that social capital as a very important theoretical tool is capable of investigating the role of social variables regarding sustainable rural development. Lack of sufficient attention to rural settlers as social capital is a major challenge as far as sustainable rural development is concerned. This in turn could facilitate planning trend regarding rural sustainability through participation of rural settlers. Based on the relevant studies attention to social capital could enhance the achievement of sustainable rural development. Moreover, the relationship between social capital and level of rural development could well be justified by space economy and spatial dimension. Explanation of the phenomena and the spatial organization are affected by interaction of space and activities. Spatial dimension could exemplify itself in social processes and relationships. In effect, function of space is affected by space, time and social and economic mechanisms. As such this study aims to find out the relationship between social capital and rural development. It further tries to come up with social capital pattern.
Research method:
This study deals with analytical-descriptive research method based on both qualitative andquantitative methods. Sampling technique was random stratified sample. Based on physical location, distance, and number of households, six villages were selected from each class. Altogether, 18 villages were selected in the study area. Statistical society is composed of two groups that are local rural settlers (host community) and local authorities. Based on KMO test, social capital viability turned out to be 0:71. Moreover, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients used for evaluation of social capital in corresponding villages turned out to be 0.89. Social capital measures were selected through application of critical analysis over previous studies. In second phase, primary yardsticks and measures were screened in order to identify the prime social capital yardsticks with regard to sustainable development. Topsis technique was used for determination of social capital regarding level of development in sample villages.
Discussion and concluding:
Nowadays social capital is being considered as the most important development capital. As such, social capital with its spatial dimension is being known as a comprehensive strategy for achievement of social sustainability within sustainable development approach. It is because that the major objective of sustainable rural development based on social capital approach is promoting quality of life of local people, empowerment, capability formation, increase participation level as well as self-reliance, expanding rural communication network both in and outside of the villages and institutional development. This study suggests that there exist a relationship between social capital and level of rural development in the study area. It means that 63.5 percent of variation regarding level of development of the villages is explained by social capital. The magnitude of I index for determination of the corresponding spatial pattern based on social capital turned out to be 0.41. This figure compared with E (I) which is 0.03165 indicates that spatial pattern correspond with social capital of the studied villages incline toward multi pattern (concentrated and clustered). The highlight of this paper is first the endogenous nature of social capital and second confirmation of the past studies in this regard. Spatial pattern associated with social capital indicates that villages located in the center and in the proximity of large cities including Mashhad, Nishabur possess lower level of social capital. Heading toward the boundary of the province, the rate of rural social capital will increase.

Samira Mahmoodi, Abdolreza Rokneddine Eftekhari, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Common development capitals such as financial (economic) capitals, human capital, physical capital, environmental capital and social capital are considered as key elements in analyzing the potentials of development for people, organizations, societies and even governments. By presenting the concept of social capital, planning strategies are formed by cooperative, communicative and interactional planning along with an approach to people's participation and according to sustainable development framework which concentrate on some indicators such as assessment of social capital, sustainability, flexibility and participation; considering a relative advantage, every district and settlement had freedom of action in putting sustainable development policies into practice in this type of planning. From an international development perspective, social capital has a special position as a part of movement toward development using a "bottom-up" design. Regarding this, the amount of relations and impacts of different types of capitals are studied because of the great importance of different types of capitals especially social capital in rural development. The most important questions in this study are as follow:
"What is the relation between different types of capital (economic capital, human capital, environmental, and physical capital) with social capital?" and "How do different types of capitals impact on social capital?”
This study is conducted by a geographical approach, and a descriptive-analytic method which is based on qualitative and quantitative research method. For determining the sample population size out of 1162 villages with more than 20 households in Khorasan Razavi province, 67 villages were in accordance with all the criteria in table 2. Since these villages are homogenous in three levels, 18 villages (6 villages in each level) from 14 counties were categorized randomly in GIS environment and were chosen by Hawths Analysis Tools. Statistical population encompasses of two grouping including local people of the village and local officials (council members and municipal official). To evaluate the validity and stability of questionnaire, SPSS software has been used. According to this method, by using KMO Test, validity of determinative indicators of social capital, economic capital, human capital, physical capital and environmental capital are 0.071, 0.72, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.57 respectively and for the whole questionnaire, this number is 0.68. According to the results of construct validity test, Cronbach's Alfa coefficient which is obtained from the designed questionnaire for evaluating different types of development capitals in the studied villages is equal to 0.89, therefore, the validity of the questionnaire is confirmed.
Discussion and Conclusion
Today, one of the challenges that rural development face to, is neglecting social capital; recognition of social capital leads to facilitating the process of rural development planning for experts in this field and also it is followed by rural inhabitants' contribution for better implementation of the plans. Regarding to theories and studies in this field, it can be said that different types of development capitals are interrelated and interchangeable. In pursuing development issues especially sustainable rural development, social capital is extremely focused in recent decades. Since many researchers and experts believe that social capital is subordinate to other capitals, this study aims to evaluate the impacts of different types of capitals including economic capital, human capital, environmental capital and physical capital on social capital in rural districts and also it aims to determine their relationships. Results showed a meaningful relation between economic capital, human capital and social capital and a lack of meaningful statistical relation between environmental and physical capital and social capital in studied villages. Moreover, according to the results, coefficient of determination (R2) for economic capital is 0.0906 and coefficient of determination for human capital is 0.176 and these two indicators had the most impact on social capital respectively. In other words, economic capital determines 90.6 % of social capital rate and human capital determines 17.6% of social capital rate in studied villages.

Ali Alimadadi, Abdolhamid Nazari, Mahmood Moradi, Ramin Ghaffari,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (summer 2016 2016)

According to general census in 2011, rural population of the country has been over 21 million and 603 thousand people. Considering the per capita monthly subsidy equivalent to 455,000 riyals, it can be resulted that in the first three years of the project, over 353 trillion has been allocated to rural community. Calculations show that this amount is equivalent to 2.4% of the total budget intended for this period of time. It was the first time that this amount of cash was being directly distributed among villagers by its cost and expenditure management being transferred to the families themselves. It seems that this method of paying subsidies has greatly influenced on economic and social status of rural communities.
Considering economic and cultural structure of rural societies together with attempts to remedy the lack of liquidity, a large amount of subsidies granted is spending for household livelihood expenses such as food, non-food and service expenses. Therefore, in this article we are intended to investigate the impacts of targeted subsidies on the current status of livelihood expenses of rural households in different social strata as well as making a comparison of targeted subsidies in two geographical areas (Kalat and Binalud). Generally, in this research we are trying to find answers to the questions that: 1) how is the position of natural resources, economic capital and people s income in rural areas of Kalat and Binalud (Torghabeh Shandiz)? 2) How did targeted subsidies affect to change patterns of livelihood expenses in different classes of rural areas in the County of Kalat and Binalud? And is there any significant difference between the two areas or not?
This research is an applied one which has been provided using the quantitative approach of descriptive-analytical. This is an exploratory research, as well. Basically, it has been done using the principals of survey researches which has investigated the effects of targeted subsidies (independent variable) on livelihood expenses of rural households (dependent variable) applying post event processing. This research has done in the two cities of Kalat and Binalud located in Khorasan Razavi. There are two reasons for choosing these cities. First, these are greatly influenced by their position i.e., they are located near the metropolitan County of Mashhad. Then, due to the border location of the two cities, not many researchers have concentrated on the matter of development in these areas, yet. So, due to the importance of environmental contrasts in geography, data analysis has been conducted using comparative approach that helped us study different aspects of the matter to determine and classify the role of different geographical foundations (including natural conditions, the distribution of basic economic resources, income, and social conditions) in class differences among rural groups. We have eventually compared the impact of paying subsidies on the increase of income and consequently on changing spending patterns of livelihood expenses by the residents of the two areas. Questionnaires providing in two types of qualitative and quantitative are being considered as the main tools of the study. Quantitative questions are mostly intended to answer the first question of the research which includes some issues of households' social features (population, age, gender, education) and economic resources (occupation, expenses and income, land, livestock, housing, and machinery resources). Qualitative questions aim at the investigation of changes in spending patterns by rural households to answer the second question arose in the research. This type of questions consist of 8 main components (food and non-food items, educational, medical, and healthcare expenses, communication services, tourism, Energy, agricultural institutions) of more than 54 reagents.
Discussion and conclusion
Emphasizing sustainable livelihoods approach, this research aims at analyzing consequences of targeted subsidies plan on the changes in spending patterns in different social strata of rural communities. Then, comparing the results in the two areas of Kalat and Binalud we will be able to examine the impact of geographical factors. As contrasting foundations of every natural area can be considered to be the basis of economic and social differences of different societies that may be changed later by the government policies. According to the survey, particular environmental situations and capacities of rural settlements in each of these areas has made different economic functions at regional level related to local communications and its connection with the metropolitan County of Mashhad. These factors are so much effective that each single one can cause long-time consolidation of special economic, social and cultural mechanisms in rural areas and geographical environments. There is no doubt that these factors firstly influence the economic business of the studied area. In Binalud, there are approximately 10 % of rich families by an average monthly income of higher than 20 million riyals which are owning of almost about 21% of economic resources. In return, the rest 70% of low-income families (less than 10 million riyals) are providing with 52% of economic resources. This situation indicates bigger class differences in this area.
The above mentioned indicators are not so much far from each other in Kalat. Additionally, different interactions and communications between urban and rural areas and their impacts on the households' livelihoods caused changes in spending patterns of rural households. Because,b 65% of Kalat villagers mentioned that, compared to the past, after receiving cash subsidies no change occurred in their spending. As an overall conclusion, the new method of targeted subsidies has relatively influenced the increase of income in lower social classes (about 15 to 25%) and somewhat moderated class differences. This factor has greatly affected spending patterns and made it improved, while it can be said that, due to the free price of subsidized goods, it didn’t lead to the sustainable livelihood of households.

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