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Ali Ghasemi, Varaz Moradi Masihi,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Rural tourism and tourism economy are being considered as one of the major economic development indicators. Moreover, most of the planners and policy makers believe that tourism industry is the major element of sustainable development. As such, rural tourism through appropriate planning and identification of advantages and limitations could perform effective role regarding rural development as well as national development. The major objective of this study is to identify potentials and capabilities regarding sustainable tourism Alltapeh village located in Behshar in Mazandarn province. This village encompasses Abasabad tourism area which is among one of the recorded safaveeye’s tourism attractions. This study aims to explain the role of tourism regarding economic – social sustainable development in the study area. Research method is based on analytical – descriptive. Data gathering demands application of field work and documentation. Data analysis is based on SWOT matrix emphasizing weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities as well as proposing suggested strategies in order to achieve sustainable rural tourism. Statistical society composed of 1900 rural settlers located in the study area as well as tourists (500000 per year). Sample size was determined to be 218 which constitute of 78 of local community and 140 tourists. This study suggests that rural ecological vulnerability taking into account Abasabad tourist area is relatively high. This paper further believes that rural tourism requires more attention regarding tackling threats and limitations and relative comparative advantages as far as an appropriate policy making is concerned. It further concludes that tourism planning could lead to local economic variations and thriving organized economic activities and more importantly sustainable rural tourism.

Mohammad Ghasemi Siani, Iraj Ghasemi,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)

The government is the first and most powerful decision-maker and actor in the field of spatial structure. Spatial structure is an essential part of the battle for control and protection of individuals and society. In fact, spatial planning and land use management is the manifestation of the government authority in the form of setting rules and allocating resources and decision-making. Border areas are one of the most strategic areas for government intervention. These areas have special characteristics due to contact with the internal and external environment regarding the effect of diplomacy.  Therefore, planning with the aim of sustainable development of settlements, especially border areas, creates the requirement for spatial organization of rural areas so that macro and national issues, such as security issues can be organized more accurately and efficiently.
Zahak County is one of the special border areas in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, which is of special importance due to trade, the existence of a border market, Helmand river entrence and water diplomacy. The article aims to investigate the role of macro-management and diplomacy and its economic consequences on the structure and organization of space in Zahak County.  The present study explore political developments and decisions affect the economy and spatial structure (activity, communication and housing) of Zahak County, and also the spatial changes have occurred. For a deeper understanding of the developments in the study area, this article shows the political decisions taken at the national, regional and local levels, and seeks that what changes have made in the economic structures and functions of settlements? Furthermore, what the consequences of these changes for the space organization of the residential system are?

The general approach to the study is an integrated approach, both quantitative and qualitative, and an emphasis on integration to overcome the shortcomings of each approach. Therefore, the research method is descriptive-analytical. In the theoretical part of the research, using a qualitative approach and a library method. The theories and principles governing the study were explained, and then the position of power and policy in regional planning was examined.
 In the quantitative and field studies section, 184 special questionnaires for village managers were distributed in all villages with more than 20 households in the county and 10 interviews were conducted with managers of government offices and organizations in Zahak County.

Discussion and conclusion
The results show that under the influence of diplomacy between the two border countries, with the closure of the border market and the creation of a border wall, the economy of rural areas and activity in the east of the county, which is based on trade and agriculture, has declined. In addition, due to unemployment and lack of economic activity in many villages, they were evacuated and disserted.  Moreover, ethnic and cultural diversity has paved the way for the instability of newly established settlements by pursuing a policy of rural relocation. With centralization and support for population centers, the pattern of communication flows in the city is a polarized pattern emphasizing Zahak and Zabol cities, which does not follow the pattern of networks and has provided the ground for instability and decline for villages outside the network.
This study showed that the spatial pattern of rural activity and economy is influenced by water and soil resources, which corresponds to national, regional and local diplomacy. In other words, the political and power relations between the governments of Iran and Afghanistan have affected agricultural activity and even industry and population dispersion.
The economic structure of the villages, which was based on agriculture, animal husbandry and horticulture, has currently changed into informal, illegal and smuggling jobs due to the developments and major national decisions at the county level.  Also, cross-border trade and commercial activities in the villages have been converted.  On the other hand, based on the mentioned developments, the county space organization has a polar nature in the center of the city towards Zabol City, hence incompatible with the network pattern. This structure has somehow caused instability, especially in small villages, and due to regional conditions in the future, these villages are subject to be evacuated.

Ali Movahed , Moslem Ghasemi , Leila Oroji ,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (summer 2021 2021)

Entrepreneurship is one of the development approaches of rural areas in various dimensions including economic, social and environmental. It also plays an important role as a leading strategy in the tourism sector. Entrepreneurial programs and activities can have important effects on the dimensions, indicators and different sectors of rural areas and rural tourism destinations resulting in important changes and developments in these destinations. Alamut district situated within Qazvin city, having its rural tourism resources and capabilities along with ecotourism and cultural tourism capacities, is one of the areas that has been associated with tourism growth and entrepreneurial activities in the past decade. The main purpose of this study is to assess the extent and scope of the effects and consequences of entrepreneurship programs on the changes and developments of rural tourism destinations within different dimensions.

 This research is of applied type and in terms of the nature of data, it is a quantitative-qualitative combined research. For this purpose, first through a series of library and field studies, the set of entrepreneurial activities carried out in the past decade was identified and then the dimensions and indicators of rural tourism destinations in four dimensions of economic, managerial-human, socio-cultural and physical-spatial were identified. The main statistical population of the study was the group of experts including village councils and rural tourism researchers and scholars familiar with the region and the tourism businesses owners. Local people were also examined as a complementary statistical population in terms of quality and theoretical saturation method to complete the information. Data analysis was performed using indicators and statistical analysis alongside with qualitative analysis.

Discussion and Conclusion
The results show limited effects of entrepreneurship on the economic indicators of villages. Entrepreneurship has not been able to have significant effects on any economic indicators and the main effects are moderate and sometimes upward. Also in the socio-cultural dimension, entrepreneurial activities have not been able to make significant changes in the villages of Alamut, and these changes, which have been mainly positive, are limited. Entrepreneurial activities have a relative and moderate impact on the growth of the number of creative people and indigenous or non-indigenous entrepreneurs in rural areas, and to some extent have provided the ground for officials to communicate with entrepreneurs. In the physical-spatial dimension, the effects of entrepreneurship have been positive and negative. The average effects of entrepreneurship on the physical-spatial dimension are at a moderate and relative level. Entrepreneurship has had very little impact only on the level of protection of natural resources, but has had relative effects on the development of rural infrastructure and the level of infrastructure. However, the type of effects in this section is positive and negative. In the study of villages from the perspective of variability of entrepreneurship, Gazerkhan village, Garmarud and Evan village are in the first priority of change. Evan village has faced relative economic and physical-spatial changes due to the existence of Lake Evan and constructions, services and recreational complexes, and the structure of the village as well as the culture of the people and their social relations have been accompanied by changes. In other villages, the effects of entrepreneurship are small and limited, and in fact, entrepreneurship has not been able to make significant changes in these villages.
In generally, the results show that the level of effects and consequences of entrepreneurship on destination changes is mainly at a moderate to high level while the degree of influence of destinations from entrepreneurship programs is relative. In general, the necessary planning should be done to manage the destination in order to prevent potential threats in order to reach the optimal level of development. Although entrepreneurship has caused relative and moderate changes in various dimensions in the tourist villages of Alamut, but these cases do not mean a great change in Alamut tourism and the changes have been very slow and gradual and it cannot be said that there is no particular change in rural tourism has been created. However, although the effects are limited and cannot be considered a change, but since the changes in destinations have been evident over the years, so it can be used as a strategy and program to change tourism in rural destinations in Alamut. Another noteworthy point is that the effects of entrepreneurship on all dimensions are the same and equal, which indicates that the level of entrepreneurial activities due to its limited scope, has not had much difference on different dimensions.

Asma Khosravi Zo, Maryam Ghasemi,
Volume 11, Issue 42 (winter 2023 2023)

In rural areas, Covid-19 has, directly and indirectly, affected all aspects of rural society in the medium and short term. Thus, the economy of the tourist destination villages of Kalat county, which has a lot of dependence on tourism, has faced a severe recession due to the impact of Covid-19 and has been severely damaged. In general, based on the initial exploratory studies of the economy, these tourist destinations have faced the following problems:
A) Decrease in tourism demand: Due to the impact of Covid-19, the number of tourists entering the rural tourism destinations of Kalat county has decreased significantly. The average annual number of tourists in Ortakand village has decreased from 200 thousand people to 10 thousand people, in Baba Ramzan village from 20 thousand people to 4 thousand people, and in Abgarm village, from 40 thousand people to less than 20 thousand people after the outbreak of Covid-19 which has created many problems for the economy of these villages. 
B) Decrease in the income of the tourism sector: Due to the decrease in tourism demand, we are witnessing a decrease in money coming to tourism destinations and a decrease in the direct and indirect income of activists of the tourism market in the villages of tourism destinations, so that in the village of Ortakand, the income of those working in the tourism sector has decreased by about 90%. Before Covid-19, the people of this village earned money by selling livestock, and agricultural and horticultural products, as well as through supermarkets and renting resorts to tourists. Also, before the outbreak of Covid-19 in Baba Ramzan village, 90% of dairy products, 80% of handicraft products of the villagers, as well as other products of the village such as gardens, agriculture, livestock, fisheries, medicinal plants and rice were bought by tourists, but after the outbreak of Covid 19, The income that the people of this village earned from the sale of these products has decreased by 85-90 percent. 
C) Increase in unemployment: The decrease in tourism demand has caused a decrease in job opportunities in tourism destinations and the unemployment of many tourism activists in rural areas. After covid-19, those villagers who have been active in the tourism sector, such as eco-tourism resorts, guest houses, renting beds and gazebos, selling agricultural, garden, livestock, dairy products etc., due to the lack of tourists, have faced unemployment. So 80% of people in Ortakand village, 30% in Baba Ramzan village and 20% in Abgarm village have become unemployed due to the spread of Covid-19.
D) Inefficiency of investments: After Covid-19, due to the decrease and absence of tourists, the investments that some people in these villages had made in the tourism sector, such as eco-tourism resorts, beds and gazebos, supermarkets, etc., which has often been by obtaining facilities, but has remained without returns, which, in addition to the problem of unemployment, has made it difficult for these people to repay these facilities.
According to these, the research question is raised as follows: To what extent has the spread of Covid 19 affected the economy of the tourism target villages of Kalat County?

The research method is descriptive-analytical and of the type of applied-developmental research. In this study, eight tourism destination villages in Kalat Naderi County were identified and studied with the help of field and documentary studies. The impact of Covid-19 on the economy of tourism destination villages was quantified based on the Likert scale and under the three components of employment, investment and income with the help of 19 indicators. The research tool was completed with the help of 22 experts from tourism destination villages. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using 19 indicators, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was favorable with a value of 0.9.

Discussion and conclusion
With the spread of Covid-19, rural tourism destinations have faced many economic problems. Since these villages get a large part of their income from the tourism sector, they faced unemployment after the spread of Covid-19, and finally, the economy of these villages faced stagnation. According to the obtained results, it can be said that Covid-19 has had many negative effects on the economy of tourist villages. The results showed that the average impact of Covid-19 on the economy of tourist destination villages was 3.68 on the Likert scale. Also, the impact of Covid-19 on income, with an average of 3.8, is higher than on investment, with 3.54 and employment, with 3.53. Obviously, the income from the tourism sector has decreased greatly due to the sharp decrease in the number of tourists. Also, the average impact of Covid-19 on the economy of all the studied tourism target villages was higher than 3. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the average effects of Covid-19 on the economy of the studied villages after the outbreak of Covid-19 compared to before, and the average of the investigated variables has decreased significantly after Covid-19. So that in the villages of tourism destinations, there has been a decrease of 19,941 tourists per year compared to before the outbreak of Covid-19. This situation has caused an average decrease of 31 direct businesses and 44 indirect businesses active in tourism, 47 direct and 77 indirect employees and 1.5 eco-tourism resorts compared to before the outbreak of Covid-19 in each of the tourism destination villages.


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